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The Dewan Negara
Dewan Negara
(Malay for Senate, literally State Hall) is the upper house of the Parliament of Malaysia, consisting of 70 senators of whom 26 are elected by the state legislative assemblies, with two senators for each state, while the other 44 are appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King), including four who are appointed to represent the federal territories. The Dewan Negara
Dewan Negara
usually reviews legislation that has been passed by the lower house, the Dewan Rakyat. All bills must usually be passed by both the Dewan Rakyat
Dewan Rakyat
and the Dewan Negara
Dewan Negara
(the Senate), before they are sent to the King for royal assent. However, if the Dewan Negara rejects a bill, it can only delay the bill's passage by a maximum of a year before it is sent to the King, a restriction similar to that placed on the House of Lords
House of Lords
in the United Kingdom. Like the Dewan Rakyat, the Dewan Negara
Dewan Negara
meets at the Malaysian Houses of Parliament in Kuala Lumpur. Originally, the Dewan Negara
Dewan Negara
was meant to act as a check on the Dewan Rakyat and represent the interests of the various states, based on the role played by its counterpart in the United States. However, the original constitution, which provided for a majority of state-elected senators, has since been modified to make the vast majority of senators instead appointed by the King, thus theoretically providing an avenue for sombre, relatively non-partisan reconsideration of bills, more similar to the role of the British House of Lords.[citation needed]

Contents

1 Membership 2 Powers and procedure 3 Current composition

3.1 Seating arrangement*

4 References 5 Notes and references

Membership[edit] Members of the Dewan Negara
Dewan Negara
are referred to as "Senators" in English or "Ahli Dewan Negara" (literally "member of the Dewan Negara") in Malay. The term of office is 3 years and senators may only be re-appointed once, consecutively or non-consecutively. Each of the 13 state legislative assemblies chooses two senators. The King appoints two senators for the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, and one respectively for the Federal Territories of Labuan
Labuan
and Putrajaya
Putrajaya
on the advice of the Prime Minister. Another 40 senators, regardless of their states, are appointed by the King, also on the Prime Minister's advice.[1] Federally appointed senators must have "rendered distinguished public service or have achieved distinction in the professions, commerce, industry, agriculture, cultural activities or social service or are representative of racial minorities or are capable of representing the interests of aborigines (Orang Asli)".[2] The intent of the original Constitution of Malaysia, which provided for only 16 Senators to be appointed by the King (thus placing them in the minority) was to give the states some say over federal policy. However, subsequent amendments have, according to former Lord President of the Federal Court Tun Mohamed Suffian Mohamed Hashim, acted "contrary to the spirit of the original constitution which established the Dewan Negara
Dewan Negara
specially as a body to protect in the federal Parliament, state interests against federal encroachments".[3] To qualify, a candidate must be a Malaysian citizen
Malaysian citizen
at least 30 years of age, residing in the Federation, must not owe allegiance to any foreign state, must not have received a prison sentence of one year or longer, and must not have been fined RM2,000 or more. Holders of a full-time profit-making position in the public service are also ineligible. There is no requirement to belong to a political party. Parliament is permitted to increase the number of Senators to three per state, reduce the number of appointed Senators, or abolish the post of appointed Senator altogether. The process of appointment is set out by Article 45 of the Constitution.[1] The Constitution provides for direct election of the 26 Senators from the states, but this clause does not take effect until Parliament passes a resolution bringing it into effect; as of 2010, the Senators remain indirectly elected.[4] Senators can be appointed to ministerial posts in the Cabinet by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong
Yang di-Pertuan Agong
on the advice of the Prime Minister. However, the Dewan Negara
Dewan Negara
never supplies the Prime Minister, as the Prime Minister must be a member of the Dewan Rakyat. The Dewan Negara
Dewan Negara
is not affected by the elections for the Dewan Rakyat, and senators continue to hold office despite the Dewan Rakyat's dissolution for an election.[2] The Dewan Negara
Dewan Negara
elects a President to preside over sittings of the Dewan Negara, ensure observance of the rules of the house, and interpret the Standing Orders of the house should they be disputed.[5] Should the President be absent, his Deputy takes his place.[6] Powers and procedure[edit] For a more comprehensive list, see List of Acts of Parliament in Malaysia. The Dewan Negara
Dewan Negara
may initiate legislation, except for financial and fiscal matters – a regulation directly from the Westminster system. It may also amend legislation, provided it does not deal with financial matters. Any proposed legislation must first be passed by the Dewan Rakyat. Then it is presented to the Dewan Negara
Dewan Negara
in three readings. At the first, the legislation's proposer presents it to the assembly. At the second, the bill is debated. At the third, a vote is taken whether to pass or reject the bill. The Dewan Negara
Dewan Negara
may not formally reject bills; it is only allowed to delay their passage by one month, or up to a year under certain circumstances. After the bill has passed or the requisite period is up, the bill is presented to the King for royal assent. If the King demurs or 30 days pass without royal assent, the bill is sent back to Parliament with a list of suggested amendments. The bill must then be reapproved by both houses of Parliament. If the King still does not grant royal assent 30 days after it is presented to him again, the bill automatically becomes law. It does not take effect, however, until it is published in the Government Gazette.[7] Although members of Parliament typically have legal immunity when it comes to freedom of discussion, a gag rule forbids discussion about certain articles of the Constitution such as the status of Bahasa Malaysia
Malaysia
as the national language and Bumiputra
Bumiputra
privileges in Article 153.[8] Current composition[edit] Main article: Members of the Dewan Negara, 13th Malaysian Parliament See also: List of members of the Dewan Negara

Diagram of the current members of Dewan Negara

Current composition of the Dewan Negara
Dewan Negara
by political parties (as of 24 February 2017):[9][10]

Affiliation Elected by the State Legislature Appointed by the King Total Seats

National Front (Barisan Nasional, BN): 19 35 54

United Malays National Organisation (Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu, UMNO) 11 19 30

Malaysian Chinese Association (Persatuan Cina Malaysia, MCA) 5 5 10

Malaysian Indian Congress (Kongres India Se-Malaysia, MIC) 0 6 6

United Traditional Bumiputera Party (Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu, PBB) 2 0 2

Malaysian People's Movement Party (Parti Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia, Gerakan) 0 1 1

Liberal Democratic Party (Parti Liberal Demokratik, LDP) 0 1 1

United Sabah Party (Parti Bersatu Sabah, PBS) 0 1 1

People's Progressive Party (Parti Progresif Penduduk Malaysia, myPPP) 0 1 1

Sarawak United People's Party (Parti Rakyat Bersatu Sarawak, SUPP) 0 1 1

United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organisation (Pertubuhan Pasok Momogun Kadazandusun Bersatu, UPKO) 1 0 1

Democratic Action Party (Parti Tindakan Demokratik, DAP) 2 0 2

Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (Parti Islam Se-Malaysia, PAS) 2 0 2

People's Justice Party (Parti Keadilan Rakyat, PKR) 2 0 2

Malaysian Indian Muslim Congress (Kongres India Muslim Malaysia, KIMMA) 0 1 1

Malaysian Indian United Party (Parti Bersatu India Malaysia, MIUP) 0 1 1

Independent politician (Ahli politik bebas, IND) 0 4 4

Present number of senators 25 41 66

Vacant seats 1 3 4

Number of seats in the Dewan Negara 26 44 70

Seating arrangement*[edit]

Vacant Vacant Sarawak Sabah Vacant Vacant

Appointed Appointed Appointed

Appointed Appointed Vacant Vacant Vacant Vacant

Vacant

Sabah Appointed Appointed

Appointed Appointed Appointed

Appointed Appointed Appointed

Vacant

Vacant

Sarawak

F

Appointed Appointed Vacant

D

Appointed

Vacant

Vacant Terengganu Terengganu G

E

C Appointed Appointed Vacant

Vacant Johor Vacant

Sergeant-In-Arms

Appointed Appointed Vacant

Vacant Pahang Pahang

Vacant Appointed Vacant

Vacant Vacant Negeri Sembilan

Appointed Appointed Vacant

Vacant Vacant Perak H

the Mace

B Appointed Appointed Vacant

Vacant Malacca Malacca

Appointed Negeri Sembilan Vacant

Vacant Perlis Perlis

Appointed Appointed Vacant

Vacant Kedah Kedah

Appointed Perak Vacant

Vacant Vacant Vacant I

A Appointed Appointed Vacant

Vacant Kelantan Kelantan

Minister Vacant Vacant

Vacant Penang Penang

Deputy Prime Minister Appointed Vacant

Vacant Selangor Selangor

Secretary

Prime Minister Appointed Vacant

President

The seating arrangement is viewable at the official website.[11]

References[edit]

^ a b Shuid, Mahdi & Yunus, Mohd. Fauzi (2001). Malaysian Studies, p. 33. Longman. ISBN 983-74-2024-3. ^ a b Henderson, John William, Vreeland, Nena, Dana, Glenn B., Hurwitz, Geoffrey B., Just, Peter, Moeller, Philip W. & Shinn, R.S. (1977). Area Handbook for Malaysia, p. 217. American University, Washington D.C., Foreign Area Studies. LCCN 771294. ^ Wu, Min Aun & Hickling, R. H. (2003). Hickling's Malaysian Public Law, pp. 26–27. Petaling Jaya: Pearson Malaysia. ISBN 983-74-2518-0. ^ Rachagan, S. Sothi (1993). Law and the Electoral Process in Malaysia, p. 8. Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Press. ISBN 967-9940-45-4. ^ [1] Archived 14 February 2006 at the Wayback Machine. ^ [2] Archived 14 February 2006 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Shuid & Yunus, p. 34. ^ Means, Gordon P. (1991). Malaysian Politics: The Second Generation, pp. 14, 15. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-588988-6. ^ "Senarai Ahli Dewan Negara" (in Malay). Parliament of Malaysia. Retrieved 18 April 2016.  ^ "Statistik Dewan Negara" (in Malay). Parliament of Malaysia. Retrieved 18 July 2016.  ^ "Seating Arrangement of the Senate". Parlimen.gov.my. Retrieved 2016-01-28. 

Notes and references[edit]

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Current Members of the Malaysian Senate (Dewan Negara) by seniority

Rahimah Mahamad Chong Sin Woon Hamzah Mohd Kasim Lee Chee Leong Mohd Salim Sharif Asyraf Wajdi Dusuki Sim Kui Hian Mohd. Suhaimi Abdullah Shahanim Mohamad Yusoff Chin Su Phin Norliza Abdul Rahim Syed Ibrahim Kader Yunus Kurus Chai Kim Sen Goonasakaren Raman Hou Kok Chung S. Vigneswaran M. Sanasee Chew Mei Fun Johari Mat S. Bagiam Ayem Perumal Subramaniam Veruthasalam Ng Chiang Chin Abd. Halim Abd. Samad Ibrahim Shah Abu Shah Nallakaruppan Solaimalai Jaspal Singh Gurbakhes Singh Chia Song Cheng Koh Chin Han Lihan Jok Yoo Wei How Zali Mat Yasin Kadzim M. Yahya Wilfred Yong Chen Leong Mohammad Anwar Mohammad Nor Abdul Shukor P. A. Mohd Sultan Ramli Shariff Abdul Rahman Mat Yasin Ariffin S. M. Omar Hoh Khai Mun Norahan Abu Bakar Siti Aishah Shaik Ismail Khairiah Mohamed Azizah Harun Salleh Said Keruak Engku Naimah Engku Taib Abdullah Mat Yasim Lucas Umbul Chandra Mohan S. Thambirajah Mohd Nor Monutty Jamilah Sulaiman Isa Ab Samad Loga Bala Mohan Jaganathan Paul Low Seng Kuan Devamany S. Krishnasamy Zaiedi Suhaili Khairuddin E. S. Abdul Samad Megat Zulkarnain Omardin Yahaya Mat Ghani Abidullah Salleh Bathmavathi Krishnan Fahariyah Md Nordin Hanafi Mamat Khairul Azwan Harun Mustapa Kamal Mohd Yusoff Rabiyah Ali Rahemah Idris Aknan Ehtook

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Parliament of Malaysia

Components

Yang di-Pertuan Agong
Yang di-Pertuan Agong
(King) Dewan Negara
Dewan Negara
(Senate) Dewan Rakyat
Dewan Rakyat
(House of Representatives)

Parliamentary officers

Dewan Negara

President of the Dewan Negara Deputy President of the Dewan Negara Secretary of the Dewan Negara Leader of the Government in the Dewan Negara Manager of Government Business in the Dewan Negara Leader of the Opposition in the Dewan Negara Manager of Opposition Business in the Dewan Negara Whips (list)

Dewan Rakyat

Speaker of the Dewan Rakyat Deputy Speaker of the Dewan Rakyat Secretary of the Dewan Rakyat Leader of the Dewan Rakyat Leader of the Opposition Manager of Opposition Business in the Dewan Rakyat Whips (list)

Members

Dewan Negara

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Current Women

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