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The Fungi
Fungi
imperfecti or imperfect fungi, also known as Deuteromycota, are fungi which do not fit into the commonly established taxonomic classifications of fungi that are based on biological species concepts or morphological characteristics of sexual structures because their sexual form of reproduction has never been observed. Only their asexual form of reproduction is known, meaning that these fungi produce their spores asexually, in the process called sporogenesis. There are about 25,000 species that have been classified in the deuteromycota and many are basidiomycota or ascomycota anamorphs. Fungi
Fungi
producing the antibiotic penicillin and those that cause athlete's foot and yeast infections are algal fungi. In addition, there are a number of edible imperfect fungi, including the ones that provide the distinctive characteristics of Roquefort and Camembert cheese. Other, more informal names besides Deuteromycota ("Deuteromycetes") and fungi imperfecti are anamorphic fungi, or mitosporic fungi, but these are terms without taxonomic rank. Examples are Alternaria, Colletotrichum, Trichoderma etc.

Contents

1 Problems in taxonomic classification 2 Phylogeny and taxonomy 3 Historical classification of the imperfect fungi 4 Common species

4.1 Industrially relevant fungi

5 See also 6 References 7 Bibliography

Problems in taxonomic classification[edit] Although Fungi
Fungi
imperfecti/Deuteromycota is no longer formally accepted as a taxon, many of the fungi it included have yet to find a place in modern fungal classification. This is because most fungi are classified based on characteristics of the fruiting bodies and spores produced during sexual reproduction, and members of the Deutromycota have only been observed to reproduce asexually or produce no spores. Mycologists
Mycologists
are unique among those who study extant organisms in using a dual system of nomenclature. Dual naming was permitted by Article 59 of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature
International Code of Botanical Nomenclature
(which governs the naming of plants and fungi); however, this was abolished in the 2011 update of the Code.[1] Under the former system, a name for an asexually reproducing fungus was considered a form taxon. For example, the ubiquitous and industrially important mold, Aspergillus
Aspergillus
niger, has no known sexual cycle. Thus Aspergillus
Aspergillus
niger is considered a form taxon. In contrast, isolates of its close relative, Aspergillus
Aspergillus
nidulans, revealed it to be the anomorphic stage of a teleomorph (the ascocarp or fruiting body of the sexual reproductive stage of a fungus), which was already named Emericella nidulans. When such a teleomorphic stage is known, that name will take priority over the name of an anamorph (which lacks a sexual reproductive stage). Hence the formerly classified Aspergillus species is now properly called Emericella nidulans. Phylogeny and taxonomy[edit] Phylogenetic classification of asexually reproducing fungi now commonly uses molecular systematics. Phylogenetic trees constructed from comparative analyses of DNA sequences, such as rRNA, or multigene phylogenies may be used to infer relationships between asexually reproducing fungi and their sexually reproducing counterparts. With these methods, many asexually reproducing fungi have now been placed in the tree of life.[citation needed] However, because phylogenetic methods require sufficient quantities of biological materials (spores or fresh specimens) that are from pure (i.e., uncontaminated) fungal cultures, for many asexual species their exact relationship with other fungal species has yet to be determined. Under the current system of fungal nomenclature, teleomorph names cannot be applied to fungi that lack sexual structures. Classifying and naming asexually reproducing fungi is the subject of ongoing debate in the mycological community. Historical classification of the imperfect fungi[edit] These groups are no longer formally accepted because they do not adhere to the principle of monophyly.[citation needed] The taxon names are sometimes used informally. In particular, the term 'hyphomycetes' is often used to refer to molds, and the term 'coelomycetes' is used to refer to many asexually reproducing plant pathogens that form discrete fruiting bodies. Following, a classification of the Fungi
Fungi
imperfecti: Saccardo et al.(1882-1972)[2]

Class Hyphomycetes
Hyphomycetes
lacking fruiting bodies

Order Moniliales (producing spores on simple conidiophores) Order Stilbellales (producing spores on synnemata) Order Tuberculariales (producing spores in sporodochia)

Class Coelomycetes spores produced in fruiting bodies

Order Melanconiales (producing spores in acervuli) Order Sphaeropsidales (producing spores in pycnidia)

Class Agonomycetes lacking spores

Other, according to Dörfelt (1989):[3]

Form-Klasse: Hyphomycetes

Form-Ordnung: Agonomycetales

Form-Familie: Agonomycetaceae

Form-Ordnung: Moniliales

Form-Familie: Moniliaceae Form-Familie: Dematiaceae Form-Familie: Stilbellaceae Form-Familie: Tuberculariaceae

Form-Klasse: Coelomycetes

Form-Ordnung: Melanconiales

Form-Familie: Melanconiaceae

Form-Ordnung: Sphaeropsidales

Form-Familie: Sphaeropsidaceae

Other systems of classification are reviewed by (Kendrick 1981). Common species[edit] Industrially relevant fungi[edit]

Tolypocladium inflatum → from which the immunosuppressant ciclosporin is obtained;[4] Penicillium griseofulvum Penicillium roqueforti Penicillium camemberti Other species of Penicillium are used to improve both the taste and the texture of cheeses[5] Aspergillus
Aspergillus
oryzae[6] Aspergillus
Aspergillus
sojae[7] Aspergillus
Aspergillus
niger[8] Cladosporium resinae[9] Lecanicillium sp. → these produce conidia which may control certain species of insect pests[10] Other entomopathogenic fungi, including Metarhizium
Metarhizium
and Beauveria
Beauveria
spp. Pochonia spp. are under development for control of Nematode
Nematode
pests.

See also[edit]

Forest pathology List of mitosporic Ascomycota

References[edit]

^ "International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants". International Association for Plant Taxonomy.  ^ https://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Anamorphic_fungi#Saccardo_et_al._.281882-1972.29 ^ Dörfelt, Heinrich (Hrsg.): Lexikon der Mykologie. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, New York. 1989. ^ See "Una Historia Ilustrada del Transplante de Órganos" [1] (in Spanish). ^ See the following link (in Spanish). ^ "Bio-Cat Products". Bio-Cat.  ^ "ARS en Espanol : News & Events". USDA.  ^ Enzyme Development Corporation ^ See this link (in Spanish). ^ Cf.[2] (in Spanish).

Bibliography[edit]

Gams, W. (1995). "How natural should anamorph genera be?". Canadian Journal of Botany. 73 (Suppl 1): S747–53. doi:10.1139/b95-318.  Kendrick, B. (2 December 2012) [1981]. "The history of conidial fungi". In Cole, Garry T. Biology of Conidial Fungi. 1. Elsevier. pp. 3–18. ISBN 978-0-323-13899-4.  Seifert, K.A. (1993). "Integrating anamorphic fungi into the fungal system". In Reynolds, D.R.; Taylor, J.W. The Fungal Holomorph: mitotic, meiotic and pleomorphic speciation in fungal systematics. CAB International. pp. 79–85. ISBN 0851988652.  Taylor, JW (1995). "Making the Deuteromycota redundant: a practical integration of mitosporic and meiosporic fungi". Canadian Journal of Botany. 73 (Suppl 1): S754–9. doi:10.1139/b95-319. 

v t e

Opisthokont: True fungi classification, fungal orders

Domain Archaea Bacteria Eukaryota (Supergroup Plant Hacrobia Heterokont Alveolata Rhizaria Excavata Amoebozoa Opisthokonta

Animal Fungi)

Dikarya

Ascomycota (sac fungi)

Pezizomycotina

Leotiomyceta

Dothideomyceta

Coniocybomycetes Lichinomycetes Arthoniomycetes Dothideomycetes Eurotiomycetes Lecanoromycetes

Sordariomyceta

Xylonomycetes Geoglossomycetes Leotiomycetes Laboulbeniomycetes Sordariomycetes

Other

Orbiliomycetes Pezizomycetes

Saccharomycotina

Saccharomycetes

Taphrinomycotina

Archaeorhizomycetes Neolectomycetes Pneumocystidomycetes Schizosaccharomycetes Taphrinomycetes

Basidiomycota (with basidia)

Pucciniomycotina

Tritirachiomycetes Mixiomycetes Agaricostilbomycetes Cystobasidiomycetes Microbotryomycetes Classiculomycetes Cryptomycocolacomycetes Atractiellomycetes Pucciniomycetes

Ustilaginomycotina

Monilielliomycetes Malasseziomycetes Ustilaginomycetes Exobasidiomycetes

Agaricomycotina

Hymenomycete

Dacrymycetales Agaricomycetes

Other

Wallemiomycetes Bartheletiomycetes Tremellomycetes

Entorrhizomycota

Entorrhizomycetes

Glomeromycota

Glomeromycetes

Zygomycota (paraphyletic)

Mucoromycotina

Mortierellomycetes Mucoromycetes

Kickxellomycotina

Zoopagomycetes Kickxellomycetes

Entomophthoromycotina

Neozygitomycetes Basidiobolomycetes Entomophthoromycetes

Zoosporic fungi (paraphyletic)

Olpidiomycota

Olpidiomycetes

Blastocladiomycota

Blastocladiomycetes

Chytridiomycota

Neocallimastigomycetes Hyaloraphidiomycetes Monoblepharidomycetes Chytridiomycetes

Fungal phyla are underlined. See also: fungi imperfecti (polyphyletic group).

Taxon
Taxon
identifiers

Wd: Q648056 Fungorum: 900

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