In naval terminology, a DESTROYER is a fast, maneuverable
long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet ,
convoy or battle group and defend them against smaller powerful
short-range attackers. They were originally developed in the late 19th
century as a defence against torpedo boats , and by the time of the
Russo-Japanese War in 1904, these "torpedo boat destroyers" (TBDs)
were "large, swift, and powerfully armed torpedo boats designed to
destroy other torpedo boats." Although the term "destroyer" had been
used interchangeably with "TBD" and "torpedo boat destroyer" by navies
since 1892, the term "torpedo boat destroyer" had been generally
shortened to simply "destroyer" by nearly all navies by the First
World War .
World War II
World War II , destroyers were light vessels with little
endurance for unattended ocean operations; typically a number of
destroyers and a single destroyer tender operated together. After the
war, the advent of the guided missile allowed destroyers to take on
the surface combatant roles previously filled by battleships and
cruisers. This resulted in larger and more powerful guided missile
destroyers more capable of independent operation.
At the start of the 21st century, destroyers are the global standard
for surface combatant ships, with only three nations (United States ,
Russia , and Peru ) operating the heavier class cruisers , with no
battleships or true battlecruisers remaining. Modern destroyers, also
known as guided missile destroyers , are equivalent in tonnage but
vastly superior in firepower to cruisers of the
World War II
World War II era, and
are capable of carrying nuclear tipped cruise missiles . At 510 feet
(160 m) long, a displacement of 9200 tons, and with armament of more
than 90 missiles, guided missile destroyers such as the Arleigh Burke
class are actually larger and more heavily armed than most previous
ships classified as guided missile cruisers.
* 1 Origins
* 1.1 Early designs
* 2 Development of the modern destroyer
* 2.1 Subsequent improvements
* 3 Early use and
World War I
World War I
* 3.1 Combat
* 4 Inter-war "> The introduction of the Whitehead torpedo
revolutionized naval warfare. Torpedo's general profile: A. war-head
B. air-flask. B'. immersion-chamber CC'. after-body C. engine-room
DDDD. drain-holes E. shaft-tube F. steering-engine G. bevel-gear box
H. depth-index I. tail K. charging and stop-valves L. locking-gear M.
engine bed-plate P. primer-case R. rudder S. steering-rod tube T.
guide-stud UU. propellers V. valve-group W. war-nose Z.
The emergence and development of the destroyer was related to the
invention of the self-propelled torpedo in the 1860s. A navy now had
the potential to destroy a superior enemy battle fleet using steam
launches to fire torpedoes. Cheap, fast boats armed with torpedoes
called torpedo boats were built and became a threat to large capital
ships near enemy coasts. The first seagoing vessel designed to launch
Whitehead torpedo was the 33-ton HMS Lightning in
1876. She was armed with two drop collars to launch these weapons;
these were replaced in 1879 by a single torpedo tube in the bow. By
the 1880s, the type had evolved into small ships of 50–100 tons,
fast enough to evade enemy picket boats.
At first, the threat of a torpedo boat attack to a battle fleet was
considered to exist only when at anchor, but as faster and
longer-range torpedoes were developed, the threat extended to cruising
at sea. In response to this new threat, more heavily gunned picket
boats called "catchers" were built which were used to escort the
battle fleet at sea. They needed significant seaworthiness and
endurance to operate with the battle fleet, and as they necessarily
became larger, they became officially designated "torpedo boat
destroyers", and by the
First World War
First World War were largely known as
"destroyers" in English. The anti-torpedo boat origin of this type of
ship is retained in its name in other languages, including French
(contre-torpilleur), Italian (cacciatorpediniere), Portuguese
(contratorpedeiro), Czech (torpédoborec), Greek
(antitorpiliko,αντιτορπιλικό), Dutch (torpedobootjager)
and, up until the Second World War, Polish (kontrtorpedowiec, now
Once destroyers became more than just catchers guarding an anchorage,
it was realized that they were also ideal to take over the role of
torpedo boats themselves, so they were fitted with torpedo tubes as
well as guns. At that time, and even into
World War I
World War I , the only
function of destroyers was to protect their own battle fleet from
enemy torpedo attacks and to make such attacks on the battleships of
the enemy. The task of escorting merchant convoys was still in the
The Imperial Japanese
Navy 's Kotaka (1887)
An important development came with the construction of HMS Swift in
1884, later redesignated TB 81. This was a large (137 ton) torpedo
boat with four 47 mm quick-firing guns and three torpedo tubes. At
23.75 knots (43.99 km/h; 27.33 mph), while still not fast enough to
engage enemy torpedo boats reliably, the ship at least had the
armament to deal with them.
Another forerunner of the torpedo boat destroyer was the Japanese
torpedo boat Kotaka (Falcon), built in 1885. Designed to Japanese
specifications and ordered from the London
Yarrow shipyards in 1885,
she was transported in parts to Japan, where she was assembled and
launched in 1887. The 165-foot (50 m) long vessel was armed with four
1-pounder (37 mm) quick-firing guns and six torpedo tubes, reached 19
knots (35 km/h), and at 203 tons, was the largest torpedo boat built
to date. In her trials in 1889, Kotaka demonstrated that she could
exceed the role of coastal defense, and was capable of accompanying
larger warships on the high seas. The Yarrow shipyards, builder of the
parts for the Kotaka, "considered Japan to have effectively invented
Torpedo gunboat HMS Spider, an early model of
The first vessel designed for the explicit purpose of hunting and
destroying torpedo boats was the torpedo gunboat . Essentially very
small cruisers , torpedo gunboats were equipped with torpedo tubes and
an adequate gun armament, intended for hunting down smaller enemy
boats. By the end of the 1890s torpedo gunboats were made obsolete by
their more successful contemporaries, the torpedo boat destroyers ,
which were much faster.
The first example of this was HMS Rattlesnake , designed by Nathaniel
Barnaby in 1885, and commissioned in response to the Russian War scare
. The gunboat was armed with torpedoes and designed for hunting and
destroying smaller torpedo boats . Exactly 200 feet (61 m) long and 23
feet (7.0 m) in beam, she displaced 550 tons. Built of steel,
Rattlesnake was un-armoured with the exception of a 3⁄4-inch
protective deck. She was armed with a single 4-inch/25-pounder
breech-loading gun , six 3-pounder QF guns and four 14-inch (360 mm)
torpedo tubes, arranged with two fixed tubes at the bow and a set of
torpedo dropping carriages on either side. Four torpedo reloads were
A number of torpedo gunboat classes followed, including the
Grasshopper class, the Sharpshooter class , the Alarm class and the
Dryad class - all built for the Royal
Navy during the 1880s and the
Fernando Villaamil , second officer of the Ministry of the
Spain , designed his own torpedo gunboat to combat the threat from the
torpedo boat. He asked several British shipyards to submit proposals
capable of fulfilling these specifications. In 1885 the Spanish Navy
chose the design submitted by the shipyard of James and George Thomson
Clydebank , near the Yarrow shipyards. Destructor (
Spanish) was laid down at the end of the year, launched in 1886, and
commissioned in 1887.
She displaced 348 tons, and was equipped with triple-expansion
engines generating 3,784 ihp (2,822 kW), for a maximum speed of 22.6
knots (41.9 km/h), which made her one of the faster ships in the
world in 1888. She was armed with one 90 mm (3.5 in) Spanish-designed
Hontoria breech-loading gun, four 57 mm (2.2 in) (6-pounder )
Nordenfelt guns, two 37 mm (1.5 in) (3-pdr) Hotchkiss cannons and two
15-inch (38 cm)
Schwartzkopff torpedo tubes. The ship carried three
torpedoes per tube. She was manned by a crew of 60.
In terms of gunnery, speed and dimensions, the specialised design to
chase torpedo boats and her high seas capabilities, Destructor was an
important precursor to the torpedo boat destroyer.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE MODERN DESTROYER
HMS Havock the first modern destroyer, commissioned in 1894
The first ships to bear the formal designation "torpedo boat
destroyer" (TBD) were the Daring class of two ships and Havock class
of two ships of the Royal
Early torpedo gunboat designs lacked the range and speed to keep up
with the fleet they were supposed to protect. In 1892, the Third Sea
Rear Admiral John "Jacky" Fisher ordered the development of a
new type of ships equipped with the then novel water-tube boilers and
quick-firing small calibre guns. Six ships to the specifications
circulated by the Admiralty were ordered initially, comprising three
different designs each produced by a different shipbuilder: HMS Daring
and HMS Decoy from
John I. Thornycroft & Company , HMS Havock and HMS
Hornet from Yarrows , and HMS Ferret and HMS Lynx from Laird, Son ">
Builders' plans for the British Charger class , built 1894-5.
Torpedo boat destroyer designs continued to evolve around the turn of
the 20th century in several key ways. The first was the introduction
of the steam turbine . The spectacular unauthorized demonstration of
the turbine powered
Turbinia at the 1897 Spithead
Navy Review, which,
significantly, was of torpedo boat size, prompted the Royal
order a prototype turbine powered destroyer, HMS Viper of 1899. This
was the first turbine warship of any kind and achieved a remarkable 36
knots (67 km/h) on sea trials. By 1910 the turbine had been widely
adopted by all navies for their faster ships.
The second development was the replacement of the torpedo-boat-style
turtleback foredeck by a raised forecastle for the new River-class
destroyers built in 1903, which provided better sea-keeping as well as
more space below deck.
The first warship to use only fuel oil propulsion was the Royal
Navy's torpedo boat destroyer HMS Spiteful , after experiments in
1904, although the obsolescence of coal as a fuel in British warships
was delayed by its availability. Other navies also adopted oil, for
USN with the Paulding class of 1909. In spite of all this
variety, destroyers adopted a largely similar pattern. The hull was
long and narrow, with a relatively shallow draft. The bow was either
raised in a forecastle or covered under a turtleback; underneath this
were the crew spaces, extending 1/4 to 1/3 the way along the hull. Aft
of the crew spaces was as much engine space as the technology of the
time would allow: several boilers and engines or turbines. Above deck,
one or more quick-firing guns were mounted in the bows, in front of
the bridge; several more were mounted amidships and astern. Two tube
mountings (later on, multiple mountings) were generally found
Between 1892 and 1914 destroyers became markedly larger: initially
420 tons with a length of 250 feet (76 m) for the US Navy's first
Bainbridge class of torpedo boat destroyers, up to the First World
War with 300-foot (91 m) long destroyers displacing 1000 tons was not
unusual. However, construction remained focused on putting the biggest
possible engines into a small hull, resulting in a somewhat flimsy
construction. Often hulls were built of steel only 1/8 in thick.
By 1910 the steam-driven displacement (that is, not hydroplaning )
torpedo boat had become redundant as a separate type. Germany
nevertheless continued to build such boats until the end of World War
I, although these were effectively small coastal destroyers. In fact
Germany never distinguished between the two types, giving them pennant
numbers in the same series and never giving names to destroyers.
Ultimately the term torpedo boat came to be attached to a quite
different vessel – the very fast hydroplaning motor driven MTB .
EARLY USE AND WORLD WAR I
Navies originally built torpedo boat destroyers to protect against
torpedo boats, but admirals soon appreciated the flexibility of the
fast, multi-purpose vessels that resulted. Vice-Admiral Sir Baldwin
Walker laid down destroyer duties for the Royal Navy:
* screening the advance of a fleet when hostile torpedo craft are
* searching a hostile coast along which a fleet might pass
* watching an enemy's port for the purpose of harassing his torpedo
craft and preventing their return
* attacking an enemy fleet
Early destroyers were extremely cramped places to live, being
"without a doubt magnificent fighting vessels... but unable to stand
bad weather". During the
Russo-Japanese War in 1904, the commander of
the torpedo boat destroyer IJN Akatsuki described "being in command
of a destroyer for a long period, especially in wartime... is not very
good for the health". Stating that he had originally been strong and
healthy, he continued, "life on a destroyer in winter, with bad food,
no comforts, would sap the powers of the strongest men in the long
run. A destroyer is always more uncomfortable than the others, and
rain, snow, and sea-water combine to make them damp; in fact, in bad
weather there is not a dry spot where one can rest for a moment."
The Japanese destroyer-commander finished with, "Yesterday I looked
at myself in a mirror for a long time; I was disagreeably surprised to
see my face thin, full of wrinkles, and as old as though I were fifty.
My clothes (uniform) cover nothing but a skeleton, and my bones are
full of rheumatism ."
In 1898 by the US
Navy officially classified USS Porter , a 175-foot
(53 m) long all steel vessel displacing 165 tons, as a torpedo boat.
But her commander, LT. John C. Fremont, described her as "...a compact
mass of machinery not meant to keep the sea nor to live in... as five
sevenths of the ship are taken up by machinery and fuel, whilst the
remaining two sevenths, fore and aft, are the crew's quarters;
officers forward and the men placed aft. And even in those spaces are
placed anchor engines, steering engines, steam pipes, etc. rendering
them unbearably hot in tropical regions."
HMS Loyal , of the Laforey class .
The torpedo boat destroyer's first major use in combat came during
the Japanese surprise-attack on the Russian fleet anchored in Port
Arthur at the opening of the
Russo-Japanese War on 8 February 1904.
Three destroyer divisions attacked the Russian fleet in port, firing
a total of 18 torpedoes. However, only two Russian battleships were
seriously damaged due to the proper deployment of torpedo nets . The
Russian flagship, the battleship Tsesarevich , which had her nets
deployed, had at least four enemy torpedoes "hung up" in them, and
other warships were similarly saved from further damage.
While capital ship engagements were scarce in World War I, destroyer
units engaged almost continually in raiding and patrol actions. The
first shot of the war at sea was fired on 5 August 1914 by a destroyer
of the 2nd Flotilla, HMS Lance , in an engagement with the German
auxiliary minelayer SS Königin Luise .
Destroyers were involved in the skirmishes that prompted the Battle
of Heligoland Bight , and filled a range of roles in the Battle of
Gallipoli , acting as troop transports and as fire-support vessels, as
well as their fleet-screening role. Over 80 British destroyers and 60
German torpedo-boats took part in the
Battle of Jutland , which
involved pitched small-boat actions between the main fleets, and
several foolhardy attacks by unsupported destroyers on capital ships.
Jutland also concluded with a messy night action between the German
High Seas Fleet and part of the British destroyer screen. USS
Wickes , a
The threat evolved by
World War I
World War I with the development of the
submarine , or
U-boat . The submarine had the potential to hide from
gunfire and close underwater to fire torpedoes. Early-war destroyers
had the speed and armament to intercept submarines before they
submerged, either by gunfire or by ramming. Destroyers also had a
shallow enough draft that torpedoes would find it difficult to hit
them. HMS Badger was the first destroyer to successfully ram a
The desire to attack submarines underwater led to rapid destroyer
evolution during the war; they were quickly equipped with strengthened
bows for ramming, depth charges and hydrophones for identifying
submarine targets. The first submarine casualty to a destroyer was the
German U-19 , rammed by HMS Badger on 29 October 1914. While U-19 was
only damaged, the next month Garry successfully sank U-18 . The first
depth-charge sinking was on 4 December 1916, when UC-19 was sunk by
The submarine threat meant that many destroyers spent their time on
anti-submarine patrol; once
Germany adopted unrestricted submarine
warfare in January 1917, destroyers were called on to escort merchant
convoys . US
Navy destroyers were among the first American units to be
dispatched upon the American entry to the war, and a squadron of
Japanese destroyers even joined Allied patrols in the Mediterranean.
Patrol duty was far from safe; of the 67 British destroyers lost in
the war, collisions accounted for 18, while 12 were wrecked.
At the end of the war the state-of-the-art was represented by the
British W-class .
INTER-WAR "> V-class destroyer, HMS Velox
The trend during
World War I
World War I had been towards larger destroyers with
heavier armaments. A number of opportunities to fire at capital ships
had been missed during the War, because destroyers had expended all
their torpedoes in an initial salvo. The British V and W classes of
the late war had sought to address this by mounting six torpedo tubes
in two triple mounts, instead of the four or two on earlier models.
The 'V' and 'W's set the standard of destroyer building well into the
1920s. Fubuki-class destroyer, Uranami
The next major innovation came with the Japanese Fubuki class or
'special type', designed in 1923 and delivered in 1928. The design was
initially noted for its powerful armament of six five-inch (127 mm)
guns and three triple torpedo mounts. The second batch of the class
gave the guns high-angle turrets for anti-aircraft warfare, and the
24-inch (61 cm) oxygen-fueled 'Long Lance'
Type 93 torpedo . The later
Hatsuharu class of 1931 further improved the torpedo armament by
storing its reload torpedoes close at hand in the superstructure,
allowing reloading within 15 minutes.
Most other nations replied with similar larger ships. The US Porter
class adopted twin five-inch (127 mm) guns, and the subsequent Mahan
class and Gridley class (the latter of 1934) increased the number of
torpedo tubes to 12 and 16 respectively. France's Fantasque class
, the fastest destroyer class ever built.
In the Mediterranean, the Italian Navy's building of very fast light
cruisers of the Condottieri class prompted the French to produce
exceptional destroyer designs. The French had long been keen on large
destroyers, with their Chacal class of 1922 displacing over 2,000 tons
and carrying 130 mm guns; a further three similar classes were
produced around 1930. The Fantasque class of 1935 carried five 138
millimetres (5.4 in) guns and nine torpedo tubes, but could achieve
speeds of 45 knots (83 km/h; 52 mph), which remains the record speed
for a steamship and for any destroyer. The Italians' own destroyers
were almost as swift, most Italian designs of the 1930s being rated at
over 38 knots (70 km/h), while carrying torpedoes and either four or
six 120 mm guns.
Germany started to build destroyers again during the 1930s as part of
Hitler's rearmament program. The Germans were also fond of large
destroyers, but while the initial Type 1934 displaced over 3,000 tons,
their armament was equal to smaller vessels. This changed from the
Type 1936 onwards, which mounted heavy 150 millimetres (5.9 in) guns.
German destroyers also used innovative high-pressure steam machinery:
while this should have helped their efficiency, it more often resulted
in mechanical problems.
Once German and Japanese rearmament became clear, the British and
American navies consciously focused on building destroyers that were
smaller but more numerous than those used by other nations. The
British built a series of destroyers (the A class to I class ) which
were about 1,400 tons standard displacement, had four 4.7-inch (119
mm) guns and eight torpedo tubes; the American Benson class of 1938
similar in size, but carried five 5-inch (127 mm) guns and ten torpedo
tubes. Realizing the need for heavier gun armament, the British built
the Tribal class of 1936 (sometimes called Afridi after one of two
lead ships). These ships displaced 1,850 tons and were armed with
eight 4.7-inch (119 mm) guns in four twin turrets and four torpedo
tubes. These were followed by the J-class and L-class destroyers, with
six 4.7-inch (119 mm) guns in twin turrets and eight torpedo tubes.
Anti-submarine sensors included sonar (or ASDIC), although training
in their use was indifferent.
Anti-submarine weapons changed little,
and ahead-throwing weapons, a need recognized in World War I, had made
USS McGowan , a
Fletcher-class destroyer during
World War II
World War II
Further information: American
World War II
World War II destroyers , British World
War II destroyers , French
World War II
World War II destroyers , German World War
II destroyers , Italian
World War II
World War II destroyers , Japanese World War
II destroyers , and Soviet
World War II
World War II destroyers
During the 1920s and 1930s destroyers were often deployed to areas of
diplomatic tension or humanitarian disaster. British and American
destroyers were common on the Chinese coast and rivers, even supplying
landing parties to protect colonial interests.
World War II
World War II the threat had evolved once again. Submarines were
more effective, and aircraft had become important weapons of naval
warfare; once again the early-war fleet destroyers were ill-equipped
for combating these new targets. They were fitted with new light
anti-aircraft guns, radar , and forward-launched ASW weapons, in
addition to their existing dual-purpose guns , depth charges , and
torpedoes . In most cases torpedo and/or dual-purpose gun armament was
reduced to accommodate new anti-air and anti-submarine weapons. By
this time the destroyers had become large, multi-purpose vessels,
expensive targets in their own right. As a result, casualties on
destroyers were among the highest.
The need for large numbers of anti-submarine ships led to the
introduction of smaller and cheaper specialized anti-submarine
warships called corvettes and frigates by the Royal
Navy and destroyer
escorts by the
USN . A similar programme was belatedly started by the
Japanese (see Matsu-class destroyer). These ships had the size and
displacement of the original torpedo boat destroyers that the
contemporary destroyer had evolved from.
POST-WORLD WAR II
ORP Błyskawica , currently preserved as a
museum ship in
Some conventional destroyers were completed in the late 1940s and
1950s which built on wartime experience. These vessels were
significantly larger than wartime ships and had fully automatic main
guns, unit Machinery, radar, sonar, and antisubmarine weapons such as
the Squid mortar . Examples include the British Daring class , US
Forrest Sherman class , and the Soviet Kotlin-class destroyers.
Some World War II–vintage ships were modernized for anti-submarine
warfare, and to extend their service lives, to avoid having to build
(expensive) brand-new ships. Examples include the US
FRAM I programme
and the British Type 15 frigates converted from fleet destroyers.
The advent of surface-to-air missiles and surface-to-surface missiles
, such as the
Exocet , in the early 1960s changed naval warfare.
Guided missile destroyers (DDG in the US Navy) were developed to carry
these weapons and protect the fleet from air, submarine and surface
threats. Examples include the Soviet Kashin class , the British County
class , and the US Charles F. Adams class .
21st Century destroyers tend to display features such as large, slab
sides without complicated corners and crevices to keep the radar
cross-section small, vertical launch systems to carry a large number
of missiles at high readiness to fire and helicopter flight decks and
Navy Operates four Almirante Brown-class destroyers and
a single modified
Type 42 destroyer
Type 42 destroyer .
Navy Luyang II class (Type 052C) destroyer
* People\'s Liberation Army
Navy Operates the Luyang I , Luyang II
and Luzhou classes . The latter two are armed with long range air
defense missiles, the indigenous HQ-9 and the Russian S-300
China also operates thirteen Luyang III -class
destroyers, six Luda -class destroyers, two Luhu -class destroyers,
and one Luhai -class destroyer.
The People's Liberation Army
Navy operates the Sovremenny class , a
class of large multi-purpose missile destroyers. They are powered by
pressure-fired boilers, making them capable of speeds in excess of 30
knots (56 km/h). Their armament consists of eight SS-N-22 Sunburn
anti-ship missiles, launchers for
SA-N-7 Gadfly anti-air missiles and
two AK-130 twin-barreled 130 mm automatic naval guns which can fire
laser-guided shells. While they also carry 533 mm torpedo tubes and
RBU-6000 rocket launchers for use against submarines, their primary
mission is to attack surface ships. Their anti-aircraft missiles have
a surface attack mode, and both the 130 mm guns and the torpedoes are
useful against ships at close range.
* Republic of
Navy (Taiwan) Operates four Kidd-class
destroyers, purchased from the United States.
Navy Operates a single FREMM multipurpose frigate
purchased from France, with the hull classification FFG for guided
missile frigate. Egypt also operates a single
Z-class destroyer for
Navy Operates two Horizon-class frigates and operate new
FREMM multipurpose frigates . These stealthy ships are armed with
anti-ship missiles and Aster surface-to-air missiles. The French navy
also operates six Georges Leygues-class frigates and two Cassard-class
frigates. The French
Navy applies the term "first-class frigate" to
Georges Leygues, Cassard, Horizon, and FREMM class ships and uses the
NATO hull classification symbol "D 6xx" to place them in the destroyer
Navy Operates three Sachsen-class frigates and one
F125-class frigate. These ships are classified by
Germany as frigates,
but are destroyers in terms of size and strength, and are usually
labeled as such by other navies.
Navy The HS Velos (D-16), a Fletcher-class destroyer,
remains ceremonially in commission due to her historical significance.
INS Kolkata guided missile destroyer of the Indian
Navy Operates three Kolkata-class destroyers. These ships
are armed with
Brahmos missiles, which have a range of 300 kilometres
(190 mi), in the anti-ship role. (Barak-8 ) system is installed to
counter airborne threats. Along with the Kolkata class, Indian Navy
operates, the Delhi and Rajput-class destroyers. These destroyers also
carry anti-submarine rockets and torpedoes. The destroyers have the
capability to carry two Sea King helicopters. The Kolkata class will
be augmented by the new P15B class of destroyers (Visakhapatnam-class
destroyer) the construction of which was started in 2014.
* Islamic Republic of
Navy Operates two Moudge-class frigates.
These ships are internationally regarded as frigates or destroyer
escorts, but are classified as destroyers by
Marina Militare Operates two Horizon-class frigates and operate
new FREMM multipurpose frigates . These stealthy ships are armed with
anti-ship missiles and Aster surface-to-air missiles. The Italian navy
also operates two Durand de la Penne-class destroyers. Italy
classifies the FREMM with the NATO designation of "F" for frigate.
Japan\'s Maritime Self-Defense Force Akizuki
Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force
Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force Operates the Atago-class and
Kongō-class destroyers which both employ the Aegis combat system.
Japan also operates two Hatakaze-class destroyers, four Akizuki-class
destroyers, five Takanami-class destroyers, nine Murasame-class
destroyers, eight Asagiri-class destroyers, three Hatsuyuki-class
destroyers, six Abukuma-class destroyers, and three Shimayuki-class
destroyers for training use.
* Republic of Korea
Navy Operates several classes of destroyers
including the Sejong the Great class (KDX-III), the Chungmugong Yi
Sun-shin class (KDX-II) and Gwanggaeto the Great class (KDX-I) of
destroyers. The KDX-III is equipped with the
Aegis combat system
Aegis combat system ,
Goalkeeper CIWS ,
Hyunmoo cruise missile and the
Hae Sung anti-ship
Navy Operates single Edsall-class destroyer escort,
purchased from the United States.
* Royal Moroccan
Navy Operates a single FREMM multipurpose frigate
Navy Operates four De Zeven Provincien-class
frigates. These ships are classified by the
Netherlands as frigates,
but are destroyers in "all but name."
* Royal Norwegian
Navy Operates five Fridtjof Nansen-class
frigates. These ships are classified by
Norway as frigates, but they
are more capable than a ship the US
Navy would classify as a frigate.
These ships are a subclass of Spain's Alvaro de Bazan-class frigates
and carry the AEGIS Combat System.
Navy Operates a single Cannon-class destroyer escort,
purchased from the United States.
Romanian Naval Forces
Romanian Naval Forces The Mărășești was classified as a
Romania until 2001, when she was reclassified as a
frigate, but there was never a change in armament, and remains in her
Navy Operate the Sovremenny class , a class of large
multi-purpose missile destroyers. They are powered by pressure-fired
boilers, making them capable of speeds in excess of 30 knots (56
km/h). Their armament consists of eight
SS-N-22 Sunburn anti-ship
missiles, launchers for
SA-N-7 Gadfly anti-air missiles and two AK-130
twin-barreled 130 mm automatic naval guns which can fire laser-guided
shells. While they also carry 533 mm torpedo tubes and
launchers for use against submarines, their primary mission is to
attack surface ships. Their anti-aircraft missiles have a surface
attack mode, and both the 130 mm guns and the torpedoes are useful
against ships at close range.
Udaloy-class destroyer destroyers of the Russian
displace about 7,900 tonnes, can travel at 35 knots (65 km/h), and
have a maximum range of 10,500 nm (19,450 km) at 14 knots (26 km/h).
The original class (Udaloy I) was designed for anti-submarine warfare
, which can be seen in their two quadruple launchers of the Metel
Anti-Ship Complex (SS-N-14), two quadruple 533 millimetres (21 in)
launchers equipped with either the
Type 53 torpedo on the Udaloy I
RPK-2 Viyuga (SS-N-15) on the Udaloy II class, and the two
RBU-6000 anti-submarine launchers. The II class is Russia's only
multipurpose destroyer. The armament of the class has been modified.
The Metal Anti-Ship Complex is replaced with eight P-270 Moskit
(SS-N-22 Sunburn) supersonic sea-skimming anti-ship missile . For air
defense , each Udaloy is armed with four
AK-630 CIWSs , mounted
parallel to each other mid ship. They also have two
each capable of engaging six targets automatically by either its
armament of two
GSh-6-30 Gatling guns or four
surface-to-air missiles . Finally, 64 3K95 Kinzhal (SA-N-9)
medium-range point defense SAMs can be fired from vertical launching
system . Russia also operates a single Kashin-class destroyer.
Navy Operates five Álvaro de Bazán-class frigates.
These ships are classified as frigates by
Spain and carry the NATO
hull classification symbol "F 1xx" for frigate, but are described
destroyers by other navies. The design of these ships were inspired
by the United States's Arleigh Burke-class destroyers and carry the
AEGIS Combat System.
* Royal Thai
Navy operates a single Cannon-class destroyer escort
purchased from the United States for training use.
HMS Daring , a Type 45 guided missile destroyer of the Royal
Navy Operates the Type 45 , or Daring class, stealth
destroyer which displaces roughly 8,000 tonnes. Six ships of the class
are operational. They are equipped with the UK variant of the
Principal Anti-Air Missile System (PAAMS) and
BAE Systems SAMPSON
radar. The Royal
Navy also operates a
Type 82 destroyer for training
United States Navy
United States Navy Fleet destroyers operate in support of carrier
battle groups , surface action groups, amphibious groups and
replenishment groups. The destroyers currently in use by the US Navy
are the Arleigh Burke class . Destroyers (with a DD hull
classification symbol ) primarily perform anti-submarine warfare duty
while guided missile destroyers (DDGs) are multi-mission
(anti-submarine , anti-aircraft and anti-surface warfare) surface
combatants, with an emphasis on anti-surface warfare.
The addition of cruise missile launchers has greatly expanded the
role of the destroyer in strike and land-attack warfare. As the
expense of heavier surface combatants has generally removed them from
the fleet, destroyer tonnage has grown (a modern Arleigh Burke-class
destroyer has the same tonnage as a
World War II
World War II light cruiser ). Many
modern destroyer designs delegate their anti-submarine role to
embarked helicopters, which in addition to anti-submarine warfare can
also be used for maritime rescue and vertical replenishment. In
October 2013 the first of three U.S. Zumwalt class of destroyers left
dry dock, the destroyer built with specific structural angles and a
superstructure wrapped in a carbon fiber composite canopy to reduce
its radar detectability by a factor of 50. The ship, with 80 missiles
and a crew of 150, will include two Advanced Gun Systems (AGS) that
can fire rocket-powered, computer-guided shells to destroy targets 63
miles (101 km) away.
The "Baden-Württemberg", an
F125-class frigate of the German
Navy ; currently the biggest frigates worldwide. In size and role they
are qualified as destroyers
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Navy is currently building three Hobart-class
destroyers. These ships are to replace the aging Adelaide-class
frigates. Their design is similar to that of the Arleigh Burke-class
destroyer and the Alvaro de Bazan-class destroyer. They will also use
the AEGIS Combat System. The first unit,
HMAS Hobart (DDGH 39) , will
be commissioned in June 2017.
Navy has begun development into its Single Class
Surface Combatant Project . These ships are to replace the
Iroquois-class destroyers and the Halifax-class frigates. The design
of these ships is due to be chosen in 2017.
People\'s Liberation Army
Navy is currently adding up to 18 ships of
Type 052D destroyer
Type 052D destroyer class. Four more units scheduled to be
delivered by the end of 2017. Serial construction has also begun for
the larger and more powerful
Type 055 destroyer
Type 055 destroyer . These ships carry an
integrated naval complex comparable to the AEGIS combat system.
Navy is adding six more FREMM multipurpose frigates to their
fleet, while also negotiating plans to export a number of units to the
Navy and attempting to sell units to the Royal Canadian Navy
Navy is currently building four F125-class frigates. Although
Germany as frigates, they are destroyers in terms of
size and strength. They are to replace the aging Bremen-class
frigates. The first unit, FGS Baden-Wurttemberg F125, will be
commissioned in 2016 with "F" being the NATO hull classification for a
In addition, six multimission surface combat ships are planned under
the name 'Mehrzweckkampfschiff 180' (MKS 180), which will have
destroyer-size and corresponding capabilities
Navy is constructing the Visakhapatnam class which is an
improved version of the Kolkata class.
Islamic Republic of
Navy is currently adding four more
Moudge-class frigates to its fleet.
Iran is also building six Khalije
Fars-class destroyers, these ships are to become the largest vessels
in the Islamic Republic of
Navy and are expected to enter service
in the coming years.
Navy is due to receive two Sachsen-class frigates from
Germany within the coming years.
Marina Militare is adding six more FREMM multipurpose frigates to
their fleet, while also negotiating plans to export a number of units
to the Hellenic
Navy and attempting to sell units to the Royal
Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force
Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force is currently developing plans for
its 25DD destroyers and its DDR
Destroyer Revolution Project. Japan
is also planning the construction of four new AEGIS equipped
destroyers, whose class is yet to be named. Additionally, plans have
been laid out for Japan's new 30FF anti-submarine destroyer. These
ships are expected to enter service between 2018-2019. Japan also
recently launched JDS Asahai (DD-119) , the lead ship of her new class
of destroyers. She will be commissioned in 2018.
Republic of Korea
Navy has begun development of its KDX-IIA
destroyers. These ships are to be a subclass of South Korea's
Chungmugong Yi Sun-shin class destroyers. The first unit is expected
to enter service in 2019. Additionally, three more Sejong the
Great-class destroyers are being built.
Navy is planning construction of an additional five
Fridtjof Nansen-class frigates.
Navy has begun development into its Leader-class destroyer.
These ships will be the first destroyers built in Russia since the
collapse of the Soviet Union and will be nuclear powered. The first
unit is expected to enter service in 2023, with 11 more units to
follow in the coming years. Additionally, Russia is also developing
it's Yuschchenko-class destroyers. These ships are expected to be
multi purpose destroyers tasked with reinforcing a modern Russian
surface combat fleet.
Navy is currently negotiating plans to receive a number
of Arleigh Burke-class destroyers from the United States. USS
Zumwalt , the lead ship of the DD(X) class.
United States Navy
United States Navy The last
Spruance-class destroyer in service, USS
Cushing , was decommissioned on September 21, 2005. The Zumwalt class
is planned to replace them; on November 1, 2001, the US
the issuance of a revised Request for Proposal (RFP) for the Future
Surface Combatant Program. Formerly known as DD 21, the program was
renamed DD(X) (and later renamed to DDG-1000) to more accurately
reflect the program purpose, which is to produce a family of advanced
technology surface combatants, not a single ship class. DD(X), also
called Zumwalt class, is much larger than traditional destroyers,
nearly three thousand tons heavier than a Ticonderoga-class cruiser
(15,610 long tons, larger than most heavy cruisers from the World War
II era). It will potentially employ advanced weaponry and an
all-electric Integrated Power System; however, the construction
program was subsequently reduced to just two vessels , and there is
currently only funding for three in total. With the retirement of the
Spruance class, the US
Navy began commissioning an advanced variant of
the Arleigh Burke class with expanded ASW capabilities, the Arleigh
Burke Flight IIA, beginning with USS Oscar Austin . As of 2012 , 34 of
these vessels are in service, with more under construction.
A number of countries have destroyers preserved as museum ships.
* ARA Santisima Trinidad is currently being restored and will be
Puerto Belgrano ,
HMAS Vampire (D11) in
New South Wales
New South Wales .
* BNS Bauru, formerly the
USS McAnn (DE-179) in
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro ,
HMCS Haida (G63)
HMCS Haida (G63) in Hamilton ,
Chinese destroyer Anshan (101) in
* Chinese destroyer Changchun (103) in Rushan ,
* Chinese destroyer Taiyuan (104) in
* Chinese Luda-class destroyers, Jinan, Yinchuan, Nanjing, Nanchang,
-webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type:
* ^ Gove p. 2412
* ^ Lyon p. 8, 9
* ^ Although the Russian Kirov class are sometimes classified as
battlecruisers, due to their displacement they are described by Russia
as large missile cruisers.
* ^ Northrop Grumman christened its 28th Aegis guided missile
destroyer, William P. Lawrence (DDG 110) April 19, 2010. Retrieved
August 29, 2014.
* ^ Lyon p. 8
* ^ "
Torpedo Boats". Battleships-Cruisers.co.uk.
* ^ Jentschura p. 126
* ^ Evans and Peattie, David C. and Mark R. (1997). Kaigun:
Strategy, Tactics, and Technology in the Imperial Japanese Navy,
1887–1941. Annapolis, Maryland:
Naval Institute Press
Naval Institute Press . ISBN
* ^ Howe, Christopher (1996). The Origins of Japanese Trade
Supremacy: Development and Technology in Asia from 1540 to the Pacific
War. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. ISBN
* ^ A B Lyon & Winfield. "10". The Sail and Steam
Navy List. pp.
* ^ "Villaamil".
* ^ A B C Contratorpedero Destructor (in Spanish)
* ^ Illustrated Naval and Military Magazine: A monthly journal
devoted to all subjects connected with Her Majesty's land and sea
forces, 1888, v 9, page 280
* ^ A B Fitzsimmons, Bernard: The Illustrated encyclopedia of 20th
century weapons and warfare. Columbia House, 1978, v. 8, page 835
* ^ From an article about the American Greyhounds
* ^ Captain T.D. Manning (1961). The British Destroyer. Putnam and
* ^ Lyon, David (1996). The First Destroyers. ISBN 1-84067-364-8 .
* ^ Simpson p. 151
* ^ Anon. (1904). "The British Admiralty ...". Scientific American.
91 (2). ISSN 0036-8733 .
* ^ Dahl, E.J. (2001). "Naval innovation: From coal to oil" (PDF).
Joint Force Quarterly (Winter 2000–01): 50–6. Archived from the
original (PDF) on 22 October 2016. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
* ^ Lyon p. 121
* ^ Brett, Bernard: "History of World Sea Power", Deans
International (London) 1985. ISBN 0-603-03723-2
* ^ Grant p. 136
* ^ Grant, image, frontispiece
* ^ Lyon p. 58
* ^ Jentschura p. 132 (Akatsuki built by Yarrow 224' long,
displaced 415 tons, two 18" , two 3" guns, four 57 mm Quick Firing
Guns, complement 60 officers/men. Sunk by mine at Port Arthur on 17
* ^ A B Grant p. 102, 103
* ^ Simpson p. 100
* ^ Grant p. 42
* ^ Grant p. 33, 34, 40
* ^ U-Boats Destroyed, Paul Kemp (1997), ISBN 1-85409-515-3
* ^ The
FREMM multipurpose frigate is classified as a destroyer by
France and a frigate by Italy, but both are the same ship with the
same capabilities, leaving the true type of this ship subject to
* ^ http://www.helis.com/database/sys/172_F_124_Sachsen_class
* ^ "Iran’s New, Ahem, Destroyer". 20 February 2010.
* ^ De Zeven Provincien Class Guided Missile
Luchtverdedigings- en Commando Fregat - Royal
* ^ "U.S. Studies Norwegians For Manning Mindset".
* ^ A B Shaughnessy, Larry (October 29, 2013). "Bigger, Lighter,
Navy launches new stealth destroyer". CNN. Archived from the
original on October 31, 2013.
* ^ Some bidders not happy with approach on Canadian Surface
Combatant, says top procurement official Ottawa Citizen
* ^ A B "Video feature: Showboat - DCNS showcases FREMM frigate to
* ^ "Report:
Germany to sell Israel 2 destroyers for 1 billion
* ^ Boring, War Is (7 March 2014). "Japan’s New Destroyers Are
Intentional Missile-Magnets: ‘Suzutsuki,’ ‘Fuyuzuki’ and their
sisters are meant to deflect enemy attacks away from other ships".
* ^ "Japan eyes two new Aegis destroyers to counter N. Korea
missile threat". 7 July 2013 – via Japan Times Online.
* ^ "Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Unveiled 30FF or DEX Next
Generation Vessel Concept for the JMSDF".
* ^ Pike, John. "New Construction Destroyer".
* ^ Severnoe PDB :: News and publications :: Publications
* ^ Koenig, Seth; Staff, B. D. N. "Could Saudi Arabia be Bath Iron
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* ^ Destroyers – DDG fact