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The "Deutschlandlied" (English: "Song of Germany", German pronunciation: [ˈdɔʏtʃlantˌliːt]; also known as "Das Lied der Deutschen", or "The Song of the Germans"), or part of it, has been the national anthem of Germany
Germany
since 1922, except in East Germany, whose anthem was "Auferstanden aus Ruinen" ("Risen from Ruins") from 1949 to 1990. Since World War II
World War II
and the fall of Nazi Germany, only the third stanza has been used as the national anthem. The stanza's beginning, "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit" ("Unity and Justice and Freedom") is considered the unofficial national motto of Germany,[1] and is inscribed on modern German Army belt buckles and the rims of some German coins. The music is the hymn "Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser", written in 1797 by the Austrian composer Joseph Haydn
Joseph Haydn
as an anthem for the birthday of Francis II, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
and later of Austria. In 1841, the German linguist and poet August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben
Fallersleben
wrote the lyrics of "Das Lied der Deutschen" as a new text for that music, counterposing the national unification of Germany to the eulogy of a monarch, lyrics that were considered revolutionary at the time. The song is also well known by the beginning and refrain of the first stanza, "Deutschland, Deutschland über alles" ("Germany, Germany above all else"), but this has never been its title. The line "Germany, Germany
Germany
above all else" meant that the most important goal of 19th-century German liberal revolutionaries should be a unified Germany
Germany
which would overcome loyalties to the local kingdoms, principalities, duchies and palatines (Kleinstaaterei) of then-fragmented Germany.[2] Along with the flag of Germany, it was one of the symbols of the March Revolution of 1848. In order to endorse its republican and liberal tradition, the song was chosen as the national anthem of Germany
Germany
in 1922, during the Weimar Republic. West Germany
Germany
adopted the "Deutschlandlied" as its official national anthem in 1952 for similar reasons, with only the third stanza sung on official occasions. Upon German reunification
German reunification
in 1990, only the third stanza was confirmed as the national anthem.

Contents

1 Melody 2 Historical background 3 Hoffmann's lyrics 4 Lyrics and translation 5 Use before 1922 6 Official adoption 7 Use after World War II 8 Criticisms

8.1 Geographical 8.2 Textual 8.3 Modern use of the first stanza

9 Variants and additions

9.1 Additional or alternative stanzas 9.2 Notable performances and recordings

10 References 11 External links

Melody[edit]

Portrait of Haydn by Thomas Hardy, 1792

Main article: Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser The melody of the "Deutschlandlied" was written by Joseph Haydn
Joseph Haydn
in 1797 to provide music to the poem "Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser" ("God save Franz the Emperor") by Lorenz Leopold Haschka. The song was a birthday anthem honouring Francis II (1768–1835), Habsburg emperor, and was intended as a parallel to Great Britain's "God Save the King". Haydn's work is sometimes called the "Emperor's Hymn." It has been conjectured that Haydn took the first four measures of the melody from a Croatian folk song.[3] This hypothesis has never achieved unanimous agreement; the alternative theory reverses the direction of transmission, positing that Haydn's melody was adapted as a folk tune. For further discussion see Haydn and folk music. Haydn later used the hymn as the basis for the second movement (poco adagio cantabile) of his Opus 76 No. 3, a string quartet, often called the "Emperor" or "Kaiser" quartet. Historical background[edit] Main article: Unification of Germany The Holy Roman Empire, stemming from the Middle Ages, was already disintegrating when the French Revolution
French Revolution
and the ensuing Napoleonic Wars altered the political map of Central Europe. However, hopes for the Enlightenment, human rights and republican government after Napoleon I's defeat in 1815 were dashed when the Congress of Vienna reinstated many small German principalities. In addition, with the Carlsbad Decrees
Carlsbad Decrees
of 1819, Austrian Chancellor Klemens von Metternich and his secret police enforced censorship, mainly in universities, to keep a watch on the activities of teachers and students, whom he held responsible for the spread of radical liberalist ideas. Since reactionaries among the monarchs were the main adversaries, demands for freedom of the press and other liberal rights were most often uttered in connection with the demand for a united Germany, even though many revolutionaries-to-be had different opinions about whether a republic or a constitutional monarchy would be the best solution for Germany. The German Confederation
German Confederation
(Deutscher Bund 1815–1866) was a loose federation of 35 monarchical states and four republican free cities, with a Federal Assembly in Frankfurt. They began to remove internal customs barriers during the Industrial Revolution, and the German Customs Union (Zollverein) was formed among the majority of the states in 1834. In 1840 Hoffmann wrote a song about the Zollverein, also to Haydn's melody, in which he praised the free trade of German goods which brought Germans
Germans
and Germany
Germany
closer.[4] After the 1848 March Revolution, the German Confederation
German Confederation
handed over its authority to the Frankfurt Parliament. For a short period in the late 1840s, Germany
Germany
was economically united with the borders described in the anthem, and a democratic constitution was being drafted, and with the black-red-gold flag representing it. However, after 1849 the two largest German monarchies, Prussia and Austria, put an end to this liberal movement toward national unification. Hoffmann's lyrics[edit]

August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben
August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben
in 1841

August Heinrich Hoffmann (who called himself Hoffmann von Fallersleben after his home town to distinguish himself from others with the same common name of "Hoffmann") wrote the text in 1841 on holiday on the North Sea
North Sea
island of Heligoland, then a possession of the United Kingdom (now part of Germany). Hoffmann von Fallersleben
Fallersleben
intended "Das Lied der Deutschen" to be sung to Haydn's tune, as the first publication of the poem included the music. The first line, "Deutschland, Deutschland über alles, über alles in der Welt" (usually translated into English as "Germany, Germany
Germany
above all else, above all else in the world"), was an appeal to the various German monarchs to give the creation of a united Germany
Germany
a higher priority than the independence of their small states. In the third stanza, with a call for "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit" (unity and justice and freedom), Hoffmann expressed his desire for a united and free Germany
Germany
where the rule of law, not monarchical arbitrariness, would prevail.[5] In the era after the Congress of Vienna, influenced by Metternich
Metternich
and his secret police, Hoffmann's text had a distinctly revolutionary and at the same time liberal connotation, since the appeal for a united Germany
Germany
was most often made in connection with demands for freedom of the press and other civil rights. Its implication that loyalty to a larger Germany
Germany
should replace loyalty to one's local sovereign was then a revolutionary idea. The year after he wrote "Das Deutschlandlied", Hoffmann lost his job as a librarian and professor in Breslau, Prussia (now Wrocław, Poland), because of this and other revolutionary works, and was forced into hiding until being pardoned after the revolutions of 1848 in the German states. Lyrics and translation[edit]

Deustchlandlied (all verses)

Only the third stanza is now Germany's national anthem.[6]

Deutschland, Deutschland über alles, Über alles in der Welt, Wenn es stets zu Schutz und Trutze Brüderlich zusammenhält. Von der Maas bis an die Memel, Von der Etsch bis an den Belt,  : Deutschland, Deutschland über alles,   Über alles in der Welt! :

Germany, Germany
Germany
above all, Above all in the world, When, for protection and defense, It always stands brotherly together. From the Meuse
Meuse
to the Neman, From the Adige
Adige
to the Belt,  : Germany, Germany
Germany
above all,   Above all in the world! :

Deutsche Frauen, deutsche Treue, Deutscher Wein und deutscher Sang Sollen in der Welt behalten Ihren alten schönen Klang, Uns zu edler Tat begeistern Unser ganzes Leben lang.  : Deutsche Frauen, deutsche Treue,   Deutscher Wein und deutscher Sang! :

German women, German loyalty, German wine
German wine
and German song Shall retain in the world Their old beautiful chime And inspire us to noble deeds During all of our life.  : German women, German loyalty,   German wine
German wine
and German song! :

Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit Für das deutsche Vaterland! Danach lasst uns alle streben Brüderlich mit Herz und Hand! Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit Sind des Glückes Unterpfand;  : Blüh' im Glanze dieses Glückes,   Blühe, deutsches Vaterland! :

Unity and justice and freedom For the German fatherland! Towards these let us all strive Brotherly with heart and hand! Unity and justice and freedom Are the foundation of happiness;  : Flourish in the radiance of this happiness,   Flourish, German fatherland! :

Use before 1922[edit] The melody of the "Deutschlandlied" was originally written by Joseph Haydn in 1797 to provide music to the poem "Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser" ("God save Franz the Emperor") by Lorenz Leopold Haschka. The song was a birthday anthem to Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor
Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor
of the House of Habsburg, and was intended to rival in merit the British "God Save the King". After the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
in 1806, "Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser" became the official anthem of the emperor of the Austrian Empire. After the death of Francis II new lyrics were composed in 1854, Gott erhalte, Gott beschütze, that mentioned the Emperor, but not by name. With those new lyrics, the song continued to be the anthem of Imperial Austria and later of Austria-Hungary. Austrian monarchists continued to use this anthem after 1918 in the hope of restoring the monarchy. The adoption of the Austrian anthem's melody by Germany
Germany
in 1922 was not opposed by Austria. "Das Lied der Deutschen" was not played at an official ceremony until Germany
Germany
and the United Kingdom had agreed on the Heligoland–Zanzibar Treaty in 1890, when it appeared only appropriate to sing it at the ceremony on the now officially German island of Heligoland. During the time of the German Empire
German Empire
it became one of the most widely known patriotic songs. The song became very popular after the 1914 Battle of Langemarck during World War I, when, supposedly, several German regiments, consisting mostly of students no older than 20, attacked the British lines on the Western front singing the song, suffering heavy casualties. They are buried in the Langemark German war cemetery
Langemark German war cemetery
in Belgium. The official report of the army embellished the event as one of young German soldiers heroically sacrificing their lives for the Fatherland. In reality the untrained troops were sent out to attack the British trenches and were mown down by machine guns and rifle fire. This report, also known as the "Langemarck Myth", was printed on the first page in newspapers all over Germany. It is doubtful whether the soldiers would have sung the song in the first place: carrying heavy equipment, they might have found it difficult to run at high speed toward enemy lines while singing the slow song. Nonetheless, the story was widely repeated.[7] Official adoption[edit] The melody used by the "Deutschlandlied" was still in use as the anthem of the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Austro-Hungarian Empire
until its demise in 1918. On 11 August 1922, German President Friedrich Ebert, a Social Democrat, made the Deutschlandlied
Deutschlandlied
the official German national anthem. In 1919 the black, red and gold tricolour, the colours of the 19th century liberal revolutionaries advocated by the political left and centre, was adopted (rather than the previous black, white and red of Imperial Germany). Thus, in a political trade-off, the conservative right was granted a nationalistic anthem – though Ebert advocated using only the anthem's third stanza (which was done after World War II).[6] During the Nazi era, only the first stanza was used, followed by the SA song "Horst-Wessel-Lied".[8] The anthem was played at occasions of great national significance such as the opening of the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin when Hitler
Hitler
and his entourage, along with Olympic officials, walked into the stadium amid a chorus of three thousand Germans
Germans
singing "Deutschland, Deutschland über alles". In this way, the first verse of the anthem became closely identified with the Nazi regime.[9] Use after World War II[edit] After its founding in 1949, West Germany
Germany
did not have a national anthem for official events for some years, despite the growing need for the purpose of diplomatic procedures. In lieu of an official national anthem, popular German songs such as the Trizonesien-Song, a carnival song mocking the occupying Allied powers, were used at some sporting events. Different musical compositions were discussed or used, such as the fourth movement of Ludwig van Beethoven's Ninth Symphony, which is a musical setting of Friedrich von Schiller's poem "An die Freude" ("Ode To Joy"). Though the black, red and gold colours of the national flag had been incorporated into Article 22 of the (West) German constitution, a national anthem was not specified. On 29 April 1952, Chancellor Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
asked President Theodor Heuss in a letter to accept "Das Lied der Deutschen" as the national anthem, with only the third stanza being sung on official occasions. President Heuss agreed to this on 2 May 1952. This exchange of letters was published in the Bulletin of the Federal Government. Since it was viewed as the traditional right of the President as head of state to set the symbols of the state, the "Deutschlandlied" thus became the national anthem.[10] Meanwhile, East Germany
Germany
adopted its own national anthem, "Auferstanden aus Ruinen" ("Risen from Ruins"). As the lyrics of this anthem called for "Germany, united Fatherland", they were no longer officially used, from about 1972,[11] after the DDR abandoned its goal of uniting Germany
Germany
under communism. With slight adaptations, the lyrics of "Auferstanden aus Ruinen" can be sung to the melody of the "Deutschlandlied" and vice versa. When West Germany
Germany
won the 1954 FIFA World Cup Final
1954 FIFA World Cup Final
in Bern, Switzerland, the lyrics of the first stanza dominated when the crowd sang along,[citation needed] to celebrate the surprise victory that was later dubbed Miracle of Bern, but the soccer players did not sing the anthem due to not wanting to provoke trouble. The anthem had not been widely used then, and older people simply sang the first stanza which they knew from earlier times.[citation needed] In the 1974 FIFA World Cup in their home country, West German soccer players remained silent and did not sing their anthem since their victory in 1954. [12] In the 1970s and 80s, efforts were made by conservatives in Germany
Germany
to reclaim all three stanzas for the anthem. The Christian Democratic Union of Baden-Württemberg, for instance, attempted twice (in 1985 and 1986) to require German high school students to study all three stanzas, and in 1989 CDU politician Christean Wagner decreed that all high school students in Hesse
Hesse
were to memorise the three stanzas.[13] On 7 March 1990, months before reunification, the Constitutional Court declared only the third stanza of Hoffmann's poem to be legally protected as a national anthem under German penitential law; Section 90a of the Criminal Code (Strafgesetzbuch) makes defamation of the national anthem a crime – but does not specify what the national anthem is.[14] (This did not mean that stanzas one and two were not – at that time – part of the anthem at all, but that their peculiar status as "part of the anthem but unsung" disqualified them for penal law protection because the penal law must be interpreted in the narrowest manner possible, and was not explicit in their regard.) In November 1991, President Richard von Weizsäcker
Richard von Weizsäcker
and Chancellor Helmut Kohl
Helmut Kohl
agreed in an exchange of letters to declare the third stanza alone to be the national anthem of the enlarged republic.[15] Hence, effective since then, the national anthem of Germany
Germany
is unmistakably the third stanza of the Deutschlandlied, and only this stanza, with Haydn's music.

The word "FREIHEIT" (freedom) on Germany's 2-Euro coin

The opening line of the third stanza, "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit" ("Unity and Justice and Freedom"), is widely considered to be the national motto of Germany, although it was never officially proclaimed as such. It appears on Bundeswehr
Bundeswehr
soldiers' belt buckles (replacing the earlier "Gott mit uns" ("God with Us") of the Imperial German Army and the Nazi-era Wehrmacht). "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit" appeared on the rim of 2 and 5 Deutsche Mark
Deutsche Mark
coins and is present on 2 Euro coins
Euro coins
minted in Germany. Criticisms[edit] Geographical[edit]

German linguistic area (green) and political boundaries around 1841 (grey) in comparison to the text’s geographic references (bold blue)

The first verse, which is no longer part of the national anthem and is not sung on official occasions, names three rivers and one strait – the Meuse
Meuse
(Maas in German), Adige
Adige
(Etsch) and Neman (Memel) Rivers and the Little Belt
Little Belt
strait – as the boundaries of what the author viewed as Deutschtum. These geographical references have been variously criticized as irredentist or misleading.[16] Of these the Meuse
Meuse
and the Adige
Adige
were parts of the German Confederation
German Confederation
during the time when the song was composed. The Belt (strait) and the Neman later became actual boundaries of Germany
Germany
(the Belt until 1920, the Neman until 1945), whereas the Meuse
Meuse
and Adige
Adige
were not parts of the Deutsches Reich as of 1871. Today, no part of any of the four places mentioned in the "Deutschlandlied" lies in Germany. In an ethnic sense, none of these places formed a distinct ethnic border. The Duchy of Schleswig
Schleswig
(to which the Belt refers) was inhabited by both Germans
Germans
and Danes, with the Danes forming a clear majority near the strait. Around the Adige
Adige
there was a mix of German, Venetian and Gallo-Italian
Gallo-Italian
speakers, and the area around the Neman was not homogeneously German, but also accommodated Lithuanians. The Meuse (if taken as referencing the Duchy of Limburg, nominally part of the German Confederation
German Confederation
for 28 years due to the political consequences of the Belgian Revolution), was ethnically Dutch with few Germans. Nevertheless, such nationalistic rhetoric was relatively common in 19th-century public discourse. For example: Georg Herwegh
Georg Herwegh
in his poem "The German Fleet" (1841),[17] gives the Germans
Germans
as the people "between the Po and the Sund (Øresund)," and in 1832 Philipp Jakob Siebenpfeiffer, a noted journalist, declared at the Hambach Festival that he considered all "between the Alps
Alps
and the North Sea" to be Deutschtum.[18] Textual[edit] Despite the text and tune of the song being quite peaceful compared to some other national anthems, the song has frequently been criticised for its generally nationalistic tone, the immodest geographic definition of Germany
Germany
given in the first stanza, and the alleged male-chauvinistic attitude in the second stanza.[19][20] A relatively early critic was Friedrich Nietzsche, who called the grandiose claim in the first stanza ("Deutschland über alles") "die blödsinnigste Parole der Welt" (the most idiotic slogan in the world), and in Thus Spoke Zarathustra said, "Deutschland, Deutschland über alles – I fear that was the end of German philosophy."[19] The pacifist Kurt Tucholsky was also negative about the song, and in 1929 published a photo book sarcastically titled Deutschland, Deutschland über alles, criticising right-wing groups in Germany. German grammar distinguishes between über alles, i.e. above all else [for me], and über allen, meaning "above everyone else." However, the latter misleading translation was chosen by the Allies during both World Wars for propaganda purposes.[21] Modern use of the first stanza[edit] German president Theodor Heuss, upon request from chancellor Konrad Adenauer, declared the Lied der Deutschen the national anthem of the German Federal Republic in May 1952, along with the provision that only the third verse was to be sung at official occasions.[22] The declaration was a compromise between Heuss, who wanted to retain only the third verse, and the Cabinet's wish to keep the first two verses. As a result, the Lied (implicitly in its entirety) was declared the national anthem, with the provision that the third verse would have precedence.[23] As described above, this changed in 1991; since that date, the first and second stanza are no longer "part of the anthem but unsung officially", but nothing more (or less) than stanzas of a song written by a German poet to a well-known tune which people may well sing if the fit to do so comes over them (the idea which is sometimes encountered that they have been forbidden is wrong), but without any official status at all. In 1977, German pop singer Heino
Heino
produced a record of the song, including all three verses, for use in primary schools in Baden-Württemberg. The inclusion of the first two verses was met with criticism at the time.[24] After German Reunification
German Reunification
in 1990, the German national anthem was redefined as the third verse of the song only.[25] The first two verses are therefore no longer part of the national anthem, and the performance of the first verse in some cases been portrayed as controversial. In 2009, Pete Doherty
Pete Doherty
was supposed to sing the German national anthem live on radio at Bayerischer Rundfunk
Bayerischer Rundfunk
in Munich. As he sang the first verse, he was booed by the audience.[26] Three days later Doherty's spokesperson declared that the singer was "not aware of the historical background and regrets the misunderstanding". A spokesperson for Bayerischer Rundfunk
Bayerischer Rundfunk
welcomed the response, stating that otherwise further cooperation with Doherty would not have been possible.[27] When the first verse was played as the German national anthem at the canoe sprint world championships in Hungary in August 2011, German athletes were reportedly "appalled".[28] Eurosport, under the headline of 'Nazi anthem', erroneously reported that "the first stanza of the piece [was] banned in 1952."[29] Similarly, in 2017 the first verse of the anthem was mistakenly sung by Will Kimble, a U.S. soloist, during the welcome ceremony of the Fed Cup tennis match between Andrea Petkovic
Andrea Petkovic
(Germany) and Alison Riske (U.S.) at the Center Court in Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii. In an unsuccessful attempt to drown out the soloist, German tennis players and fans started to sing the third verse instead.[30] Variants and additions[edit] Additional or alternative stanzas[edit] Hoffmann von Fallersleben
Fallersleben
also intended the text to be used as a drinking song; the second stanza's toast to German women and wine are typical of this genre.[citation needed] The original Heligoland manuscript included a variant ending of the third stanza for such occasions:

Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit Für das deutsche Vaterland! Danach lasst uns alle streben Brüderlich mit Herz und Hand! Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit Sind des Glückes Unterpfand;  : Stoßet an und ruft einstimmig,  Hoch, das deutsche Vaterland. :

Unity and justice and freedom For the German fatherland; This let us all pursue, Brotherly with heart and hand. Unity and justice and freedom Are the pledge of fortune.  : Lift your glasses and shout together,  Prosper, German fatherland. :

An alternative version called "Kinderhymne" (Children's Hymn) was written by Bertolt Brecht
Bertolt Brecht
shortly after his return from American exile to a war-ravaged, bankrupt and geographically smaller Germany
Germany
at the end of World War II
World War II
and set to music by Hanns Eisler
Hanns Eisler
in the same year. It gained some currency after the 1990 unification of Germany, with a number of prominent Germans
Germans
opting for his "antihymn" to be made official:[31]

Anmut sparet nicht noch Mühe Leidenschaft nicht noch Verstand Dass ein gutes Deutschland blühe Wie ein andres gutes Land.

Dass die Völker nicht erbleichen Wie vor einer Räuberin Sondern ihre Hände reichen Uns wie andern Völkern hin.

Und nicht über und nicht unter Andern Völkern wolln wir sein Von der See bis zu den Alpen Von der Oder bis zum Rhein.

Und weil wir dies Land verbessern Lieben und beschirmen wir's Und das Liebste mag's uns scheinen So wie anderen Völkern ihr's.

Grace spare not and spare no labour Passion nor intelligence That a decent German nation Flourish as do other lands.

That the people give up flinching At the crimes which we evoke And hold out their hand in friendship As they do to other folk.

Neither over or yet under Other peoples will we be From the Oder to the Rhineland, From the Alps
Alps
to the North Sea.

And because we'll make it better Let us guard and love our home Love it as our dearest country As the others love their own.

Notable performances and recordings[edit] Max Reger
Max Reger
quotes the tune in the final section of his organ pieces Sieben Stücke, Op. 145, composed in 1915/16 when it was a patriotic song but not yet a national anthem. The German musician Nico
Nico
sometimes performed the national anthem at concerts and dedicated it to militant Andreas Baader, leader of the Red Army Faction.[32] She included a version of "Das Lied der Deutschen" on her 1974 album The End.... In 2006, the Slovenian "industrial" band Laibach incorporated Hoffmann's lyrics in a song titled "Germania", on the album Volk, which contains fourteen songs with adaptations of national anthems.[33][34] Performing the song in Germany
Germany
in 2009, the band cited the first stanza in the closing refrain, while on a video screen images were shown of a German city bombed during World War II.[35] References[edit]

^ The Complete Guide to National Symbols and Emblems, James Minahan, Google Books ^ Toeche-Mittler, Joachim; Probst, Werner (2013). Dean, Antony; Mantle, Robert; Murray, David; Smart, David, eds. Tunes of Blood & Iron: German Regimental and Parade Marches from the Age of Frederick the Great to the Present Day. 1. Translated by Dean, Antony; Mantle, Robert; Murray, David; Smart, David. Solihull, England: Helion & Company Limited. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-909384-23-1.  ^ Excerpt from Notes Toward the Study of Joseph Haydn
Joseph Haydn
by Sir William H. Hadow, London (1897, reprinted New York, 1971) ^ "Schwefelhölzer, Fenchel, Bricken (Der deutsche Zollverein)". www.von-fallersleben.de (in German). Retrieved 27 June 2010.  ^ Bareth, Nadja (February 2005). "Staatssymbole Zeichen politischer Gemeinschaft". Blickpunt Bundestag
Bundestag
(in German). Archived from the original on 6 September 2011. Retrieved 1 December 2009.  ^ a b Geisler, Michael E. (2005). National symbols, fractured identities: Contesting the national narrative. UPNE. p. 70. ISBN 978-1-58465-437-7. Retrieved 25 February 2014.  ^ Mosse, George L. (1991). Fallen Soldiers: Reshaping the Memory of the World Wars. Oxford University Press. pp. 70–73. ISBN 978-0-19-507139-9. Retrieved 25 February 2014.  ^ Geisler, p.71. ^ "The Triumph of Hitler". The History Place. 2001. Retrieved 9 September 2012.  ^ "Briefwechsel zur Nationalhymne 1952". Bundesministerium des Innern (in German). 6 May 1952. Retrieved 1 December 2009.  ^ Dreesen, Philipp (2015). Diskursgrenzen: Typen und Funktionen sprachlichen Widerstands auf den Straßen der DDR [Boundaries of discourse: Types and functions of linguistic resistance on the streets of the GDR]. De Gruyter. p. 135. ISBN 9783110365573.  ^ Mister X (2016-02-25), RFA 74 RFA-RDA 0-1, retrieved 2018-01-22  ^ Geisler, p. 72. ^ "Case: BVerfGE 81, 298 1 BvR 1215/87 German National Anthem – decision". Institute for Transnational Law – Foreign Law Translations. University of Texas School of Law
University of Texas School of Law
/ Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft. 7 March 1990. Retrieved 18 January 2015.  ^ Bundespräsidialamt. "Repräsentation und Integration" (in German). Retrieved 24 May 2013. Nach Herstellung der staatlichen Einheit Deutschlands bestimmte Bundespräsident von Weizsäcker in einem Briefwechsel mit Bundeskanzler Helmut Kohl
Helmut Kohl
im Jahr 1991 die dritte Strophe zur Nationalhymne für das deutsche Volk.  ^ A History of Modern Germany: 1800 to the Present (2011) M. Kitchen. ^ "Die deutsche Flotte" (1841), Ein Volk vom Po gehorchet bis zum Sunde ^ Music and German National Identity (2002) by C. Applegate. pp. 254 ^ a b Malzahn, Claus Christian (24 June 2006). "Deutsche Nationalhymne: 'Die blödsinnigste Parole der Welt'". Der Spiegel
Der Spiegel
(in German). Retrieved 1 December 2009.  ^ " Germans
Germans
Stop Humming, Start Singing National Anthem". Deutsche Welle. 24 June 2006. Retrieved 2 March 2010.  ^ Ponsonby, Arthur (1928). Falsehood in War Time: Containing an Assortment of Lies Circulated Throughout the Nations During the Great War (Chapter 11). George Allen and Unwin, London. ISBN 1162798653.  ^ Briefwechsel zur Nationalhymne von 1952, Abdruck aus dem Bulletin der Bundesregierung Nr. 51/S. 537 vom 6. Mai 1952. ^ Das Deutschlandlied
Deutschlandlied
ist Nationalhymne. Ein Briefwechsel zwischen Bundespräsident Theodor Heuss
Theodor Heuss
und Bundeskanzler Konrad Adenauer. Bulletin des Presse- und Informationsamtes der Bundesregierung, Nr. 51 vom 6. Mai 1952, S. 537. ^ Michael Jeismann: "Die Nationalhymne". In: Etienne Francois, Hagen Schulze (ed.): Deutsche Erinnerungsorte. Vol. III. C.H. Beck, München 2001, ISBN 3-406-47224-9, p. 663. "Natürliches Verhältnis. Deutschlandlied
Deutschlandlied
– dritte oder/und erste Strophe?", Die Zeit, 31 March 1978. ^ Bulletin des Presse- und Informationsamts der Bundesregierung Nr. 89 vom 27. August 1991, p. 713. Bekanntmachung der Briefe des Bundespräsidenten vom 19. August 1991 und des Bundeskanzlers vom 23. August 1991 über die Bestimmung der 3. Strophe des Liedes der Deutschen zur Nationalhymne der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Bundesgesetzblatt 1991 Part I Nr. 63, p. 2135. ^ "Rockzanger Pete Doherty
Pete Doherty
schoffeert Duitsers". Radio Netherlands Worldwide (in Dutch). 29 November 2009. Archived from the original on 7 June 2011. Retrieved 1 December 2009.  ^ "Deutschlandlied, die erste: Skandalrocker Doherty entschuldigt sich für Patzer". Spiegel Online. 1 December 2009. Retrieved 10 August 2015.  ^ "'Nazi anthem' played at canoe championship". Eurosport. 22 August 2011. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013.  ^ "Nazivolkslied op WK kajak". Het Nieuwsblad
Het Nieuwsblad
(in Dutch). 22 August 2011.  ^ "US Tennis says sorry for using Nazi-era anthem before Germany
Germany
Fed Cup match", The Guardian, 2017-02-12 ^ Geisler p. 75. ^ Rockwell, John (21 February 1979). "Cabaret: Nico
Nico
is back". The New York Times.  ^ Hesselmann, Markus (7 December 2006). "Völker, hört die Fanale!". Der Tagesspiegel
Der Tagesspiegel
(in German). Retrieved 1 December 2009.  ^ Schiller, Mike (6 December 2007). "Rev. of Laibach, Volk". PopMatters. Retrieved 1 December 2009.  ^ "Die slowenische Band Laibach stellte in der Arena ihr Album Volk vor". Märkische Allgemeine (in German). 21 July 2009. Retrieved 1 December 2009. (Subscription required (help)). 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Das Lied der Deutschen.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Das Deutschlandlied

Die Nationalhymne der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, German Federal Government (in German) Audio of the "Deutschlandlied", with information and lyrics "Das Lied der Deutschen" at World Lieder "Das Lied der Deutschen" at Brandenburg Historica "Das Kaiserlied" (Haydn): Scores at the International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP) Singing of the German national anthem on YouTube, during the official German Unity Day
German Unity Day
ceremony on 3 October 1990 Daniel A. Gross (18 February 2017). "'Deutschland über alles' and 'America First', in Song". The New Yorker. 

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German patriotic songs

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Ir sult sprechen willekomen Arminio Arminio
Arminio
(Biber) Günther von Schwarzburg Hermann und Thusnelda Kapitänsmusik Landesvater Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott Der Tod fürs Vaterland Vaterlandslied

Wars of Liberation

Germania (Beethoven) Lützows wilde verwegene Jagd Schwertlied Wenn alle untreu werden Symphony No. 7 (Beethoven) Vaterlandslied (Arndt)

German Confederation and Revolution of 1848

Agnes von Hohenstaufen Gott mit dir, du Land der Bayern Heil euch, wack're Männer Brüder vom teutschen Bunde Des Deutschen Vaterland Deutschlandlied Ein Feldlager in Schlesien Festgesang Fierrabras Ich hab' mich ergeben In Kümmernis und Dunkelheit Lohengrin O Deutschland hoch in Ehren Regina Die Rheinnixen Symphony No. 1 (Raff) Die Wacht am Rhein Rheinlied Oben am deutschen Rhein Wanke nicht, mein Vaterland

North German Confederation and German Reich

Akademische Festouvertüre Arminius (Bruch) Germania (opera) Verachtet mir die Meister nicht Mathis der Maler Der Roland von Berlin Heil dir im Siegerkranz Mein Waldeck Kaisermarsch Theodor Körner (opera) Triumphlied Für Danzig Heimat, Deine Sterne Preußens Gloria

Austria-Hungary and First Republic of Austria

Das Lied vom deutschen Vaterland Der deutsche Gesang Deutschösterreich, du herrliches Land Germanenzug Helgoland Karl V Sängerbund Sei gesegnet ohne Ende Vaterlandslied Volkslied Dem Vaterland

Federal Republic of Germany and German Democratic Republic

Kinderhymne Hymne an Deutschland Lied von der blauen Fahne Was es ist Auferstanden aus Ruinen

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Ludwig van Beethoven's Symphony No. 9

Musical settings

"Ode to Joy" "The Hymn of Joy" "A Song of Joy" "Anthem of Europe" "Rise, O Voices of Rhodesia" "Visan om solen, månen och planeterna"

Other

"Road to Joy" "Will You Be There" Beethoven's Ninth Symphony CD-ROM Copying Beethoven 9 Beet Stretch "Deutschlandlied"

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 196937231 GND: 4127367-9 SUDOC: 027681092 BNF:

.