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DEVANAGARI (/ˌdeɪvəˈnɑːɡəri/ _DAY-və-NAH-gə-ree_ ; देवनागरी, IAST : _Devanāgarī_, a compound of "_deva_ " दे and "_nāgarī_ " नागरी; Hindi pronunciation: ; ), also called NAGARI (_Nāgarī_, नागरी), is an abugida (alphasyllabary) alphabet of India and Nepal . It is written from left to right, has a strong preference for symmetrical rounded shapes within squared outlines, and is recognisable by a horizontal line that runs along the top of full letters. In a cursory look, the Devanagari script appears different from other Indic scripts such as Bengali-Assamese , Odia , or Gurmukhi , but a closer examination reveals they are very similar except for angles and structural emphasis.

The Nagari script has roots in the ancient _Brāhmī_ script family. Some of the earliest epigraphical evidence attesting to the developing Sanskrit Nagari script in ancient India, in a form similar to Devanagari, is from the 1st to 4th century CE inscriptions discovered in Gujarat . The Nagari script was in regular use by the 7th century CE and it was fully developed by about the end of first millennium. The use of Sanskrit in Nagari script in medieval India is attested by numerous pillar and cave temple inscriptions, including the 11th-century Udayagiri inscriptions in Madhya Pradesh , and an inscribed brick found in Uttar Pradesh , dated to be from 1217 CE, which is now held at the British Museum. The script's proto- and related versions have been discovered in ancient relics outside of India, such as in Sri Lanka , Myanmar and Indonesia ; while in East Asia, _Siddha Matrika_ script considered as the closest precursor to Nagari was in use by Buddhists. Nagari has been the _primus inter pares _ of the Indic scripts. It has long been used traditionally by religiously educated people in South Asia to record and transmit information, existing throughout the land in parallel with a wide variety of local scripts (such as Modi , Kaithi , and Mahajani ) used for administration, commerce, and other daily uses.

The Devanagari script is used for over 120 languages, making it one of the most used and adopted writing systems in the world. Among the languages using it – as either their only script or one of their scripts – are Awadhi , Bhili , Bhojpuri , Bodo , Chhattisgarhi , Dogri , Haryanvi , Hindi , Kashmiri , Konkani , Magahi , Maithili , Marathi , Mundari , Nepalbhasa , Nepali , Pali , Rajasthani , Sanskrit , Santali and Sindhi . The Devanagari script is closely related to the Nandinagari script commonly found in numerous ancient manuscripts of South India, and it is distantly related to a number of southeast Asian scripts.

Devanagari script has forty-seven primary characters, of which fourteen are vowels and thirty-three are consonants. The ancient Nagari script for Sanskrit had two additional consonantal characters. The script has no distinction similar to the capital and small letters of the Latin alphabet. Generally the orthography of the script reflects the pronunciation of the language.

CONTENTS

* 1 Origins * 2 Principle

* 3 Letters

* 3.1 Vowels

* 3.2 Consonants

* 3.2.1 Schwa syncope in consonants * 3.2.2 Allophony of \'v\' and \'w\' in Hindi

* 3.3 Compounds

* 3.4 Conjuncts

* 3.4.1 Biconsonantal conjuncts * 3.4.2 Top 360 Most Frequent Conjuncts in Sanskrit

* 3.5 Accent marks * 3.6 Punctuation * 3.7 Old forms * 3.8 Numerals * 3.9 Fonts

* 4 Transliteration

* 4.1 Hunterian system * 4.2 ISO 15919 * 4.3 IAST * 4.4 Harvard-Kyoto

* 4.5 ITRANS

* 4.5.1 Velthuis

* 4.6 ALA-LC Romanisation * 4.7 WX

* 5 Encodings

* 5.1 ISCII * 5.2 Unicode

* 6 Devanagari keyboard layouts

* 6.1 InScript layout * 6.2 Typewriter * 6.3 Phonetic

* 7 See also

* 8 References

* 8.1 Census and catalogues of manuscripts in Devanagari

* 9 External links

ORIGINS

Uṣṇīṣa Vijaya Dhāraṇī Sūtra in Siddham on palm -leaf in 609 CE. Hōryū-ji , Japan. The last line is a complete Sanskrit syllabary in Siddhaṃ script

Devanagari is part of the Brahmic family of scripts of India , Nepal , Tibet , and South-East Asia. It is a descendant of the Gupta script , along with Siddham and Sharada . Variants of script called _Nāgarī_, recognisably close to Devanagari, are first attested from the 1st century CE Rudradaman inscriptions in Sanskrit, while the modern standardised form of Devanagari was in use by about 1000 CE. Medieval inscriptions suggest widespread diffusion of the Nagari-related scripts, with biscripts presenting local script along with the adoption of Nagari scripts. For example, the mid 8th century Pattadakal pillar in Karnataka has text in both Siddha Matrika script, and an early Telugu-Kannada script; while, the Kangra Jvalamukhi inscription in Himachal Pradesh is written in both Sharada and Devanagari scripts. A 19th century Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari.

The 7th-century Tibetan king Srong-tsan-gambo ordered that all foreign books be transcribed into the Tibetan language. He sent his ambassador Tonmi Sambota to India to acquire alphabet and writing methods; returning with Sanskrit Nagari script from Kashmir corresponding to 24 Tibetan sounds and innovating new symbols for 6 local sounds. Other closely related scripts such as Siddham Matrka was in use in Indonesia, Vietnam, Japan and other parts of East Asia by between 7th- to 10th-century. Sharada remained in parallel use in Kashmir . An early version of Devanagari is visible in the Kutila inscription of Bareilly dated to Vikram Samvat 1049 (i.e. 992 CE), which demonstrates the emergence of the horizontal bar to group letters belonging to a word. One of the oldest surviving Sanskrit text from early post-Maurya period available consists of 1,413 Nagari pages of a commentary by Patanjali, with a composition date of about 150 BCE, the surviving copy transcribed about 14th century CE.

_Nāgarī_ is the Sanskrit feminine of _Nāgara_ "relating or belonging to a town or city, urban". It is a phrasing with _lipi_ ("script") as _nāgarī lipi_ "script relating to a city", or "spoken in city".

The use of the name _devanāgarī_ is relatively recent, and the older term _nāgarī_ is still common. The rapid spread of the term _devanāgarī_ may be related to the almost exclusive use of this script to publish Sanskrit texts in print since the 1870s.

PRINCIPLE

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As a Brahmic abugida, the fundamental principle of Devanagari is that each letter represents a consonant, which carries an inherent schwa vowel. This is usually written in Latin as _a_, though it is represented as in the International Phonetic Alphabet . The letter is read _ka_, the two letters क are _kana_, the three कन are _kanaya_, etc. Other vowels, or the absence of vowels, require modification of these consonants or their own letters: _ Devanagari text from Vayu Purana (Marathi Translation).

* A final consonant is marked with the diacritic ् called the virāma _ in Sanskrit, _halant_ in Hindi, and occasionally a "killer stroke" in English. This cancels the inherent vowel, so that from क्न _knaya_ is derived क्नय् _knay_. The _halant_ is often used for consonant clusters when typesetting conjunct ligatures is not feasible. * Consonant clusters are written with ligatures _(saṃyuktākṣara_ "conjuncts"). For example, the three consonants क्, न्, and य्, (_k_, _n_, _y_), when written consecutively without virāma form कनय, as shown above. Alternatively, they may be joined as clusters to form क्नय _knaya_, कन् _kanya_, or क्न् _knya_. This system was originally created for use with the Middle Indo-Aryan languages , which have a very limited number of clusters (the only clusters allowed are geminate consonants and clusters involving homorganic nasal stops ). When applied to Sanskrit, however, it added a great deal of complexity to the script, due to the large variety of clusters in this language (up to five consonants, e.g. _rtsny_). Much of this complexity is required at least on occasion in the modern Indo-Aryan languages , due to the large number of clusters allowed and especially due to borrowings from Sanskrit. * Vowels other than the inherent _a_ are written with diacritics (termed _matras_). For example, using _ka_, the following forms can be derived: के _ke_, कु _ku_, की _kī_, का _kā_, etc. * For vowels as an independent syllable (in writing, unattached to a preceding consonant), either at the beginning of a word or (in Hindi) after another vowel, there are full-letter forms. For example, while the vowel _ū_ is written with the diacritic ू in कू _kū_, it has its own letter in ऊ _ūka_ and (in Hindi but not Sanskrit) क _kaū_.

Such a letter or ligature, with its diacritics, is called an _akṣara_ "syllable". For example, कन _kanaya_ is written with what are counted as three _akshara,_ whereas क्न् _knya_ and कु _ku_ are each written with one.

When handwriting , letters are usually written without the distinctive horizontal bar, which is added only once the word is completed.

LETTERS

The letter order of Devanagari, like nearly all Brahmic scripts, is based on phonetic principles that consider both the manner and place of articulation of the consonants and vowels they represent. This arrangement is usually referred to as the _varṇamālā_ "garland of letters". The format of Devanagari for Sanskrit serves as the prototype for its application, with minor variations or additions, to other languages.

VOWELS

The vowels and their arrangement are:

INDEPENDENT FORM IAST AS DIACRITIC WITH प

INDEPENDENT FORM IAST AS DIACRITIC WITH प

_kaṇṭhya_ ( Guttural ) अ a प आ ā पा

_tālavya_ ( Palatal ) इ i पि ई ī पी

_oṣṭhya_ (Labial ) उ u पु ऊ ū पू

_mūrdhanya_ (Retroflex ) ऋ ṛ पृ ॠ4 ṝ पॄ

_dantya_ (Dental ) ऌ4 ḷ पॢ ॡ4, 5 ḹ पॣ

_kaṇṭhatālavya_ (Palatoguttural) ए e पे ऐ ai पै

_kaṇṭhoṣṭhya_ (Labioguttural) ओ o पो औ au पौ

अं1 aṃ पं अः1 aḥ पः

ॲ / ऍ 7 aê / eê पॅ ऑ7 ô पॉ

* Arranged with the vowels are two consonantal diacritics , the final nasal _anusvāra _ _ṃ_ and the final fricative _visarga _ _ḥ_ (called अं _aṃ_ and अ _aḥ)._ Masica (1991 :146) notes of the _anusvāra_ in Sanskrit that "there is some controversy as to whether it represents a homorganic nasal stop , a nasalised vowel , a nasalised semivowel , or all these according to context". The _visarga_ represents post-vocalic voiceless glottal fricative , in Sanskrit an allophone of _s,_ or less commonly _r,_ usually in word-final position. Some traditions of recitation append an echo of the vowel after the breath: इ . Masica (1991 :146) considers the _visarga_ along with letters _ṅa_ and _ña_ for the "largely predictable" velar and palatal nasals to be examples of "phonetic overkill in the system". * Another diacritic is the _candrabindu _/_anunāsika _ अँ . Salomon (2003 :76–77) describes it as a "more emphatic form" of the _anusvāra,_ "sometimes used to mark a true nasalization". In a New Indo-Aryan language such as Hindi the distinction is formal: the _candrabindu_ indicates vowel nasalisation while the _anusvār_ indicates a homorganic nasal preceding another consonant: e.g. हँसी "laughter ", गंगा "the Ganges ". When an _akshara_ has a vowel diacritic above the top line, that leaves no room for the _candra_ ("moon") stroke _candrabindu,_ which is dispensed with in favour of the lone dot: हू "am", but है "are". Some writers and typesetters dispense with the "moon" stroke altogether, using only the dot in all situations. * The _avagraha _ (usually transliterated with an apostrophe ) is a Sanskrit punctuation mark for the elision of a vowel in sandhi : एकोऽयम् _eko'yam_ ( ← _ekas_ + _ayam_) "this one". An original long vowel lost to coalescence is sometimes marked with a double _avagraha:_ सदाऽऽत्मा _sadā'tmā_ ( ← _sadā_ + _ātmā_) "always, the self". In Hindi, Snell (2000 :77) states that its "main function is to show that a vowel is sustained in a cry or a shout": आईऽऽऽ! _āīīī!_. In Madhyadeshi Languages like Bhojpuri, Awadhi, Maithili, etc. which have "quite a number of verbal forms end in that inherent vowel", the _avagraha_ is used to mark the _non-_elision of word-final inherent _a_, which otherwise is a modern orthographic convention: बइठ _baiṭha_ "sit" versus बइ _baiṭh_ * The syllabic consonants _ṝ, ḷ,_ and _ḹ_ are specific to Sanskrit and not included in the _varṇamālā_ of other languages. The sound represented by _ṛ_ has also been lost in the modern languages, and its pronunciation now ranges from (Hindi) to (Marathi). * _ḹ_ is not an actual phoneme of Sanskrit, but rather a graphic convention included among the vowels in order to maintain the symmetry of short–long pairs of letters. * There are non-regular formations of रु _ru_ and रू _rū_. * There are two more vowels in Marathi , ॲ and ऑ, that respectively represent , similar to the English pronunciation of in "Act", and , similar to the English pronunciation of in "cOt". These vowels are sometimes used in Hindi too.

CONSONANTS

The table below shows the consonant letters (in combination with inherent vowel _a_) and their arrangement. To the right of the Devanagari letter it shows the Latin script transliteration using International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration , and the phonetic value ( IPA ) in Hindi .

_sparśa_ (Plosive ) _anunāsika_ (Nasal ) _antastha_ ( Approximant ) _ūṣman/saṃghaṣhrī_ ( Fricative )

VOICING → _aghoṣa_ _ghoṣa_ _aghoṣa_ _ghoṣa_

ASPIRATION → _alpaprāṇa_ _mahāprāṇa_ _alpaprāṇa_ _mahāprāṇa_ _alpaprāṇa_ _mahāprāṇa_

_kaṇṭhya_ ( Guttural ) क ka /k/ ख kha /kʰ/ ग ga /ɡ/ घ gha /ɡʱ/ ङ ṅa /ŋ/ ह ha /ɦ/

_tālavya_ ( Palatal ) च ca /c, t͡ʃ/ छ cha /cʰ, t͡ʃʰ/ ज ja /ɟ, d͡ʒ/ झ jha /ɟʱ, d͡ʒʱ/ ञ ña /ɲ/ य ya /j/ श śa /ɕ, ʃ/

_mūrdhanya_ (Retroflex ) ट ṭa /ʈ/ ठ ṭha /ʈʰ/ ड ḍa /ɖ/ ढ ḍha /ɖʱ/ ण ṇa /ɳ/ र ra /r/ ष ṣa /ʂ/

_dantya_ (Dental ) त ta /t̪/ थ tha /t̪ʰ/ द da /d̪/ ध dha /d̪ʱ/ न na /n/ ल la /l/ स sa /s/

_oṣṭhya_ (Labial ) प pa /p/ फ pha /pʰ, ɸ/ ब ba /b/ भ bha /bʱ, β/ म ma /m/ व va /w, ʋ/

* Rounding this out where applicable is _ḷa_ /Retroflex lateral flap  / (also /ɭ̆/ in IPA ), the intervocalic lateral flap allophone of the voiced retroflex stop in Vedic Sanskrit , which is a phoneme in languages such as Marathi , Konkani , and Rajasthani .

* Beyond the Sanskritic set, new shapes have rarely been formulated. Masica (1991 :146) offers the following, "In any case, according to some, all possible sounds had already been described and provided for in this system, as Sanskrit was the original and perfect language. Hence it was difficult to provide for or even to conceive _other_ sounds, unknown to the phoneticians of Sanskrit". Where foreign borrowings and internal developments did inevitably accrue and arise in New Indo-Aryan languages, they have been ignored in writing, or dealt through means such as diacritics and ligatures (ignored in recitation).

* The most prolific diacritic has been the subscript dot (_nuqtā _) ़. Hindi uses it for the Persian , Arabic and English sounds क़ _qa_ /q/ , ख़ _xa_ /x/ , ग़ _ġa_ /ɣ/ , ज़ _za_ /z/ , झ़ _zha_ /ʒ/ , and फ़ _fa_ /f/ , and for the allophonic developments ड़ _ṛa_ /ɽ/ and ढ़ _ṛha_ /ɽʱ/. (Although ऴ _ḷha_ /ɭʱä/ could also exist, it is not used in Hindi.) * Sindhi 's and Saraiki 's implosives are accommodated with a line attached below: ॻ , ॼ , ॾ , ॿ . * Aspirated sonorants may be represented as conjuncts/ligatures with _ha_: म् _mha_, न् _nha_, ण् _ṇha_, व् _vha_, ल् _lha_, ळ् _ḷha_, र् _rha_. * Masica (1991 :147) notes Marwari as using ॸ for _ḍa_ (while represents ).

For a list of the 297 (33×9) possible Sanskrit consonant-(short) vowel phonemes , see Āryabhaṭa numeration .

Schwa Syncope In Consonants

Main article: Schwa deletion in Indo-Aryan languages

In many Indo-Aryan languages, the schwa ('ə') implicit in each consonant of the script is "obligatorily deleted" at the end of words and in certain other contexts, unlike in Marathi or Sanskrit. This phenomenon has been termed the "_schwa syncope rule _" or the "_schwa deletion rule_" of Hindi. One formalisation of this rule has been summarised as _ə_ → ∅ _VC___CV_. In other words, when a schwa-succeeded consonant is followed by a vowel-succeeded consonant, the schwa inherent in the first consonant is deleted. However, this formalisation is inexact and incomplete (it sometimes deletes a schwa when it should not and, at other times, it fails to delete it when it should) and can cause errors. Schwa deletion is computationally important because it is essential to building text-to-speech software for Hindi.

As a result of schwa syncope, the Hindi pronunciation of many words differs from that expected from a literal Sanskrit-style rendering of Devanagari. For instance, रा is _rām_ (not _rāma_), रचना is _rac'nā_ (not _racanā_), वे is _vēd_ (not _vēda_) and नमकी is _nam'kīn_ (not _namakīna_). The name of the script itself is pronounced _dev'nāgrī_ (not _devanāgarī_).

Correct schwa deletion is also critical because, in some cases, the same Devanagari letter sequence is pronounced two different ways in Hindi depending on context, and failure to delete the appropriate schwas can change the sense of the word. For instance, the letter sequence 'रक' is pronounced differently in हरक (_harkat_, meaning _movement_ or _activity_) and सरकना (_saraknā_, meaning _to slide_). Similarly, the sequence धड़कने in दि धड़कने लगा (_the heart started beating_) and in दि की धड़कने (_beats of the heart_) is identical prior to the nasalisation in the second usage. Yet, it is pronounced _dhaṛaknē_ in the first and _dhaṛkanē_ in the second. While native speakers correctly pronounce the sequences differently in different contexts, non-native speakers and voice-synthesis software can make them _"sound very unnatural"_, making it _"extremely difficult for the listener"_ to grasp the intended meaning.

Allophony Of \'v\' And \'w\' In Hindi

(the voiced labiodental fricative ) and (the voiced labio-velar approximant ) are both allophones of the single phoneme represented by the letter 'व' in Hindi Devanagari. More specifically, they are _conditional allophones_, i.e. rules apply on whether 'व' is pronounced as or depending on context. Native Hindi speakers pronounce 'व' as in _vrat_ (व्रत, _fast_) and in _pakvān_ (पकवान, _food dish_), perceiving them as a single phoneme and without being aware of the allophone distinctions they are systematically making. However, this specific allophony can become obvious when speakers switch languages. Non-native speakers of Hindi might pronounce 'व' in 'व्रत' as , i.e. as _wrat_ instead of the more correct _vrat_. This results in a minor intelligibility problem because _wrat_ can easily be confused for _aurat_, which means _woman_, instead of the intended _fast_ (abstaining from food), in Hindi.

COMPOUNDS

Compound letters- with vowel diacritics .

Table: Compounds. Vowels in their independent form on the left and in their corresponding dependent form (vowel sign) combined with the consonant 'k' on the right. 'ka' is without any added vowel sign, where the vowel 'a' is inherent. ISO 15919 transliteration is on the top two rows.

ISO A ā æ ɒ I ī U ū E ē AI O ō AU R̥ R̥̄ L̥ L̥̄ ṁ ḥ

A KA ā Kā æ Kæ ɒ Kɒ I KI ī Kī U KU ū Kū E KE ē Kē AI KAI

KO

Kō AU KAU R̥ KR̥ R̥̄ KR̥̄ L̥ KL̥ L̥̄ KL̥̄ ṁ Kṁ ḥ Kḥ K

DEVANAGARI अ क आ का ॲ कॅ ऑ कॉ इ कि ई की उ कु ऊ कू ऎ कॆ ए के ऐ कै ऒ कॊ ओ को औ कौ ऋ कृ ॠ कॄ ऌ कॢ ॡ कॣ अं कं अः कः क्

A vowel combines with a consonant to form their compound letter. For example, the vowel (ā) combines with the consonant क् (k) to form the compound का (kā), with halant removed and added vowel sign which is indicated by diacritics . The vowel (a) combines with the consonant क् (k) to form the compound (ka) with halant removed. But, the compound letter series of क, ख, ग, घ... (ka, kha, ga, gha) is without any added vowel sign, as the vowel (a) is inherent .

CONJUNCTS

_You will be able to see the conjuncts only if your system has a Unicode font installed that includes the required conjunct glyphs (such as one of the TDIL fonts, see the list of fonts below. Keep in mind that there is significant variation in the number of conjuncts a font supports: Siddhanta (a newer version of the Chandas font ), for example, is one of the most comprehensive and covers more than 4300 ligatures whereas Hind, a decent font for modern use, has a coverage in the hundreds. . Unicode-compatible fonts use the_ "virama " _or_ "halant " _character (्) between characters to indicate when they should be ligatured, so as a general rule, if you see a_ halant _in the middle of a word, it is likely a conjunct that is not supported by current font._

As mentioned, successive consonants lacking a vowel in between them may physically join together as a _conjunct_ or ligature . Conjuncts are used mostly with loan words. Native words typically use the basic consonant and native speakers know to suppress the vowel. For example, the native Hindi word _karnā_ is written करना (_ka-ra-nā_). The government of these clusters ranges from widely to narrowly applicable rules, with special exceptions within. While standardised for the most part, there are certain variations in clustering, of which the Unicode used on this page is just one scheme. The following are a number of rules:

* 24 out of the 36 consonants contain a vertical right stroke (ख _kha_, _gha_, _ṇa_ etc.). As first or middle fragments/members of a cluster, they lose that stroke. e.g. + व = त् _tva_, + = ण् _ṇḍha_, + = स् _stha_. In Unicode, these consonants without their vertical stems are called half forms. _ś(a)_ appears as a different, simple ribbon-shaped fragment preceding _va_, _na_, _ca_, _la_, and _ra_, causing these second members to be shifted down and reduced in size. Thus श् _śva_, श् _śna_, श् _śca_ श् _śla_, and श् _śra_. * _r(a)_ as a first member takes the form of a curved upward dash above the final character or its _ā-_diacritic. e.g. र्व _rva_, र्वा _rvā_, र्स् _rspa_, र्स्पा _rspā_. As a final member with _ṭa_ _ṭha_ _ḍa_ ढ _ḍha_ _ṛa_ _cha_ it is two lines below the character, pointed downwards and apart. Thus ट् _ṭra_ ठ् _ṭhra_ ड् _ḍra_ ढ् _ḍhra_ ङ् _ṛra_ छ्र _chra_. Elsewhere as a final member it is a diagonal stroke extending leftwards and down. e.g. क् ग् भ्र. _ta_ is shifted up to make त् _tra_. * As first members, remaining characters lacking vertical strokes such as _d(a)_ and _h(a)_ may have their second member, reduced in size and lacking its horizontal stroke, placed underneath. _k(a)_, _ch(a)_, and _ph(a)_ shorten their right hooks and join them directly to the following member. * The conjuncts for _kṣ_ and _jñ_ are not clearly derived from the letters making up their components. The conjunct for _kṣ_ is क् (क् + ष) and for _jñ_ it is ज् (ज् + ञ).

The "Biconsonantal conjuncts" table below shows ALL the 1296 possible symbols for the biconsonantal clusters formed by collating the 36 fundamental symbols of SANSKRIT as listed in Masica (1991 :161–162). Scroll your cursor over the conjuncts to reveal their romanisations (in ISO 15919 ) and IPA transcriptions. Note that there will be variation in the conjuncts that are actually used in any given language written in Devanagari and many of them would not be viable combinations in any language.

Conjuncts can be constructed of more than two consonants, and the theoretical number of possible combinations increases exponentially. However, longer conjuncts are increasingly constrained by the languages' phonology and the actual number of conjuncts observed drops sharply. Ulrich Stiel includes a five-consonant cluster in the top 360 most frequent conjuncts found in Classical Sanskrit ; the complete list appears below. Presented as they are here, many of these conjuncts may seem a little absurd, but keep in mind that when writing in Devanagari, conjuncts very often span a syllable boundary. That is, not all conjuncts are possible at the beginning (or end) of a syllable or word; many will only occur in the middle of multisyllablic words where the coda consonants of one syllable are conjoined with the onset consonants of the following syllable.

Biconsonantal Conjuncts

क ख ग घ ङ च छ ज झ ञ ट ठ ड ढ ण त थ द ध न प फ ब भ म य र ल व श ष स ह ळ क्ष ज्ञ

क क्क क्ख क्ग क्घ क्ङ क्च क्छ क्ज क्झ क्ञ क्ट क्ठ क्ड क्ढ क्ण क्त क्थ क्द क्ध क्न क्प क्फ क्ब क्भ क्म क्य क्र क्ल क्व क्श क्ष क्स क्ह क्ळ क्क्ष क्ज्ञ

ख ख्क ख्ख ख्ग ख्घ ख्ङ ख्च ख्छ ख्ज ख्झ ख्ञ ख्ट ख्ठ ख्ड ख्ढ ख्ण ख्त ख्थ ख्द ख्ध ख्न ख्प ख्फ ख्ब ख्भ ख्म ख्य ख्र ख्ल ख्व ख्श ख्ष ख्स ख्ह ख्ळ ख्क्ष ख्ज्ञ

ग ग्क ग्ख ग्ग ग्घ ग्ङ ग्च ग्छ ग्ज ग्झ ग्ञ ग्ट ग्ठ ग्ड ग्ढ ग्ण ग्त ग्थ ग्द ग्ध ग्न ग्प ग्फ ग्ब ग्भ ग्म ग्य ग्र ग्ल ग्व ग्श ग्ष ग्स ग्ह ग्ळ ग्क्ष ग्ज्ञ

घ घ्क घ्ख घ्ग घ्घ घ्ङ घ्च घ्छ घ्ज घ्झ घ्ञ घ्ट घ्ठ घ्ड घ्ढ घ्ण घ्त घ्थ घ्द घ्ध घ्न घ्प घ्फ घ्ब घ्भ घ्म घ्य घ्र घ्ल घ्व घ्श घ्ष घ्स घ्ह घ्ळ घ्क्ष घ्ज्ञ

ङ ङ्क ङ्ख ङ्ग ङ्घ ङ्ङ ङ्च ङ्छ ङ्ज ङ्झ ङ्ञ ङ्ट ङ्ठ ङ्ड ङ्ढ ङ्ण ङ्त ङ्थ ङ्द ङ्ध ङ्न ङ्प ङ्फ ङ्ब ङ्भ ङ्म ङ्य ङ्र ङ्ल ङ्व ङ्श ङ्ष ङ्स ङ्ह ङ्ळ ङ्क्ष ङ्ज्ञ

च च्क च्ख च्ग च्घ च्ङ च्च च्छ च्ज च्झ च्ञ च्ट च्ठ च्ड च्ढ च्ण च्त च्थ च्द च्ध च्न च्प च्फ च्ब च्भ च्म च्य च्र च्ल च्व च्श च्ष च्स च्ह च्ळ च्क्ष च्ज्ञ

छ छ्क छ्ख छ्ग छ्घ छ्ङ छ्च छ्छ छ्ज छ्झ छ्ञ छ्ट छ्ठ छ्ड छ्ढ छ्ण छ्त छ्थ छ्द छ्ध छ्न छ्प छ्फ छ्ब छ्भ छ्म छ्य छ्र छ्ल छ्व छ्श छ्ष छ्स छ्ह छ्ळ छ्क्ष छ्ज्ञ

ज ज्क ज्ख ज्ग ज्घ ज्ङ ज्च ज्छ ज्ज ज्झ ज्ञ ज्ट ज्ठ ज्ड ज्ढ ज्ण ज्त ज्थ ज्द ज्ध ज्न ज्प ज्फ ज्ब ज्भ ज्म ज्य ज्र ज्ल ज्व ज्श ज्ष ज्स ज्ह ज्ळ ज्क्ष ज्ज्ञ

झ झ्क झ्ख झ्ग झ्घ झ्ङ झ्च झ्छ झ्ज झ्झ झ्ञ झ्ट झ्ठ झ्ड झ्ढ झ्ण झ्त झ्थ झ्द झ्ध झ्न झ्प झ्फ झ्ब झ्भ झ्म झ्य झ्र झ्ल झ्व झ्श झ्ष झ्स झ्ह झ्ळ झ्क्ष झ्ज्ञ

ञ ञ्क ञ्ख ञ्ग ञ्घ ञ्ङ ञ्च ञ्छ ञ्ज ञ्झ ञ्ञ ञ्ट ञ्ठ ञ्ड ञ्ढ ञ्ण ञ्त ञ्थ ञ्द ञ्ध ञ्न ञ्प ञ्फ ञ्ब ञ्भ ञ्म ञ्य ञ्र ञ्ल ञ्व ञ्श ञ्ष ञ्स ञ्ह ञ्ळ ञ्क्ष ञ्ज्ञ

ट ट्क ट्ख ट्ग ट्घ ट्ङ ट्च ट्छ ट्ज ट्झ ट्ञ ट्ट ट्ठ ट्ड ट्ढ ट्ण ट्त ट्थ ट्द ट्ध ट्न ट्प ट्फ ट्ब ट्भ ट्म ट्य ट्र ट्ल ट्व ट्श ट्ष ट्स ट्ह ट्ळ ट्क्ष ट्ज्ञ

ठ ठ्क ठ्ख ठ्ग ठ्घ ठ्ङ ठ्च ठ्छ ठ्ज ठ्झ ठ्ञ ठ्ट ठ्ठ ठ्ड ठ्ढ ठ्ण ठ्त ठ्थ ठ्द ठ्ध ठ्न ठ्प ठ्फ ठ्ब ठ्भ ठ्म ठ्य ठ्र ठ्ल ठ्व ठ्श ठ्ष ठ्स ठ्ह ठ्ळ ठ्क्ष ठ्ज्ञ

ड ड्क ड्ख ड्ग ड्घ ड्ङ ड्च ड्छ ड्ज ड्झ ड्ञ ड्ट ड्ठ ड्ड ड्ढ ड्ण ड्त ड्थ ड्द ड्ध ड्न ड्प ड्फ ड्ब ड्भ ड्म ड्य ड्र ड्ल ड्व ड्श ड्ष ड्स ड्ह ड्ळ ड्क्ष ड्ज्ञ

ढ ढ्क ढ्ख ढ्ग ढ्घ ढ्ङ ढ्च ढ्छ ढ्ज ढ्झ ढ्ञ ढ्ट ढ्ठ ढ्ड ढ्ढ ढ्ण ढ्त ढ्थ ढ्द ढ्ध ढ्न ढ्प ढ्फ ढ्ब ढ्भ ढ्म ढ्य ढ्र ढ्ल ढ्व ढ्श ढ्ष ढ्स ढ्ह ढ्ळ ढ्क्ष ढ्ज्ञ

ण ण्क ण्ख ण्ग ण्घ ण्ङ ण्च ण्छ ण्ज ण्झ ण्ञ ण्ट ण्ठ ण्ड ण्ढ ण्ण ण्त ण्थ ण्द ण्ध ण्न ण्प ण्फ ण्ब ण्भ ण्म ण्य ण्र ण्ल ण्व ण्श ण्ष ण्स ण्ह ण्ळ ण्क्ष ण्ज्ञ

त त्क त्ख त्ग त्घ त्ङ त्च त्छ त्ज त्झ त्ञ त्ट त्ठ त्ड त्ढ त्ण त्त त्थ त्द त्ध त्न त्प त्फ त्ब त्भ त्म त्य त्र त्ल त्व त्श त्ष त्स त्ह त्ळ त्क्ष त्ज्ञ

थ थ्क थ्ख थ्ग थ्घ थ्ङ थ्च थ्छ थ्ज थ्झ थ्ञ थ्ट थ्ठ थ्ड थ्ढ थ्ण थ्त थ्थ थ्द थ्ध थ्न थ्प थ्फ थ्ब थ्भ थ्म थ्य थ्र थ्ल थ्व थ्श थ्ष थ्स थ्ह थ्ळ थ्क्ष थ्ज्ञ

द द्क द्ख द्ग द्घ द्ङ द्च द्छ द्ज द्झ द्ञ द्ट द्ठ द्ड द्ढ द्ण द्त द्थ द्द द्ध द्न द्प द्फ द्ब द्भ द्म द्य द्र द्ल द्व द्श द्ष द्स द्ह द्ळ द्क्ष द्ज्ञ

ध ध्क ध्ख ध्ग ध्घ ध्ङ ध्च ध्छ ध्ज ध्झ ध्ञ ध्ट ध्ठ ध्ड ध्ढ ध्ण ध्त ध्थ ध्द ध्ध ध्न ध्प ध्फ ध्ब ध्भ ध्म ध्य ध्र ध्ल ध्व ध्श ध्ष ध्स ध्ह ध्ळ ध्क्ष ध्ज्ञ

न न्क न्ख न्ग न्घ न्ङ न्च न्छ न्ज न्झ न्ञ न्ट न्ठ न्ड न्ढ न्ण न्त न्थ न्द न्ध न्न न्प न्फ न्ब न्भ न्म न्य न्र न्ल न्व न्श न्ष न्स न्ह न्ळ न्क्ष न्ज्ञ

प प्क प्ख प्ग प्घ प्ङ प्च प्छ प्ज प्झ प्ञ प्ट प्ठ प्ड प्ढ प्ण प्त प्थ प्द प्ध प्न प्प प्फ प्ब प्भ प्म प्य प्र प्ल प्व प्श प्ष प्स प्ह प्ळ प्क्ष प्ज्ञ

फ फ्क फ्ख फ्ग फ्घ फ्ङ फ्च फ्छ फ्ज फ्झ फ्ञ फ्ट फ्ठ फ्ड फ्ढ फ्ण फ्त फ्थ फ्द फ्ध फ्न फ्प फ्फ फ्ब फ्भ फ्म फ्य फ्र फ्ल फ्व फ्श फ्ष फ्स फ्ह फ्ळ फ्क्ष फ्ज्ञ

ब ब्क ब्ख ब्ग ब्घ ब्ङ ब्च ब्छ ब्ज ब्झ ब्ञ ब्ट ब्ठ ब्ड ब्ढ ब्ण ब्त ब्थ ब्द ब्ध ब्न ब्प ब्फ ब्ब ब्भ ब्म ब्य ब्र ब्ल ब्व ब्श ब्ष ब्स ब्ह ब्ळ ब्क्ष ब्ज्ञ

भ भ्क भ्ख भ्ग भ्घ भ्ङ भ्च भ्छ भ्ज भ्झ भ्ञ भ्ट भ्ठ भ्ड भ्ढ भ्ण भ्त भ्थ भ्द भ्ध भ्न भ्प भ्फ भ्ब भ्भ भ्म भ्य भ्र भ्ल भ्व भ्श भ्ष भ्स भ्ह भ्ळ भ्क्ष भ्ज्ञ

म म्क म्ख म्ग म्घ म्ङ म्च म्छ म्ज म्झ म्ञ म्ट म्ठ म्ड म्ढ म्ण म्त म्थ म्द म्ध म्न म्प म्फ म्ब म्भ म्म म्य म्र म्ल म्व म्श म्ष म्स म्ह म्ळ म्क्ष म्ज्ञ

य य्क य्ख य्ग य्घ य्ङ य्च य्छ य्ज य्झ य्ञ य्ट य्ठ य्ड य्ढ य्ण य्त य्थ य्द य्ध य्न य्प य्फ य्ब य्भ य्म य्य य्र य्ल य्व य्श य्ष य्स य्ह य्ळ य्क्ष य्ज्ञ

र र्क र्ख र्ग र्घ र्ङ र्च र्छ र्ज र्झ र्ञ र्ट र्ठ र्ड र्ढ र्ण र्त र्थ र्द र्ध र्न र्प र्फ र्ब र्भ र्म र्य र्र र्ल र्व र्श र्ष र्स र्ह र्ळ र्क्ष र्ज्ञ

ल ल्क ल्ख ल्ग ल्घ ल्ङ ल्च ल्छ ल्ज ल्झ ल्ञ ल्ट ल्ठ ल्ड ल्ढ ल्ण ल्त ल्थ ल्द ल्ध ल्न ल्प ल्फ ल्ब ल्भ ल्म ल्य ल्र ल्ल ल्व ल्श ल्ष ल्स ल्ह ल्ळ ल्क्ष ल्ज्ञ

व व्क व्ख व्ग व्घ व्ङ व्च व्छ व्ज व्झ व्ञ व्ट व्ठ व्ड व्ढ व्ण व्त व्थ व्द व्ध व्न व्प व्फ व्ब व्भ व्म व्य व्र व्ल व्व व्श व्ष व्स व्ह व्ळ व्क्ष व्ज्ञ

श श्क श्ख श्ग श्घ श्ङ श्च श्छ श्ज श्झ श्ञ श्ट श्ठ श्ड श्ढ श्ण श्त श्थ श्द श्ध श्न श्प श्फ श्ब श्भ श्म श्य श्र श्ल श्व श्श श्ष श्स श्ह श्ळ श्क्ष श्ज्ञ

ष ष्क ष्ख ष्ग ष्घ ष्ङ ष्च ष्छ ष्ज ष्झ ष्ञ ष्ट ष्ठ ष्ड ष्ढ ष्ण ष्त ष्थ ष्द ष्ध ष्न ष्प ष्फ ष्ब ष्भ ष्म ष्य ष्र ष्ल ष्व ष्श ष्ष ष्स ष्ह ष्ळ ष्क्ष ष्ज्ञ

स स्क स्ख स्ग स्घ स्ङ स्च स्छ स्ज स्झ स्ञ स्ट स्ठ स्ड स्ढ स्ण स्त स्थ स्द स्ध स्न स्प स्फ स्ब स्भ स्म स्य स्र स्ल स्व स्श स्ष स्स स्ह स्ळ स्क्ष स्ज्ञ

ह ह्क ह्ख ह्ग ह्घ ह्ङ ह्च ह्छ ह्ज ह्झ ह्ञ ह्ट ह्ठ ह्ड ह्ढ ह्ण ह्त ह्थ ह्द ह्ध ह्न ह्प ह्फ ह्ब ह्भ ह्म ह्य ह्र ह्ल ह्व ह्श ह्ष ह्स ह्ह ह्ळ ह्क्ष ह्ज्ञ

ळ ळ्क ळ्ख ळ्ग ळ्घ ळ्ङ ळ्च ळ्छ ळ्ज ळ्झ ळ्ञ ळ्ट ळ्ठ ळ्ड ळ्ढ ळ्ण ळ्त ळ्थ ळ्द ळ्ध ळ्न ळ्प ळ्फ ळ्ब ळ्भ ळ्म ळ्य ळ्र ळ्ल ळ्व ळ्श ळ्ष ळ्स ळ्ह ळ्ळ ळ्क्ष ळ्ज्ञ

Top 360 Most Frequent Conjuncts In Sanskrit

* क्क * क्च * क्त * क्त्य * क्त्र * क्त्व * क्थ * क्न * क्प * क्प्र * क्म * क्य * क्र * क्ल * क्व * क्श * क्ष * क्ष्ण * क्ष्म * क्ष्म्य * क्ष्य * क्ष्व * क्स * ख्य

* ग्ग * ग्ज * ग्ज्य * ग्ण * ग्द * ग्ध * ग्ध्व * ग्न * ग्न्य * ग्ब * ग्भ * ग्भ्य * ग्म * ग्य * ग्र * ग्र्य * ग्ल * ग्व * घ्न * घ्र * घ्व

* ङ्क * ङ्क्त * ङ्क्ष * ङ्क्ष्व * ङ्ख * ङ्ख्य * ङ्ग * ङ्ग्य * ङ्ग्र * ङ्घ * ङ्घ्र * ङ्न * ङ्म

* च्च * च्च्य * च्छ * च्छ्र * च्छ्व * च्य

* ज्ज * ज्ज्ञ * ज्ज्य * ज्ज्व * ज्ञ * ज्म * ज्य * ज्र * ज्व

* ञ्च * ञ्छ * ञ्ज * ञ्ज्ञ * ञ्श * ञ्श्र * ञ्श्व

* ट्क * ट्ट * ट्प * ट्य * ट्श * ट्स * ठ्य

* ड्ग * ड्भ * ड्य * ड्र * ड्व * ढ्य

* ण्ट * ण्ठ * ण्ड * ण्ड्य * ण्ड्र * ण्ण * ण्म * ण्य * ण्व

* त्क * त्क्र * त्क्व * त्क्ष * त्ख * त्त * त्त्य * त्त्र * त्त्व * त्थ * त्न * त्न्य * त्प * त्प्र * त्फ * त्म * त्म्य * त्य * त्र * त्र्य * त्व * त्व्य * त्स * त्स्त * त्स्त्र * त्स्थ * त्स्न * त्स्म * त्स्य * त्स्र * त्स्व * थ्य * थ्व

* द्ग * द्ग्र * ध्ह * द्द * द्द्य * द्द्र * द्द्व * द्ध * द्ध्य * द्ध्र * द्ध्व * द्न * द्ब * द्ब्र * द्भ * द्भ्य * द्भ्र * द्म * द्य * द्र * द्र्य * द्व * द्व्य * द्व्र * ध्न * ध्म * ध्य * ध्र * ध्व

* न्क * न्क्र * न्क्ल * न्क्ष * न्ख * न्ग * न्घ * न्त * न्त्य * न्त्र * न्त्र्य * न्त्व * न्त्स्य * न्थ * न्द * न्द्य * न्द्र * न्द्व * न्ध * न्ध्य * न्ध्र * न्न * न्न्य * न्न्व * न्प * न्प्र * न्फ * न्ब * न्ब्र * न्भ * न्भ्र * न्म * न्य * न्र * न्व * न्व्य * न्स * न्स्थ * न्स्म * न्स्व * न्ह

* प्त * प्त्व * प्न * प्म * प्य * प्र * प्ल * प्स * प्स्य

* ब्ज * ब्द * ब्ध * ब्ध्व * ब्य * ब्र * ब्व * भ्ण * भ्य * भ्र * भ्व

* म्ण * म्न * म्प * म्ब * म्ब्य * म्भ * म्य * म्र * म्ल

* य्य * य्व

* र्क * र्क्ष्य * र्ख * र्ग * र्ग्य * र्ग्र * र्घ * र्घ्य * र्ङ्ग * र्च * र्च्छ * र्च्य * र्छ * र्ज * र्ज्ञ * र्ज्य * र्ज्व * र्ण * र्ण्य * र्त * र्त्त * र्त्म * र्त्य * र्त्र * र्त्व * र्त्स * र्त्स्न्य * र्थ * र्थ्य * र्द * र्द्ध * र्द्य * र्द्र * र्द्व * र्ध * र्ध्न * र्ध्म * र्ध्य * र्ध्र * र्ध्व * र्न * र्न्य * र्प * र्ब * र्ब्र * र्भ * र्भ्य * र्भ्र * र्म * र्म्य * र्य * र्ल * र्व * र्व्य * र्श * र्श्व * र्ष * र्ष्ट * र्ष्ण * र्ष्य * र्ह * र्ह्य * र्ह्र

* ल्क * ल्क्य * ल्ग * ल्प * ल्ब * ल्म * ल्य * ल्ल * ल्व

* व्य * व्र

* श्च * श्च्य * श्छ * श्न * श्प * श्म * श्य * श्र * श्ल * श्व * श्व्य

* ष्क * ष्क्र * ष्ट * ष्ट्य * ष्ट्र * ष्ट्व * ष्ठ * ष्ठ्य * ष्ण * ष्ण्य * ष्प * ष्प्र * ष्म * ष्य * ष्व

* स्क * स्त * स्त्य * स्त्र * स्त्र्य * स्त्व * स्थ * स्थ्य * स्न * स्प * स्फ * स्म * स्म्य * स्य * स्र * स्व * स्स्व

* ह्ण * ह्न * ह्म * ह्य * ह्र * ह्ल * ह्व

ACCENT MARKS

Main article: Vedic accent

The pitch accent of Vedic Sanskrit is written with various symbols depending on shakha . In the Rigveda , _anudātta_ is written with a bar below the line (◌॒), _svarita_ with a stroke above the line (◌॑) while _udātta_ is unmarked.

PUNCTUATION

The end of a sentence or half-verse may be marked with the "।" symbol (called a _danda_, meaning "bar", or called a _pūrṇa virām_, meaning "full stop/pause"). The end of a full verse may be marked with a double-_danda_, a "॥" symbol. A comma (called an _alpa virām_, meaning "short stop/pause") is used to denote a natural pause in speech. Other punctuation marks such as colon, semi-colon, exclamation mark, dash, and question mark are currently in use in Devanagari script, matching their use in European languages.

OLD FORMS

The following letter variants are also in use, particularly in older texts.

Letter variants STANDARD FORM VARIANT FORM

NUMERALS

See also: Indian numerals , Brahmi numerals , and Hindu-Arabic numeral system

DEVANAGARI DIGITS

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

FONTS

A variety of unicode fonts are in use for Devanagari. These include, but are not limited to, Akshar , Annapurna, Arial , CDAC-Gist Surekh , CDAC-Gist Yogesh , Chandas, Gargi, Gurumaa, Jaipur, Jana, Kalimati, Kanjirowa, Lohit Devanagari, Mangal, Raghu, Sanskrit2003, Santipur OT, Siddhdnta, Thyaka, and Uttara.

The form of Devanagari fonts vary with function. According to Harvard College for Sanskrit studies, "Uttara is the best in terms of ligatures but, because it is designed for Vedic as well, requires so much vertical space that it is not well suited for the "user interface font" (though an excellent choice for the "original field" font). Santipur OT is a beautiful font reflecting a very early typesetting style for Devanagari. Sanskrit 2003 is a good all-around font and has more ligatures than most fonts, though students will probably find the spacing of the CDAC-Gist Surekh font makes for quicker comprehension and reading."

Google Fonts project now has a number of new unicode fonts for Devanagari in a variety of typefaces in Serif, Sans-Serif, Display and Handwriting categories.

TRANSLITERATION

Main article: Devanagari transliteration

There are several methods of Romanisation or transliteration from Devanagari to the Roman script .

HUNTERIAN SYSTEM

Main article: Hunterian transliteration

The Hunterian system is the "_national system of romanisation in India _" and the one officially adopted by the Government of India .

ISO 15919

Main article: ISO 15919

A standard transliteration convention was codified in the ISO 15919 standard of 2001. It uses diacritics to map the much larger set of Brahmic graphemes to the Latin script. The Devanagari-specific portion is nearly identical to the academic standard for Sanskrit, IAST .

IAST

The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is the academic standard for the romanisation of Sanskrit. IAST is the de facto standard used in printed publications, like books, magazines, and electronic texts with Unicode fonts. It is based on a standard established by the _Congress of Orientalists_ at Athens in 1912. The ISO 15919 standard of 2001 codified the transliteration convention to include an expanded standard for sister scripts of Devanagari.

The National Library at Kolkata romanisation , intended for the romanisation of all Indic scripts, is an extension of IAST.

HARVARD-KYOTO

Compared to IAST, Harvard-Kyoto looks much simpler. It does not contain all the diacritic marks that IAST contains. It was designed to simplify the task of putting large amount of Sanskrit textual material into machine readable form, and the inventors stated that it reduces the effort needed in transliteration of Sanskrit texts on the keyboard. This makes typing in Harvard-Kyoto much easier than IAST. Harvard-Kyoto uses capital letters that can be difficult to read in the middle of words.

ITRANS

ITRANS is a lossless transliteration scheme of Devanagari into ASCII that is widely used on Usenet . It is an extension of the Harvard-Kyoto scheme. In ITRANS, the word _devanāgarī_ is written "devanaagarii" or "devanAgarI". ITRANS is associated with an application of the same name that enables typesetting in Indic scripts . The user inputs in Roman letters and the ITRANS pre-processor translates the Roman letters into Devanagari (or other Indic languages). The latest version of ITRANS is version 5.30 released in July, 2001. It is similar to Velthius system and was created by Avinash Chopde to help print various Indic scripts with personal computers.

Velthuis

Main article: Velthuis

The disadvantage of the above ASCII schemes is case-sensitivity, implying that transliterated names may not be capitalised. This difficulty is avoided with the system developed in 1996 by Frans Velthuis for TeX , loosely based on IAST, in which case is irrelevant.

ALA-LC ROMANISATION

ALA-LC romanisation is a transliteration scheme approved by the Library of Congress and the American Library Association, and widely used in North American libraries. Transliteration tables are based on languages, so there is a table for Hindi, one for Sanskrit and Prakrit, etc.

WX

Main article: WX notation

WX is a Roman transliteration scheme for Indian languages, widely used among the natural language processing community in India. It originated at IIT Kanpur for computational processing of Indian languages. The salient features of this transliteration scheme are as follows.

* Every consonant and every vowel has a single mapping into Roman. Hence it is a prefix code , advantageous from computation point of view. * Lower-case letters are used for unaspirated consonants and short vowels, while capital letters are used for aspirated consonants and long vowels. While the retroflex stops are mapped to 't, T, d, D, N', the dentals are mapped to 'w, W, x, X, n'. Hence the name 'WX', a reminder of this idiosyncratic mapping.

ENCODINGS

ISCII

ISCII is an 8-bit encoding. The lower 128 codepoints are plain ASCII , the upper 128 codepoints are ISCII-specific.

It has been designed for representing not only Devanagari but also various other Indic scripts as well as a Latin-based script with diacritic marks used for transliteration of the Indic scripts.

ISCII has largely been superseded by Unicode, which has, however, attempted to preserve the ISCII layout for its Indic language blocks.

UNICODE

Main articles: Devanagari ( Unicode block) , Devanagari Extended ( Unicode block) , and Vedic Extensions ( Unicode block)

The Unicode Standard defines three blocks for Devanagari: Devanagari (U+0900–U+097F), Devanagari Extended (U+A8E0–U+A8FF), and Vedic Extensions (U+1CD0–U+1CFF).

DEVANAGARI Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+090x ऀ ऄ अ आ इ ई उ ऊ ऋ ऌ ऍ ऎ ए

U+091x ऐ ऑ ऒ ओ औ क ख ग घ ङ च छ ज झ ञ ट

U+092x ठ ड ढ ण त थ द ध न ऩ प फ ब भ म य

U+093x र ऱ ल ळ ऴ व श ष स ह ऺ ऻ ़ ा ि

U+094x ी ु ू ृ ॄ ॅ ॆ े ै ॉ ॊ ो ौ ् ॎ ॏ

U+095x ॐ ॑ ॒ ॓ ॔ ॕ ॖ ॗ क़ ख़ ग़ ज़ ड़ ढ़ फ़ य़

U+096x ॠ ॡ ॢ ॣ । ॥ ० १ २ ३ ४ ५ ६ ७ ८ ९

U+097x ॱ ॲ ॳ ॴ ॵ ॶ ॷ ॸ ॹ ॺ ॻ ॼ ॽ ॾ ॿ

NOTES 1.^ As of Unicode version 10.0

DEVANAGARI EXTENDED Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+A8Ex ꣠ ꣡ ꣢ ꣣ ꣤ ꣥ ꣦ ꣧ ꣨ ꣩ ꣪ ꣫ ꣬ ꣭ ꣮ ꣯

U+A8Fx ꣰ ꣱ ꣲ ꣳ ꣴ ꣵ ꣶ ꣷ ꣸ ꣹ ꣺ ꣻ ꣼ ꣽ

NOTES 1.^ As of Unicode version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

VEDIC EXTENSIONS Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+1CDx ᳐ ᳑ ᳒ ᳓ ᳔ ᳕ ᳖ ᳗ ᳘ ᳙ ᳚ ᳛ ᳜ ᳝ ᳞ ᳟

U+1CEx ᳠ ᳡ ᳢ ᳣ ᳤ ᳥ ᳦ ᳧ ᳨ ᳩ ᳪ ᳫ ᳬ ᳭ ᳮ ᳯ

U+1CFx ᳰ ᳱ ᳲ ᳳ ᳴ ᳵ ᳶ ᳷ ᳸ ᳹

NOTES 1.^ As of Unicode version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

DEVANAGARI KEYBOARD LAYOUTS

For a list of Devanagari input tools and fonts, please see Help:Multilingual support (Indic) . Play media

InScript is the standard keyboard layout for Devanagari. It is inbuilt in all modern major operating systems . Microsoft Windows supports the InScript layout (using the Mangal font), which can be used to input unicode Devanagari characters. InScript is also available in some touchscreen mobile phones.

INSCRIPT LAYOUT

A Devanagari INSCRIPT bilingual keyboard.

TYPEWRITER

This layout was used on manual typewriters when computers were not available or were uncommon. For backward compatibility some typing tools like Indic IME still provide this layout.

PHONETIC

Such tools work on phonetic transliteration. The user writes in Roman and the IME automatically converts it into Devanagari. Some popular phonetic typing tools are Baraha IME and Google IME . _ Bolnagri phonetic keyboard layout for Linux/GNOME Play media One can use ULS "अक्षरांतरण" ( Transliteration ) or "मराठी लिपी" (Inscript ) typing options to search or edit Marathi Wikipedia articles as shown in this video clip; One can click on the 'cc_ to change the subtitle languages to Marathi, English, Sanskrit, Kokani, Ahirani languages.

The Mac OS X operating system includes two different keyboard layouts for Devanagari: one is much like INSCRIPT/KDE Linux, the other is a phonetic layout called " Devanagari QWERTY".

Any one of Unicode fonts input system is fine for Indic language Wikipedia and other wikiprojects, including Hindi, Bhojpuri, Marathi, Nepali. Some people use inscript . Majority uses either Google phonetic transliteration or input facility Universal Language Selector provided on. On Indic language wikiprojects Phonetic facility provided initially was java-based later supported by Narayam extension for phonetic input facility. Currently Indic language Wiki projects are supported by Universal Language Selector (ULS), that offers both phonetic keyboard (Aksharantaran, Marathi: अक्षरांतरण, Hindi: लिप्यंतरण, बोलनागरी) and InScript keyboard (Marathi: मराठी लिपी).

The Ubuntu Linux operating system supports several keyboard layouts for Devanagari, including Harvard-Kyoto, WX notation , Bolanagari and phonetic.

SEE ALSO

* Linguistics portal * Writing portal

* Clip font * Devanagari transliteration * Devanagari Braille * ISCII * Nagari Pracharini Sabha * Nepali * Schwa deletion in Indo-Aryan languages * Shiksha – the Vedic study of sound, focussing on the letters of the Sanskrit alphabet

REFERENCES

Footnotes

* ^ _A_ _B_ _Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency_ at Google Books , Rudradaman’s inscription from 1st through 4th century CE found in Gujarat, India, Stanford University Archives, pages 30-45, particularly Devanagari inscription on Jayadaman's coins pages 33-34 * ^ _A_ _B_ Isaac Taylor (1883), _History of the Alphabet: Aryan Alphabets, Part 2_, Kegan Paul, Trench & Co, p. 333, ISBN 978-0-7661-5847-4 , _... In the Kutila this develops into a short horizontal bar, which, in the Devanagari, becomes a continuous horizontal line ... three cardinal inscriptions of this epoch, namely, the Kutila or Bareli inscription of 992, the Chalukya or Kistna inscription of 945, and a Kawi inscription of 919 ... the Kutila inscription is of great importance in Indian epigraphy, not only from its precise date, but from its offering a definite early form of the standard Indian alphabet, the Devanagari ..._ * ^ Salomon, Richard (1998). _Indian epigraphy: a guide to the study of inscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the other Indo-Aryan languages_. South Asia research. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 39–41. ISBN 978-0-19-509984-3 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, ISBN 978-1615301492 , page 83 * ^ _A_ _B_ George Cardona and Danesh Jain (2003), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415772945 , pages 72-74; Quote: "(...) has a strong preference for symmertrical shapes, especially squared outlines and right angles (...)". * ^ George Cardona and Danesh Jain (2003), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415772945 , pages 68-69 * ^ _A_ _B_ Richard Salomon (2014), Indian Epigraphy, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195356663 , pages 40-42 * ^ Michael Willis (2001), Inscriptions from Udayagiri: locating domains of devotion, patronage and power in the eleventh century, South Asian Studies, 17(1), pages 41-53 * ^ Brick with Sanskrit inscription in Nagari script, 1217 CE, found in Uttar Pradesh, India (British Museum) * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ George Cardona and Danesh Jain (2003), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415772945 , pages 75-77 * ^ Wayan Ardika (2009), Form, Macht, Differenz: Motive und Felder ethnologischen Forschens (Editors: Elfriede Hermann et al.), Universitätsverlag Göttingen, ISBN 978-3940344809 , pages 251-252; Quote: "Nagari script and Sanskrit language in the inscription at Blangjong suggests that Indian culture was already influencing Bali (Indonesia) by the 10th century CE." * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Devanagari (Nagari), Script Features and Description, SIL International (2013), United States * ^ David Templin. " Devanagari script". _omniglot.com_. Retrieved 5 April 2015. * ^ Hindi, Omniglot Encyclopedia of Writing Systems and Languages * ^ George Cardona and Danesh Jain (2003), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415772945 , page 75 * ^ Reinhold Grünendahl (2001), South Indian Scripts in Sanskrit Manuscripts and Prints, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447045049 , pages xxii, 201-210 * ^ Akira Nakanishi, Writing systems of the World, ISBN 978-0804816540 , page 48 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Steven Roger Fischer (2004), _A history of writing_, Reaktion Books, ISBN 978-1-86189-167-9 , _... an early branch of this, as of the fourth century CE, was the Gupta script, Brahmi's first main daughter ... the Gupta alphabet became the ancestor of most Indic scripts (usually through later Devanagari) ... Nagari, of India's north-west, first appeared around 633 CE ... in the eleventh century, Nagari had become Devanagari, or 'heavenly Nagari', since it was now the main vehicle, out of several, for Sanskrit literature ..._ * ^ Krishna Chandra Sagar (1993), Foreign Influence on Ancient India, South Asia Books, ISBN 978-8172110284 , page 137 * ^ Richard Salomon (2014), Indian Epigraphy, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195356663 , page 71 * ^ William Woodville Rockhill, _Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution_, p. 671, at Google Books , United States National Museum, page 671 * ^ David Quinter (2015), From Outcasts to Emperors: Shingon Ritsu and the Mañjuśrī Cult in Medieval Japan, Brill, ISBN 978-9004293397 , pages 63-65 with discussion on Uṣṇīṣa Vijaya Dhāraṇī Sūtra * ^ Richard Salomon (2014), Indian Epigraphy, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195356663 , pages 157-160

* ^ Michael Witzel (2006), in Between the Empires : Society in India 300 BCE to 400 CE (Editor: Patrick Olivelle ), Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195305326 , pages 477-480 with footnote 60; Original manuscript, dates in Saka Samvat, and uncertainties associated with it: Mahabhasya of Patanjali, F Kielhorn * ^ Monier Williams Online Dictionary, nagara, Cologne Sanskrit Digital Lexicon, Germany * ^ Salomon (2003 :70) * ^ "Archives.conlang.info". Archives.conlang.info. 2004-12-07. Retrieved 2011-06-13. * ^ Salomon (2003 :71) * ^ _A_ _B_ Salomon (2003 :75) * ^ Wikner (1996 :13, 14) * ^ Wikner (1996 :6) * ^ Snell (2000 :44–45) * ^ Snell (2000 :64) * ^ Snell (2000 :45) * ^ Snell (2000 :46) * ^ Salomon (2003 :77) * ^ Verma (2003 :501) * ^ Wikner (1996 :73) * ^ Stella Sandahl (2000). _A Hindi reference grammar_. Peeters. pp. 1–4. ISBN 978-9042908802 . * ^ Tej K. Bhatia (1987). _A History of the Hindi Grammatical Tradition_. BRILL Academic. pp. 51–63, 77–94. ISBN 90-04-07924-6 .

* ^ Masica (1991:97) * ^ _A_ _B_ Larry M. Hyman; Victoria Fromkin; Charles N. Li (1988), _Language, speech, and mind, Part 2_, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0-415-00311-3 , _... The implicit /a/ is not read when the symbol appears in word-final position or in certain other contexts where it is obligatorily deleted via the so-called schwa-deletion rule which plays a crucial role in Hindi word phonology ..._ * ^ _A_ _B_ Tej K. Bhatia (1987), _A history of the Hindi grammatical tradition: Hindi-Hindustani grammar, grammarians, history and problems_, BRILL, ISBN 90-04-07924-6 , _... Hindi literature fails as a reliable indicator of the actual pronunciation because it is written in the Devanagari script ... the schwa syncope rule which operates in Hindi ..._ * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Monojit Choudhury; Anupam Basu; Sudeshna Sarkar (July 2004), "A Diachronic Approach for Schwa Deletion in Indo Aryan Languages" (PDF), _Proceedings of the Workshop of the ACL Special Interest Group on Computational Phonology (SIGPHON)_, Association for Computations Linguistics, _... schwa deletion is an important issue for grapheme-to-phoneme conversion of IAL, which in turn is required for a good Text-to-Speech synthesiser ..._ * ^ _A_ _B_ Naim R. Tyson; Ila Nagar (2009), "Prosodic rules for schwa-deletion in Hindi text-to-speech synthesis" (PDF), _International Journal of Speech Technology_, _... Without the appropriate deletion of schwas, any speech output would sound unnatural. Since the orthographical representation of Devanagari gives little indication of deletion sites, modern TTS systems for Hindi implemented schwa deletion rules based on the segmental context where schwa appears ..._ * ^ Nazir Ali Jairazbhoy, _The rāgs of North Indian music: their structure and evolution_, Popular Prakashan, 1995, ISBN 978-81-7154-395-3 , _... The Devnagri (Devanagari) script is syllabic and all consonants carry the inherent vowel a unless otherwise indicated. The principal difference between modern Hindi and the classical Sanskrit forms is the omission in Hindi ..._ * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Monojit Choudhury; Anupam Basu (July 2004), "A Rule Based Schwa Deletion Algorithm for Hindi" (PDF), _Proceedings of the International Conference On Knowledge-Based Computer Systems_, _... Without any schwa deletion, not only the two words will sound very unnatural, but it will also be extremely difficult for the listener to distinguish between the two, the only difference being nasalisation of the e at the end of the former. However, a native speaker would pronounce the former as dha.D-kan-eM and the later as dha.Dak-ne, which are clearly distinguishable ..._ * ^ _A_ _B_ Janet Pierrehumbert, Rami Nair, Volume Editor: Bernard Laks, _Implications of Hindi Prosodic Structure (Current Trends in Phonology: Models and Methods)_, European Studies Research Institute, University of Salford Press, 1996, ISBN 978-1-901471-02-1 , _... showed extremely regular patterns. As is not uncommon in a study of subphonemic detail, the objective data patterned much more cleanly than intuitive judgments ... occurs when /व/ is in onglide position ... occurs otherwise ..._ CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * ^ Difference between ISO 15919 & IAST * ^ " TDIL (Technology Development for Indian Languages) Font Download". TDIL. Retrieved 2014-01-03. * ^ Stiehl, Ulrich. "Siddhanta Font". _www.sanskritweb.net_. Retrieved 23 July 2017. * ^ Stiehl, Ulrich. "Chandas - Devanagari Unicode Open Type Font". _www.sanskritweb.net_. Retrieved 23 July 2017. * ^ "Google Fonts: Hind". _Google Fonts_. Google. Retrieved 23 July 2017. * ^ Saloman, Richard (2007) “Typological Observations on the Indic Scripts” in _The Indic Scripts: Paleographic and Linguistic Perspecticves_ D.K. Printworld Ltd., New Delhi. ISBN 812460406-1 . p. 33. * ^ "The Unicode Standard, chapter 9, South Asian Scripts I" (PDF). _The Unicode Standard, v. 6.0_. Unicode, Inc. Retrieved Feb 12, 2012. * ^ The romanization shown is identical to IAST , except that ळ (which is not used in Sanskrit) has the ISO romanization ḷ, which in IAST is the dental vowel l. * ^ _A_ _B_ Stiel, Ulrich. "Devanagari-Schreibübungen" (PDF). _www.sanskritweb.net_. Retrieved 24 July 2017. * ^ Unicode Consortium, The Unicode Standard, Version 3.0, Volume 1, ISBN 978-0201616330 , Addison-Wesley, pages 221-223 * ^ Transliteration from Hindi Script to Meetei Mayek Watham and Vimal (2013), IJETR, page 550 * ^ Michael Shapiro (2014), The Devanagari Writing System in _A Primer of Modern Standard Hindi_, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120805088 , page 26 * ^ (Bahri 2004 , p. (xiii)) * ^ Akshar Unicode South Asia Language Resource, University of Chicago (2009) * ^ Annapurna SIL Unicode, SIL International (2013) * ^ Arial Unicode South Asia Language Resource, University of Chicago (2009) * ^ _A_ _B_ CDAC-GIST Surekh Unicode South Asia Language Resource, University of Chicago (2009) * ^ CDAC-GIST Yogesh South Asia Language Resource, University of Chicago (2009) * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Sanskrit Devanagari Fonts Harvard University (2010); see Chanda and Uttara ttf 2010 archive (Accessed: July 8, 2015) * ^ Gargi South Asia Language Resource, University of Chicago (2009) * ^ Gurumaa Unicode - a sans font KDE (2012) * ^ Jaipur South Asia Language Resource, University of Chicago (2009) * ^ Jana South Asia Language Resource, University of Chicago (2009) * ^ Kalimati South Asia Language Resource, University of Chicago (2009) * ^ Kanjirowa South Asia Language Resource, University of Chicago (2009) * ^ Mangal South Asia Language Resource, University of Chicago (2009) * ^ Raghu South Asia Language Resource, University of Chicago (2009) * ^ Sanskrit Ashram South Asia Language Resource, University of Chicago (2009) * ^ Thyaka South Asia Language Resource, University of Chicago (2009) * ^ Devanagari font Archived 2 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine . Unicode Standard 8.0 (2015) * ^ Daya Nand Sharma, _ Transliteration into Roman and Devanagari of the languages of the Indian group_, Survey of India, 1972, _... With the passage of time there has emerged a practically uniform system of transliteration of Devanagari and allied alphabets. Nevertheless, no single system of Romanisation has yet developed ..._ * ^ United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, _Technical reference manual for the standardisation of geographical names_, United Nations Publications, 2007, ISBN 978-92-1-161500-5 , _... ISO 15919 ... There is no evidence of the use of the system either in India or in international cartographic products ... The Hunterian system is the actually used national system of romanisation in India ..._ * ^ United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, _United Nations Regional Cartographic Conference for Asia and the Far East, Volume 2_, United Nations, 1955, _... In India the Hunterian system is used, whereby every sound in the local language is uniformly represented by a certain letter in the Roman alphabet ..._ * ^ National Library (India), _Indian scientific & technical publications, exhibition 1960: a bibliography_, Council of Scientific & Industrial Research, Government of India, 1960, _... The Hunterian system of transliteration, which has international acceptance, has been used ..._ * ^ _A_ _B_ Devanagari IAST conventions Script Source (2009), SIL International, United States * ^ _A_ _B_ Transliteration of Devanāgarī D. Wujastyk (1996) * ^ "LOC.gov". LOC.gov. Retrieved 2011-06-13. * ^ "0001.eps" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-06-13. * ^ "LOC.gov" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-06-13.

General references

* Masica, Colin (1991), _The Indo-Aryan Languages_, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-29944-2 . * Snell, Rupert (2000), _ Teach Yourself Beginner's Hindi Script_, Hodder & Stoughton, ISBN 978-0-07-141984-0 . * Salomon, Richard (2003), "Writing Systems of the Indo-Aryan Languages", in Cardona, George; Jain, Dhanesh, _The Indo-Aryan Languages_, Routledge, pp. 67–103, ISBN 978-0-415-77294-5 . * Verma, Sheela (2003), "Magahi", in Cardona, George; Jain, Dhanesh, _The Indo-Aryan Languages_, Routledge, pp. 498–514, ISBN 978-0-415-77294-5 . * Wikner, Charles (1996), _A Practical Sanskrit Introductory_ .

CENSUS AND CATALOGUES OF MANUSCRIPTS IN DEVANAGARI

Thousands of manuscripts of ancient and medieval era Sanskrit texts in Devanagari have been discovered since the 19th century. Major catalogues and census include:

* _A Catalogue of Sanskrit Manuscripts in Private Libraries_ at Google Books , Medical Hall Press, Princeton University Archive * _A Descriptive Catalogue of the Sanskrit Manuscripts_ at Google Books , Vol 1: Upanishads, Friedrich Otto Schrader (Compiler), University of Michigan Library Archives * A preliminary list of the Sanskrit and Prakrit manuscripts, Vedas, Sastras, Sutras, Schools of Hindu Philosophies, Arts, Design, Music and other fields, Friedrich Otto Schrader (Compiler), (Devanagiri manuscripts are identified by Character code DE.) * Catalogue of the Sanskrit Manuscripts, Part 1: Vedic Manuscripts, Harvard University Archives (mostly Devanagari) * Catalogue of the Sanskrit Manuscripts, Part 4: Manuscripts of Hindu schools of Philosophy and Tantra, Harvard University Archives (mostly Devanagari) * Catalogue of the Sanskrit Manuscripts, Part 5: Manuscripts of Medicine, Astronomy and Mathematics, Architecture and Technical Science Literature, Julius Eggeling (Compiler), Harvard University Archives (mostly Devanagari) * _Catalogue of the Sanskrit Manuscripts_ at Google Books , Part 6: Poetic, Epic and Purana Literature, Harvard University Archives (mostly Devanagari) * David Pingree (1970-1981), Census of the Exact Sciences in Sanskrit: Volumes 1 through 5, American Philosophical Society, Manuscripts in various Indic scripts including Devanagari

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: DEVANAGARI _

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to DEVANAGARI STROKE ORDER _ and _DEVANAGARI PRONUNCIATION _.

_ Wikivoyage has a travel guide for LEARNING DEVANAGARI _.

* Unicode Chart for Devanagari * Hindi/ Devanagari Script Tutor * Devnagari Unicode Legacy Font Converters * Digital Nagari fonts, University of Chicago * Devanagari in different fonts, Wazu, Japan (Alternate collection: Luc Devroye\'s comprehensive Indic Fonts, McGill University) * _Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency_, p. 30, at Google Books , Rudradaman’s inscription in Sanskrit Nagari script from 1st through 4th century CE (coins and epigraphy), found in Gujarat, India, pages 30–45 * Numerals and Text in Devanagari, 9th century temple in Gwalior Madhya Pradesh, India, Current Science * On the Name Devanāgarī, Walter H. Maurer (1976), Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 96, No. 1, pages 101-104

* v * t * e

Devanāgarī

* Abugida * Brahmic scripts * Inherent vowel

LANGUAGES

* Hindi (Hindustani ) * Marathi * Nepali * Pali * Konkani * Bodo * Maithili * Sindhi * Sanskrit _and more_

TRANSLITERATION

* IAST * Hunterian * National Library at Kolkata * ISO 15919 * Harvard-Kyoto * ITRANS * Velthuis * SLP1 * WX notation * ( ISCII )

Vowels and syllabic consonants

_a_ ॲ _æ_ (का) _ā_

(कि) _i_

(की) _ī_

(कु) _u_

(कू) _ū_ ॶ (कॖ) ॷ (कॗ)

(कृ) _r̥_

(कॄ) _r̥̄_

(कॢ) _l̥_

(कॣ) _l̥̄_

(के) _ē_ ऍ (कॅ) _ê_ (कॆ) _e_ (कै) _ai_ (कॕ) (कॎ)

(को) _ō_ (कॉ) _ô_ (कॊ) _o_ (कौ) _au_ ॳ (कऺ) ॴ (कऻ) ॵ (कॏ)

* Schwa deletion in Indo-Aryan languages

CONSONANTS

_k_ क़ _q_

_kh_ ख़ _k̲h̲_

_g_ ग़ _ġ_ ॻ _gg_

_gh_

_ṅ_

_c_

_ch_

_j_ ज़ _z_ ॼ _jj_ ॹ _ž_ _jh_ झ़ _zh_ _ñ_

_ṭ_

_ṭh_

_ḍ_ ड़ _ṛ_ ॾ _ḍḍ_ ॸ _ḍ_ _ḍh_ ढ़ _ṛh_ _ṇ_

_t_

_th_

_d_

_dh_

_n_ ऩ _ṉ_

_p_

_ph_ फ़ _f_

_b_

ॿ _bb_

_bh_

_m_

_y_ य़ _ẏ_

_r_ ऱ _ṟ_ _ḷ_ ऴ _ḻ_ _l_

_v_

_ś_

_ṣ_

_s_

_h_

* Consonant conjuncts

Diacritics , punctuation and other symbols

अं _ṁ_ (_anusvāra _) अ _ḥ_ (_visarga_) अ _m̐_ (_candrabindu_) अऀ (inverted _candrabindu_) _’_ (_avagraha_)

क़ (_nuqta_) क् (_virāma_) _3_ (_pluta_) ᳵ _ẖ_ (_jihvāmūlīya_) ᳶ _ḫ_ (_upadhmānīya_)

अ॑ _`_ (_svarita_) अ॒ (_anudātta_) अ॓ (grave) अ॔ (acute) ॐ _aum̐_

। (_daṇḍa_) ॥ (double _daṇḍa_) (_lāghava cihna_) ॱ (high spacing dot) ₹ INR (Indian rupee sign)

* Devanagari ( Unicode block) * Devanagari Extended * Vedic Extensions

NUMERALS

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

* Āryabhaṭa numeration * Akṣarapallī * Bhūtasaṃkhyā system * Kaṭapayādi system

* v * t * e

Hindi

* Grammar * Phonology * Devanagari * Braille * History * Vocabulary * Hindustani

VARIETIES

WESTERN

* Braj Bhasha * Bundeli * Haryanvi * Kannauji * Khari Boli (Registers : * Standard Hindi * Standard Urdu ) * Sansi Boli

EASTERN

* Awadhi * Bagheli * Bhojpuri * Caribbean Hindi * Chhattisgarhi * Fiji Hindi

PIDGINS AND CREOLES

* Bombay Hindi * Haflong Hindi * Hinglish

LANGUAGE POLITICS

* Anti- Hindi agitations of Karnataka * Anti- Hindi agitations of Tamil Nadu * Hindi-Urdu controversy * Punjabi Suba movement

GLOBAL ORGANIZATIONS

* World Hindi Secretariat * World Hindi Conference * Hindi Divas

ARTS

* Literature * Awards * Sahitya Akademi Award * Jnanpith Award * Cinema * Music * Writers * Poets

* v * t * e

Sanskrit

* Grammar * Drama * Epics * Literature * Poetry * Prosody * Sanskrit * Sanskrit Wikisource

IMPORTANT TOPICS IN SANSKRIT LITERATURE

* Vedic Sanskrit * Vyākaraṇa * Sanskrit grammar * Sanskrit revival * Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit * List of Sanskrit poets

SANSKRIT AS PER SCRIPT

* Devanagari

IMPORTANT CATEGORIES IN SANSKRIT LITERATURE

* Literature * Writers * plays * Poetry * Operas * Dictionaries * Encyclopedias

* v * t * e

Marathi

* Grammar * Phonology * Literature * Poetry * Samyukta Maharashtra Movement * Maharashtra State * Marathi

MARATHI LANGUAGE AS PER LOCATION

* EAST INDIANS of Mumbai * Puneri * Kolhapuri * Satari * Nagari * Malvani * Thanjavur Marathi

MARATHI AS PER BOLI

* Jhadi Boli * Varhadi Boli * Ahirani Boli * Khandeshi Boli * Konkani Boli * Vadvali Boli * Samavedi Boli * Southern Indian Marathi Boli * Dangii Boli * Judæo Boli * Deshi Boli

MARATHI SCRIPTS

* Balbodh style of Devanagari * Braille * Modi * Marathi romanization

OTHER

* Marathi Cinema * Marathi theatre * Literature * Marathi people (List )

LANGUAGE POLITICS

* Anti-Marathi agitations of Karnataka

ARTS

* Awards * Sahitya Akademi Award * Jnanpith Award * Writers * Poets * National Film Award * Maharashtra

* v * t * e

Types of writing systems

OVERVIEW

* History of writing * Grapheme

LISTS

* Writing systems

* undeciphered * inventors * constructed

* Languages by writing system / by first written accounts

TYPES

ABJADS

* _Numerals _

* Aramaic

* Hatran

* Arabic * Pitman shorthand

* Hebrew

* Ashuri * Cursive * Rashi * Solitreo

* Libyco-Berber * Manichaean * Nabataean * Old North Arabian * Pahlavi * Pegon

* Phoenician

* Paleo-Hebrew

* Proto-Sinaitic * Psalter * Punic * Samaritan

* South Arabian

* Zabur * Musnad

* Sogdian

* Syriac

* ʾEsṭrangēlā * Serṭā * Maḏnḥāyā

* Teeline Shorthand * Ugaritic

ABUGIDAS

BRAHMIC

NORTHERN

* Asamiya (Ôxômiya) * Bānglā * Bhaikshuki * Bhujinmol * Brāhmī * Devanāgarī * Dogra * Gujarati * Gupta * Gurmukhī * Kaithi * Kalinga * Khojki * Khotanese * Khudawadi * Laṇḍā * Lepcha * Limbu * Mahajani * Marchen * Marchung * Meitei Mayek * Modi * Multani * Nāgarī * Nandinagari * Odia * \'Phags-pa * Newar * Pungs-chen * Pungs-chung * Ranjana * Sharada * Saurashtra * Siddhaṃ * Soyombo * Sylheti Nagari * Takri

* Tibetan

* Uchen * Umê

* Tirhuta * Tocharian * Zanabazar Square

SOUTHERN

* Ahom * Balinese * Batak * Baybayin * Bhattiprolu * Buhid * Burmese * Chakma * Cham * Grantha * Goykanadi * Hanunó\'o * Javanese * Kadamba * Kannada * Kawi * Khmer * Kulitan * Lanna * Lao * Leke * Lontara * Malayalam

* Maldivian

* Dhives Akuru * Eveyla Akuru * Thaana

* Mon * Old Sundanese * Pallava * Pyu * Rejang * Rencong * Sinhala * Sundanese * Tagbanwa * Tai Le * Tai Tham * Tai Viet * Tamil * Telugu * Thai * Tigalari

* Vatteluttu

* Kolezhuthu * Malayanma

* Visayan

OTHERS

* Boyd\'s syllabic shorthand

* Canadian syllabics

* Blackfoot * Déné syllabics

* Fox I * Ge\'ez * Gunjala Gondi * Japanese Braille * Jenticha * Kayah Li * Kharosthi * Mandombe * Masaram Gondi * Meroitic * Miao * Mwangwego * Sorang Sompeng * Pahawh Hmong * Thomas Natural Shorthand

ALPHABETS

LINEAR

* Abkhaz * Adlam * Armenian * Avestan * Avoiuli * Bassa Vah * Borama * Carian * Caucasian Albanian * Coorgi–Cox alphabet * Coptic * Cyrillic * Deseret

* Duployan shorthand

* Chinook writing

* Early Cyrillic * Eclectic shorthand * Elbasan * Etruscan * Evenki * Fox II * Fraser * Gabelsberger shorthand * Garay

* Georgian

* Asomtavruli * Nuskhuri * Mkhedruli

* Glagolitic * Gothic * Gregg shorthand * Greek * Greco-Iberian alphabet * Hangul * IPA * Kaddare

* Latin

* Beneventan * Blackletter * Carolingian minuscule * Fraktur * Gaelic * Insular * Kurrent * Merovingian * Sigla * Sütterlin * Tironian notes * Visigothic

* Luo * Lycian * Lydian * Manchu * Mandaic * Molodtsov * Mongolian * Mru * Neo-Tifinagh * New Tai Lue * N\'Ko * Ogham * Oirat * Ol Chiki * Old Hungarian * Old Italic * Old Permic * Orkhon * Old Uyghur * Osage * Osmanya * Pau Cin Hau * Rohingya Hanifi

* Runic

* Anglo-Saxon * Cipher * Dalecarlian * Elder Futhark * Younger Futhark * Gothic * Marcomannic * Medieval * Staveless

* Sidetic * Shavian * Somali * Tifinagh * Vagindra * Visible Speech * Vithkuqi * Zaghawa

NON-LINEAR

* Braille * Maritime flags * Morse code * New York Point * Semaphore line * Flag semaphore * Moon type

IDEOGRAMS /PICTOGRAMS

* Adinkra * Aztec * Blissymbol * Dongba * Ersu Shaba * Emoji * IConji * Isotype * Kaidā * Míkmaq * Mixtec * New Epoch Notation Painting * Nsibidi * Ojibwe Hieroglyphs * Siglas poveiras * Testerian * Yerkish * Zapotec

LOGOGRAMS

CHINESE FAMILY OF SCRIPTS

CHINESE CHARACTERS

* Simplified * Traditional * Oracle bone script * Bronze Script

* Seal Script

* large * small * bird-worm

* Hanja * Idu * Kanji * Chữ nôm * Zhuang

CHINESE-INFLUENCED

* Jurchen * Khitan large script * Sui * Tangut

CUNEIFORM

* Akkadian * Assyrian * Elamite * Hittite * Luwian * Sumerian

OTHER LOGO-SYLLABIC

* Anatolian * Bagam * Cretan * Isthmian * Maya * Proto-Elamite * Yi (Classical)

LOGO-CONSONANTAL

* Demotic * Hieratic * Hieroglyphs

NUMERALS

* Hindu-Arabic * Abjad * Attic (Greek) * Muisca * Roman

SEMI-SYLLABARIES

FULL

* Celtiberian * Northeastern Iberian * Southeastern Iberian * Khom

REDUNDANT

* Espanca * Pahawh Hmong * Khitan small script * Southwest Paleohispanic * Zhùyīn fúhào

SOMACHEIROGRAMS

* ASLwrite * SignWriting * si5s * Stokoe Notation

SYLLABARIES

* Afaka * Bamum * Bété * Byblos * Cherokee * Cypriot * Cypro-Minoan * Eskayan * Geba * Great Lakes Algonquian syllabics * Iban

* Japanese

* Hiragana * Katakana * Man\'yōgana * Hentaigana * Sogana * Jindai moji

* Kikakui * Kpelle * Linear B * Linear Elamite * Lisu * Loma * Nüshu * Nwagu Aneke script * Old Persian Cuneiform * Vai * Woleai * Yi (Modern) * Yugtun

* v * t * e

Braille ⠃⠗⠁⠊⠇⠇⠑

BRAILLE CELL

* 1829 braille * International uniformity * ASCII braille * Unicode braille patterns

BRAILLE SCRIPTS

French-ordered scripts (see for more)

* Albanian * Amharic * Arabic * Armenian * Azerbaijani * Belarusian

* Bharati

* Devanagari ( Hindi / Marathi / Nepali) * Bengali * Punjabi * Sinhalese * Tamil * Urdu * _etc. _

* Bulgarian * Burmese * Cambodian * Cantonese * Catalan * Chinese (Mandarin, mainland) * Czech * Dutch * Dzongkha (Bhutanese) * English (Unified English ) * Esperanto * Estonian * Faroese * French * Georgian * German * Ghanaian * Greek * Guarani * Hawaiian * Hebrew * Hungarian * Icelandic * Inuktitut (reassigned vowels) * Iñupiaq * IPA * Irish * Italian * Kazakh * Kyrgyz * Latvian * Lithuanian * Maltese * Mongolian * Māori * Nigerian * Northern Sami * Persian * Philippine * Polish * Portuguese * Romanian * Russian * Samoan * Scandinavian * Slovak * South African * Spanish * Tatar * Taiwanese Mandarin (largely reassigned) * Thai border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* Algerian Braille (obsolete)

FREQUENCY-BASED SCRIPTS

* American Braille (obsolete)

INDEPENDENT SCRIPTS

* Japanese * Korean * Two-Cell