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DEUTSCHE BAHN AG (abbreviated as _DB_, _DB AG_ or _DBAG_) is a German railway company. Headquartered in Berlin , it is a private joint-stock company (AG ), with the Federal Republic of Germany being its single shareholder. Deutsche Bahn describes itself as the second-largest transport company in the world, after the German postal and logistics company Deutsche Post / DHL , and is the largest railway operator and infrastructure owner in Europe. It carries about two billion passengers each year.

_Deutsche Bahn_ (literally "German Railway" in German ) came into existence in 1994 as the successor to the former state railways of Germany, the _ Deutsche Bundesbahn _ ("German Federal Railway") of West Germany and the _ Deutsche Reichsbahn _ ("German Reich Railway") of East Germany . It also gained ownership of former railway assets in West Berlin held by the _Verwaltung des ehemaligen Reichsbahnvermögens _ (Administration of the Former Reichsbahn Assets).

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 1999 to present

* 2 Members of the board

* 3 Corporate subdivisions

* 3.1 Arriva

* 3.2 DB Bahn

* 3.2.1 DB Fernverkehr

* 3.2.2 DB Regio

* 3.2.2.1 DB Stadtverkehr

* 3.3 DB Netze * 3.4 DB Schenker * 3.5 Foreign firms

* 4 Train categories * 5 Codeshare agreements * 6 Tickets * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links

HISTORY

See also: History of rail transport in Germany

While the railway network in Germany dates back to 1835 when the first tracks were laid on a 6 km (3.7 mi) route between Nuremberg and Fürth, Deutsche Bahn has been a relatively recent development in German railway history. Founded in January 1994 as a joint stock-company, Deutsche Bahn was designed to operate the railways of both the former East and West Germany after unification in October 1990 as a single, uniform, and private company. There are three main periods of development in this unified German railway: its formation, its early years (1994–1999), and the period from 1999 to the present.

At its creation, Deutsche Bahn took over the abbreviation and logo _DB_ from the West German state railway _Deutsche Bundesbahn_, and Kurt Weidemann later modernised the logo. Erik Spiekermann designed the new corporate font DB Type .

Originally, DBAG had its headquarters in Frankfurt am Main but moved to Potsdamer Platz in central Berlin in 1996, where it occupies a 26-storey office tower designed by Helmut Jahn at the eastern end of the Sony Center and named Bahntower . As the lease was to expire in 2010, DB had announced plans to relocate to Berlin Hauptbahnhof , and in 2007 a proposal for a new headquarters by 3XN Architects won an architectural competition which also included Foster + Partners , Dominique Perrault and Auer + Weber . However, these plans have been put on hold, and the Bahntower leased for at least three more years.

1999 TO PRESENT

The second step of the _Bahnreform_ ( Railway reform) was carried out in 1999. All rolling stock, track, personnel, and real assets were divided between the holding company and the five principal subsidiaries of DBAG: _DB Reise & Touristik AG_ (long distance passenger service, later renamed _ DB Fernverkehr AG_), _ DB Regio AG_ (regional passenger services, in the course of the reform under charge of the federal states), _DB Cargo AG_ (freight services, later changed to _ Railion AG_), _ DB Netz AG_ (operating the railway infrastructure), and _DB Station "> The corporate headquarters of Deutsche Bahn at Potsdamer Platz in Berlin

As of 2016, the company currently lacks a management director. Other members of the board include:

* Dr. Richard Lutz (Finance & Controlling) * Berthold Huber (Traffic "> Arriva North West Wright Eclipse Gemini bodied Volvo B7TL in Liverpool in June 2013 Main article: Arriva

Deutsche Bahn placed a bid in May 2010 for the UK-based transport company Arriva . Arriva runs bus and rail companies in 12 European countries. The merger was approved by the European Commission in August 2010, subject to DB divesting Arriva services in Germany (these are now run as Netinera ). The merger became effective on 27 August 2010.

Services in the UK formerly run as DB Regio are now operated by a new subdivision of the company, Arriva UK Trains . It operates the Arriva Trains Wales , Chiltern Railways , CrossCountry and Grand Central operations. On 1 April 2016 Arriva became the operator of the Northern rail franchise. It also holds a 50% shareholding in London Overground Rail Operations and has lodged an application to operate services under the Great North Western Railway brand. In November 2016, Arriva Rail London commenced operating the London Overground concession in its own right. The former Tyne & Wear Metro operations, already started by DB Regio UK, ended in 2017.

DB BAHN

DB Bahn is the group that manages passenger travel within Germany. Originally called _Reise "> An ICE 3 long-distance high speed train of DB Fernverkehr and Siemens Velaro Main article: DB Fernverkehr

DB Fernverkehr AG is a semi-independent division of Deutsche Bahn that operates long-distance passenger trains in Germany. It was founded in 1999 in the second stage of the privatisation of German Federal Railways under the name of DB Reise "> A regional train of DB Regio Main article: DB Regio

DB Regio AG is the subsidiary of Deutsche Bahn that operates passenger trains on short and medium distances in Germany. Unlike its long-distance counterpart, DB Fernverkehr, it does not operate trains on its own account. Traffic is ordered and paid for by the _Bundesländer _ (states) or their respective _SPNV-Aufgabenträger _ (Regional train operation supervisors). Examples are the Landesnahverkehrsgesellschaft Niedersachsen (LNVG), responsible for train services in Lower Saxony (except in the Hanover region) or the three Aufgabenträger in North Rhine-Westphalia: Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Ruhr (VRR), Zweckverband Nahverkehr Rheinland (NVR) and Zweckverband Nahverkehr Weatfalen-Lippe (NWL), the former also acting as a customer-faced fare association. Competition for those state-sponsored services is somewhat more fierce than for long-distance services. Some states have awarded long-term contracts to DB Regio (usually 10 to 15 years), in others, DB Regio’s operations are decreasing, in North Rhine-Westphalia, their market share is expected to be lower than 50 %. DB Regio rail services are divided into several regional companies:

* _ DB Regio Nord_ for Schleswig-Holstein , Hamburg , Lower Saxony , Bremen * _ DB Regio Nordost_ for Berlin , Brandenburg , Mecklenburg-Vorpommern * _ DB Regio NRW_ for North Rhine-Westphalia * _ DB Regio Südost_ for Saxony , Saxony-Anhalt , Thuringia * _ DB Regio Hessen_ for Hesse * _ DB Regio Südwest_ for Rhineland-Palatinate , Saarland , parts of Baden-Württemberg and Hesse * _ DB Regio Baden-Württemberg_ for the rest of Baden-Württemberg * _ DB Regio Bayern_ for Bavaria * _ S-Bahn Hamburg _ * _ S-Bahn Berlin _ * _RegioNetz_ (small, independent networks, like Kurhessenbahn , for easier organisation)

The bus services consist of 25 bus companies, which have subsidiary companies themselves.

DB Stadtverkehr

DB Stadtverkehr was responsible for commuter services of the Berlin and Hamburg S-Bahn networks and numerous bus companies. The subsidiary was integrated into DB Regio on 31 December 2010. The two S-Bahn networks handled and still handle over 500 million passengers annually.

DB NETZE

Main article: DB Netze

Since the end of 2007 DB Netze has been responsible for infrastructure and operations, taking over from DB Netz AG. Its business areas including DB Netze Fahrweg, DB Netze Energie, DB Netze Personenbahnhöfe, DB ProjektBau and DB Station&Service . A further business area known as DB Dienstleistungen covers six different areas of operations: DB Fahrzeuginstandhaltung, DB Systel, DB Services , DB Fuhrpark, DB Kommunikationstechnik, and DB Sicherheit.

DB SCHENKER

Main articles: DB Schenker and DB Schenker Rail

DB Schenker is the logistics arm of DB, as of 2008 it employed over 88,000 people, and was the largest European rail freight company.

Its two business areas are DB Schenker Rail (formerly Railion ) and DB Schenker Logistics. Other subsidiaries include Bax Global , Transfesa , and the former English Welsh "> DB Schenker Rail (UK) Class 67 hauling Chiltern Railways Mark 3 carriages at Leamington Spa on the Chiltern Main Line

DB also has interests abroad, owning the United Kingdom's largest rail freight operator, DB Cargo UK , which also operates the British Royal Train and also has interests in Eastern Europe . It is possible to obtain train times for any journey in Europe from Deutsche Bahn's website.

Trans-Eurasia Logistics is a joint venture with Russian Railways (RŽD) that operates container freight trains between Germany and China via Russia .

TRAIN CATEGORIES

Trains in Germany are classified by their stopping pattern:

* _Fernverkehr_ (long distance trains), also _Fernzug_

* ICE (_ Intercity-Express _) for high-speed rail services between major cities and regions * IC (_InterCity _) for long-distance trains connecting regions with each other. If the trains cross international boundaries, they are usually called _ EuroCity _ (EC). Some EuroCity services are operated by foreign state railways.

* _Nahverkehr_ (local trains)

* IRE (_ Interregio-Express _) serves regions and connects cities. IRE trains only exist in Baden-Württemberg and on the Hamburg– Berlin route * RE (_ Regional-Express _) serves regions and connects cities * RB (_ Regionalbahn _) stops at all stations (except where S-Bahn is also available) and is the most basic train service * S (_ S-Bahn _) is rapid transit and most services stop at all stations. S-Bahn operate high frequency services and are comparable with, for example, the London Overground

Train categories no longer used include:

* MET (_Metropolitan _) was a luxury train service between Hamburg and Cologne. The two special MET train sets now used for IC and ICE services, still have a comfort level above the regular IC and ICE coaches * IR (_ InterRegio _), set between RE and IC was meant to connect cities and regions at a lower price, but also be used for local traffic. Replaced partly by IC, RE and IRE * SE (_ Stadt-Express _) operated as a mixture of RE and RB: trains skipped many stations in urban areas but made all stops in the countryside. Rebranded as RE and RB. In some regions, such as Rhine-Main (Frankfurt, Rhein-Main-Verkehrsverbund ), the local transit authority advertised trains as SE. Internally, DB classified them as either RE or RB, but even DB trains display "SE" on their destination boards. This ceased in December 2016.

In the early days of DBAG, the most basic train categories, which were in use since the early days of rail travel in Germany, were also used:

* D (_D-Zug_ or _Schnellzug_, abbreviated from _Durchgangszug_) was the express train category and used to be the highest train category. It was replaced by IC and the even faster ICE. The trains of the _SyltShuttle plus_ car shuttle service connecting the island of Sylt with the mainland are still officially referred to as D trains * E (_Eilzug_) was the semi-fast service offering faster journeys than normal passenger trains but not at such long distances and speed as D trains, though there were some quite long running E trains. No direct successor, would be located between RE and IC * N (_Nahverkehrszug_), the most basic form of train service stopping at all stations. When all local train services were _vertaktet_, i.e. operating at an fixed interval (mostly one train per hour), they were rebranded as RB

There are several other operators in Germany which sometimes offer other categories, also, a local transport authority or tariff associations might brand the trains in a different way than DB does. For example, in the Nuremberg region, RE and RB trains are not differentiated, but called R instead. In some regions, such as Verkehrsverbund Berlin- Brandenburg , private operators do use the RE and RB labels, in others, such as Saxony , they do not. In online and print information systems of DB, private trains officially labelled RB and RE by their operators, might get a different label, for example "ABR" for trains operated by Abellio , though on platforms, trains and maps or timetables issued by the local transport authority overseeing regional train services, these abbreviations usually do not appear.

CODESHARE AGREEMENTS

In conjunction with Emirates , China Airlines , TAM Airlines , Biman Bangladesh Airlines , and Lufthansa , Deutsche Bahn operates the AiRail Service between Frankfurt Airport and Cologne / Bonn , Düsseldorf , Freiburg , Hamburg , Hanover , Mannheim , Munich , Nuremberg , and Stuttgart . Deutsche Bahn has the IATA designator 2A.

TICKETS

DB offers two different pricing models:

* The _Flexpreis_ (originally _Normalpreis_): gives full flexbility, i.e. all trains on the given date can be used on the chosen route * The _Sparpreis_ is the cheaper, advanced fare. Prices for long-distance journeys start as low as €19.90, but Sparpreis tickets are only valid on ICE, IC or EC trains noted on the ticket.

Local trains (S, RB, RE, IRE) also accept local tickets issued by local transport associations , which can also be used on buses, trams or metros.

DB offers concessionary fares with the _Bahncard _, which is available as _Bahncard 25_ (giving 25 % discount on Flexpreis and Sparpreis), _Bahncard 50_ (giving 50 % discount on Flexpreis and 25 % on Sparpreis) and _Bahncard 100_ (giving unlimited travel on all of Deutsche Bahn trains, most private train companies and also in many local transport associations).

Other special tickets, such as Interrail or the Schönes-Wochenende-Ticket , giving unlimited journeys on local trains and in many transport associations, are also available.

SEE ALSO

* Trains portal * Railways portal

* Bahn TV * DB Fernverkehr * DB NachtZug * DB Regio * Rail transport in Germany * Railway electrification system * Transport in Germany

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Deutsche Bahn AG. "Annual Report 2013" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-04-09. * ^ "Members to the Supervisory Board of Deutsche Bahn AG". * ^ " Deutsche Bahn AG at a glance". Deutsche Bahn. Archived from the original on 26 April 2009. * ^ Lutz, Friedrich; Lange, Bernd; Müller, Matthias (2003). "DB launches new locomotive strategy". _International Railway Journal_. 43 (11): 42. – via Gale (subscription required) * ^ "The foundation of Deutsche Bahn AG" company website * ^ "Competition win for 3XN". _World Architecture News_. 21 December 2007. Retrieved 30 October 2009. * ^ http://www.ftd.de/unternehmen/handel_dienstleister/:Deutsche%20Bahn%20Pl%E4ne%20Umzug/346601.html * ^ "Partial sale of DB agreed" _ Railway Gazette International _ May 2008 page 289 * ^ "DB floatation on hold" _ Railway Gazette International_ November 2008 page 843 * ^ One way tickets Thessaloniki – Auschwitz, June 2015 * ^ Zug der Erinnerung/Thessaloniki Zug der Erinnerung (non-government organisation “Train of Commemoration”). * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ "The Board of Management of Deutsche Bahn AG". Deutsche Bahn. Retrieved 2017-02-01. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Deutsche Bahn AG. "DB Mobility Logistics Facts and figures 2012" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-07-07. * ^ " Deutsche Bahn räumt bei Tochtergesellschaften auf" . _www.eurailpress.de_. 21 July 2011. Archived from the original on November 13, 2011. * ^ "Business Units". Deutsche Bahn. Retrieved 2017-05-10. * ^ "EC approves DB\'s takeover of Arriva". _ Railway Gazette International_. London. 11 August 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-19. * ^ Deutsche Bahn AG: _Kennzahlen 2005 – DB AG mit bestem Geschäftsjahr ihrer Geschichte,_ 23 September 2006 * ^ "Transportation and logistics in the DB Schenker group - Profile". DB Schenker. Archived from the original on 28 August 2008. * ^ Macalister, Terry (28 June 2007). " Deutsche Bahn to run Queen\'s train". _ The Guardian _. * ^ Tickets - Timetable * ^ "Produktübersicht" on DB AG website

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikimedia

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