Derry (/ˈdɛri/), officially Londonderry (/ˈlʌndənˌdɛri/),
is the second-largest city in Northern Ireland and the
fourth-largest city on the island of Ireland. The name
Derry is an
anglicisation of the
Old Irish name Daire (modern Irish: Doire)
meaning "oak grove". In 1613, the city was granted a Royal
Charter by King James I and gained the "London" prefix to reflect the
funding of its construction by the London guilds. While the city is
more usually known colloquially as Derry, Londonderry is also
commonly used and remains the legal name.
The old walled city lies on the west bank of the River Foyle, which is
spanned by two road bridges and one footbridge. The city now covers
both banks (Cityside on the west and Waterside on the east). The
population of the city was 83,652 at the 2001 Census, while the Derry
Urban Area had a population of 90,736. The district administered
Derry City and
Strabane District Council
Strabane District Council contains both Londonderry
Port and City of
Derry is close to the border with County Donegal, with which it has
had a close link for many centuries. The person traditionally seen as
the founder of the original
Derry is Saint Colmcille, a holy man from
Tír Chonaill, the old name for almost all of modern County Donegal,
of which the west bank of the Foyle was a part before 1610.
Derry was the inaugural UK City of Culture, having been
awarded the title in 2010.
2 City walls
3.1 Early history
3.3 17th-century upheavals
3.4 18th and 19th centuries
3.5 Early 20th century
3.5.1 World War I
3.5.3 World War II
3.6 Late 20th century
3.6.1 1950s and 1960s
3.6.2 The Civil Rights Movement
3.7 The Troubles
4.1 Coat of arms and motto
7.2 Inward investment
9.3.1 Railway history
220.127.116.11 19th and 20th century growth
18.104.22.168 20th century decline
9.4 Road network
9.6 Inland waterways
11.1 Association football
11.2 Gaelic football
11.4 Rugby Union
12.4 References in popular music
13 Notable people
14 See also
16 External links
Main article: Derry/Londonderry name dispute
Road sign in
Northern Ireland with the reference to London obscured
Road signs in the
Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland (
County Donegal shown) use Derry
and the Irish Doire.
According to the city's
Royal Charter of 10 April 1662, the official
name is "Londonderry". This was reaffirmed in a High Court decision in
Derry City Council sought guidance on the procedure for
effecting a name change. The council had changed its name from
"Londonderry City Council" to "
Derry City Council" in 1984; the
court case was seeking clarification as to whether this had also
changed the name of the city. The decision of the court was that it
had not but it was clarified that the correct procedure to do so was
via a petition to the Privy Council.
Derry City Council since
started this process and were involved in conducting an equality
impact assessment report (EQIA). Firstly it held an opinion poll
of district residents in 2009, which reported that 75% of Catholics
and 77% of Nationalists found the proposed change acceptable, compared
to 6% of Protestants and 8% of Unionists. Then the EQIA held two
consultative forums, and solicited comments from the general public on
whether or not the city should have its name changed to Derry. A
total of 12,136 comments were received, of which 3,108 were broadly in
favour of the proposal, and 9,028 opposed to it. On 23 July 2015,
the council voted in favour of a motion to change the official name of
the city to
Derry and to write to Mark H. Durkan, Northern Ireland
Minister of the Environment, to ask how the change could be
Despite the official name, the city is more usually known as
"Derry", which is an anglicisation of the Irish Daire or Doire,
and translates as "oak-grove/oak-wood". The name derives from the
settlement's earliest references, Daire Calgaich ("oak-grove of
Calgach"). The name was changed from
Derry in 1613 during the
Plantation of Ulster
Plantation of Ulster to reflect the establishment of the city by the
The name "Derry" is preferred by nationalists and it is broadly used
throughout Northern Ireland's Catholic community, as well as that
of the Republic of Ireland, whereas many unionists prefer
"Londonderry"; however in everyday conversation
Derry is used by
Protestant residents of the city. Linguist Kevin McCafferty
argues that "It is not, strictly speaking, correct that Northern
Ireland Catholics call it Derry, while Protestants use the Londonderry
form, although this pattern has become more common locally since the
mid-1980s, when the city council changed its name by dropping the
prefix". In McCafferty's survey of language use in the city, "only
very few interviewees—all Protestants—use the official form".
Apart from the name of
Derry City Council, the city is usually
known as Londonderry in official use within the UK. In the Republic of
Ireland, the city and county are almost always referred to as Derry,
on maps, in the media and in conversation. In April 2009, however,
the Republic of Ireland's Minister for Foreign Affairs, Micheál
Martin, announced that Irish passport holders who were born there
could record either
Derry or Londonderry as their place of birth.
Whereas official road signs in the Republic use the name Derry, those
Northern Ireland bear Londonderry (sometimes abbreviated to
"L'Derry"), although some of these have been defaced with the
reference to London obscured. Usage varies among local
organisations, with both names being used. Examples are City of Derry
Airport, City of
Derry Rugby Club,
Derry City FC
Derry City FC and the Protestant
Apprentice Boys of Derry, as opposed to Londonderry Port, Londonderry
YMCA Rugby Club and Londonderry Chamber of Commerce. Most
companies within the city choose local area names such as Pennyburn,
Rosemount or "Foyle" from the
River Foyle to avoid alienating the
Londonderry railway station
Londonderry railway station is often referred to as
Waterside railway station within the city but is called
Derry/Londonderry at other stations. The council changed the name of
the local government district covering the city to
Derry on 7 May
1984, consequently renaming itself
Derry City Council. This did
not change the name of the city, although the city is coterminous with
the district, and in law the city council is also the "Corporation of
Londonderry" or, more formally, the "Mayor, Aldermen and Citizens of
the City of Londonderry". The form "Londonderry" is used for the
post town by the Royal Mail, however use of
Derry will still
The city is also nicknamed the Maiden City by virtue of the fact that
its walls were never breached despite being besieged on three separate
occasions in the 17th century, the most notable being the Siege of
Derry of 1688-89. It is also nicknamed Stroke City by local
broadcaster, Gerry Anderson, due to the 'politically correct' use of
the oblique notation Derry/Londonderry (which appellation has
itself been used by BBC Television). A recent addition to the
landscape has been the erection of several large stone columns on main
roads into the city welcoming drivers, euphemistically, to "the walled
Derry is very much in popular use throughout Ireland for the
naming of places, and there are at least six towns bearing that name
and at least a further 79 places. The word
Derry often forms part of
the place name, for example Derrybeg, Derryboy, Derrylea and
Derry and Londonderry are not limited to Ireland. There is a
Derry situated right beside another town called
New Hampshire in the United States. There are also
Londonderrys in Yorkshire, England, in Vermont, United States, in Nova
Scotia, Canada, and in northern and eastern Australia. Londonderry
Island is situated off
Tierra del Fuego
Tierra del Fuego in Chile.
Derry is also a fictional town in Maine, United States, used in some
Stephen King novels.
A portion of the city walls of Derry
Bishops Street Gate
Derry is the only remaining completely intact walled city in Ireland
and one of the finest examples of a walled city in Europe.
The walls constitute the largest monument in State care in Northern
Ireland and, as the last walled city to be built in Europe, stands as
the most complete and spectacular.
The Walls were built in 1613–1619 by The Honourable The Irish
Society as defences for early 17th century settlers from England and
Scotland. The Walls, which are approximately 1 mile (1.6 km) in
circumference and which vary in height and width between 3.7 and 10.7
metres (12 and 35 feet), are completely intact and form a walkway
around the inner city. They provide a unique promenade to view the
layout of the original town which still preserves its Renaissance
style street plan. The four original gates to the Walled City are
Bishop's Gate, Ferryquay Gate, Butcher Gate and Shipquay Gate. Three
further gates were added later, Magazine Gate, Castle Gate and New
Gate, making seven gates in total. Historic buildings within the walls
include the 1633 Gothic cathedral of St Columb, the Apprentice Boys
Memorial Hall and the courthouse.
It is one of the few cities in Europe that never saw its
fortifications breached, withstanding several sieges including one in
1689 which lasted 105 days, hence the city's nickname, The Maiden
Main article: History of Derry
St Columb's Cathedral
Derry is one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in
Ireland. The earliest historical references date to the 6th
century when a monastery was founded there by St
Columba or Colmcille,
a famous saint from what is now County Donegal, but for thousands of
years before that people had been living in the vicinity.
Before leaving Ireland to spread Christianity elsewhere, Colmcille
founded a monastery at
Derry (which was then called Doire Calgach), on
the west bank of the Foyle. According to oral and documented history,
the site was granted to Colmcille by a local king. The monastery
then remained in the hands of the federation of Columban churches who
regarded Colmcille as their spiritual mentor. The year 546 is often
referred to as the date that the original settlement was founded.
However, it is now accepted by historians that this was an erroneous
date assigned by medieval chroniclers. It is accepted that between
the 6th century and the 11th century,
Derry was known primarily as a
The town became strategically more significant during the Tudor
conquest of Ireland and came under frequent attack. During O'Doherty's
Rebellion in 1608 it was attacked by Sir Cahir O'Doherty, Irish
chieftain of Inishowen, who burnt much of the town and killed the
governor George Paulet. The soldier and statesman Sir Henry Docwra
made vigorous efforts to develop the town, earning the reputation of
being " the founder of Derry"; but he was accused of failing to
prevent the O'Doherty attack, and returned to England.
What became the City of
Derry was part of the relatively new County
Donegal up until 1610. In that year, the west bank of the future
city was transferred by the
English Crown to The Honourable The Irish
Society and was combined with County Coleraine, part of County
Antrim and a large portion of
County Tyrone to form County
Londonderry. Planters organised by London livery companies through The
Honourable The Irish Society arrived in the 17th century as part of
the Plantation of Ulster, and rebuilt the town with high walls to
defend it from Irish insurgents who opposed the plantation. The aim
was to settle
Ulster with a population supportive of the Crown. It
was then renamed "Londonderry".
This city was the first planned city in Ireland: it was begun in 1613,
with the walls being completed in 1619, at a cost of £10,757. The
central diamond within a walled city with four gates was thought to be
a good design for defence. The grid pattern chosen was subsequently
much copied in the colonies of British North America. The charter
initially defined the city as extending three Irish miles (about
6.1 km) from the centre.
The modern city preserves the 17th century layout of four main streets
radiating from a central Diamond to four gateways –
Bishop's Gate, Ferryquay Gate, Shipquay Gate and Butcher's Gate. The
city's oldest surviving building was also constructed at this time:
the 1633 Plantation Gothic cathedral of St Columb. In the porch of the
cathedral is a stone that records completion with the inscription: "If
stones could speake, then London's prayse should sound, Who built this
church and cittie from the grounde."
During the 1640s, the city suffered in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms,
which began with the Irish Rebellion of 1641, when the Gaelic Irish
insurgents made a failed attack on the city. In 1649 the city and its
garrison, which supported the republican Parliament in London, were
besieged by Scottish
Presbyterian forces loyal to King Charles I. The
Parliamentarians besieged in
Derry were relieved by a strange alliance
Roundhead troops under
George Monck and the Irish Catholic general
Owen Roe O'Neill. These temporary allies were soon fighting each other
again however, after the landing in Ireland of the
New Model Army
New Model Army in
1649. The war in
Ulster was finally brought to an end when the
Parliamentarians crushed the Irish Catholic
Ulster army at the Battle
of Scarrifholis, near
Letterkenny in nearby County Donegal, in 1650.
During the Glorious Revolution, only
Derry and nearby
Protestant garrison by November 1688. An army of around 1,200 men,
mostly "Redshanks" (Highlanders), under Alexander Macdonnell, 3rd Earl
of Antrim, was slowly organised (they set out on the week William of
Orange landed in England). When they arrived on 7 December 1688 the
gates were closed against them and the
Siege of Derry
Siege of Derry began. In April
1689, King James came to the city and summoned it to surrender. The
King was rebuffed and the siege lasted until the end of July with the
arrival of a relief ship.
18th and 19th centuries
Map of County Londonderry, 1837
The city was rebuilt in the 18th century with many of its fine
Georgian style houses still surviving. The city's first bridge across
River Foyle was built in 1790. During the 18th and 19th centuries
the port became an important embarkation point for Irish emigrants
setting out for North America. Some of these founded the colonies of
Derry and Londonderry in the state of New Hampshire.
Also during the 19th century, it became a destination for migrants
fleeing areas more severely affected by the Irish Potato
Famine. One of the most notable shipping lines was the
McCorkell Line operated by Wm. McCorkell & Co. Ltd. from 1778.
The McCorkell's most famous ship was the Minnehaha, which was known as
the "Green Yacht from Derry".
Early 20th century
World War I
World War I
World War I the city contributed over 5,000 men to the British
Army from Catholic and
The war memorial in The Diamond, erected 1927
During the Irish War of Independence, the area was rocked by sectarian
violence, partly prompted by the guerilla war raging between the Irish
Republican Army and British forces, but also influenced by economic
and social pressures. By mid-1920 there was severe sectarian rioting
in the city. Many lives were lost and in addition many
Catholics and Protestants were expelled from their homes during this
communal unrest. After a week's violence, a truce was negotiated by
local politicians on both unionist and republican sides.
In 1921, following the
Anglo-Irish Treaty and the Partition of
Ireland, it unexpectedly became a 'border city', separated from much
of its traditional economic hinterland in County Donegal.
World War II
During World War II, the city played an important part in the Battle
of the Atlantic. Ships from the Royal Navy, the Royal Canadian
Navy, and other Allied navies were stationed in the city and the
United States military established a base. Over 20,000 Royal Navy,
10,000 Royal Canadian Navy, and 6,000
American Navy personnel were
stationed in the city during the war. The establishment of the
American presence in the city was the result of a secret agreement
between the Americans and the British before the Americans entered the
war. It was the first American naval base in Europe and the
terminal for American convoys en route to Europe.
The reason for such a high degree of military and naval activity was
Derry was the United Kingdom's westernmost port; indeed,
the city was the westernmost Allied port in Europe: thus,
Derry was a
crucial jumping-off point, together with
Glasgow and Liverpool, for
the shipping convoys that ran between Europe and North America. The
large numbers of military personnel in
Derry substantially altered the
character of the city, bringing in some outside colour to the local
area, as well as some cosmopolitan and economic buoyancy during these
years. Several airfields were built in the outlying regions of the
city at this time, Maydown, Eglinton and Ballykelly. RAF Eglinton went
on to become City of
The city contributed significant number of men to the war effort
throughout the services, most notably the 500 men in the 9th
(Londonderry) Heavy Anti-Aircraft Regiment, known as the '
This regiment served in North Africa, the Sudan, Italy and mainland
UK. Many others served in the Merchant Navy taking part in the convoys
that supplied the UK and Russia during the war.
The border location of the city, and influx of trade from the military
convoys allowed for significant smuggling operations to develop in the
At the conclusion of the Second World War, eventually some 60 U-boats
of the German
Kriegsmarine ended in the city's harbour at Lisahally
after their surrender. The initial surrender was attended by
Admiral Sir Max Horton, Commander-in-Chief of the Western Approaches,
and Sir Basil Brooke, third Prime Minister of Northern Ireland.
Late 20th century
1950s and 1960s
The city languished after the second world war, with unemployment and
development stagnating. A large campaign, led by the University for
Derry Committee, to have Northern Ireland's second university located
in the city, ended in failure.
The Civil Rights Movement
Derry was a focal point for the nascent civil rights movement in
Bogside area viewed from the walls
Catholics were discriminated against under Unionist government in
Northern Ireland, both politically and economically.
In the late 1960s the city became the flashpoint of disputes about
institutional gerrymandering. Political scientist John Whyte explains
All the accusations of gerrymandering, practically all the complaints
about housing and regional policy, and a disproportionate amount of
the charges about public and private employment come from this area.
The area – which consisted of Counties Tyrone and Fermanagh,
Londonderry County Borough, and portions of Counties Londonderry and
Armagh – had less than a quarter of the total population of Northern
Ireland yet generated not far short of three-quarters of the
complaints of discrimination...The unionist government must bear its
share of responsibility. It put through the original gerrymander which
underpinned so many of the subsequent malpractices, and then, despite
repeated protests, did nothing to stop those malpractices continuing.
The most serious charge against the
Northern Ireland government is not
that it was directly responsible for widespread discrimination, but
that it allowed discrimination on such a scale over a substantial
segment of Northern Ireland.
A civil rights demonstration in 1968 led by the
Northern Ireland Civil
Rights Association was banned by the Government and blocked using
force by the Royal
Ulster Constabulary. The events that followed
the August 1969
Apprentice Boys parade resulted in the Battle of the
Bogside, when Catholic rioters fought the police, leading to
widespread civil disorder in
Northern Ireland and is often dated as
the starting point of the Troubles.
On Sunday 30 January 1972, 13 unarmed civilians were shot dead by
British paratroopers during a civil rights march in the
Another 13 were wounded and one further man later died of his wounds.
This event came to be known as Bloody Sunday.
The Troubles in Derry
Derry Corner" at the corner of Lecky Road and Fahan Street in
the Bogside. The slogan was first painted in January 1969 by John
The conflict which became known as the Troubles is widely regarded as
having started in
Derry with the Battle of the Bogside. The Civil
Rights movement had also been very active in the city. In the early
1970s the city was heavily militarised and there was widespread civil
unrest. Several districts in the city constructed barricades to
control access and prevent the forces of the state from entering.
Violence eased towards the end of the Troubles in the late 1980s and
early 1990s. Irish journalist Ed Maloney claims in "The Secret History
of the IRA" that republican leaders there negotiated a de facto
ceasefire in the city as early as 1991. Whether this is true or not,
the city did see less bloodshed by this time than
Belfast or other
The city was visited by a killer whale in November 1977 at the height
of the Troubles; it was dubbed Dopey Dick by the thousands who came
from miles around to see him.
From 1613 the city was governed by the Londonderry Corporation. In
1898 this became Londonderry County Borough Council, until 1969 when
administration passed to the unelected Londonderry Development
Commission. In 1973 a new district council with boundaries extending
to the rural south-west was established under the name Londonderry
City Council, renamed in 1984 to
Derry City Council, consisting of
five electoral areas: Cityside, Northland, Rural,
Waterside. The council of 30 members was re-elected every four years.
As of the 2011 election, 14
Social Democratic and Labour Party
Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP)
members, ten Sinn Féin, five
Democratic Unionist Party
Democratic Unionist Party (DUP), and one
Ulster Unionist Party
Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) made up the council.[needs update] The
mayor and deputy mayor were elected annually by councillors. The local
authority boundaries corresponded to the Foyle constituency of the
Parliament of the
United Kingdom and the Foyle constituency of the
Northern Ireland Assembly. In
European Parliament elections, it was
part of the
Northern Ireland constituency.
The council merged with
Strabane District Council
Strabane District Council in April 2015 under
local government reorganisation to become
The councillors elected in 2014 for the city are:
Coat of arms and motto
Derry's coat of arms
The devices on the city's arms are a skeleton and a three-towered
castle on a black field, with the chief or top third of the shield
depicting the arms of the City of London: a red cross and sword on
white. In the centre of the cross is a gold harp. The blazon of the
arms is as follows:
Sable, a human skeleton Or seated upon a mossy stone proper and in
dexter chief a castle triple towered argent on a chief also argent a
cross gules thereon a harp or and in the first quarter a sword erect
According to documents in the
College of Arms
College of Arms in London and the Office
of the Chief Herald of Ireland in Dublin, the arms of the city were
confirmed in 1613 by Daniel Molyneux,
Ulster King of Arms. The
College of Arms
College of Arms document states that the original arms of the City of
Derry were ye picture of death (or a skeleton) on a moissy stone &
in ye dexter point a castle and that upon grant of a charter of
incorporation and the renaming of the city as Londonderry in that year
the first mayor had requested the addition of a "chief of
Theories have been advanced as to the meaning of the "old" arms of
Derry, before the addition of the chief bearing the arms of the City
A suggestion has been made that the castle is related to an early
14th-century castle in nearby Greencastle belonging to the
Earl of Ulster
Earl of Ulster Richard de Burgh.
The most popular theory about the skeleton is that it is that of a
Norman De Burgh knight who was starved to death in the castle dungeons
in 1332 on the orders of his cousin the above-mentioned Earl of
Ulster. Another explanation put forward was that it depicted Cahir
O'Doherty (Sir Charles O'Dogherty), who was put to death after Derry
was invested by the English army in 1608. During the days of
Gerrymandering and discrimination against the Catholic population of
Derry, Derry's Roman Catholics often used to claim in dark wit that
the skeleton was a local waiting for help from the council
In 1979, Londonderry City Council, as it was then known, commissioned
a report into the city's arms and insignia, as part of the design
process for an heraldic badge. The published report found that there
was no basis for any of the popular explanations for the skeleton and
that it was "purely symbolic and does not refer to any identifiable
The 1613 records of the arms depicted a harp in the centre of the
cross, but this was omitted from later depictions of the city arms,
and in the
Letters Patent confirming the arms to Londonderry
Corporation in 1952. In 2002
Derry City Council applied to the
College of Arms
College of Arms to have the harp restored to the city arms, and Garter
and Norroy &
Ulster Kings of Arms accepted the 17th century
evidence, issuing letters patent to that effect in 2003.
The motto attached to the coat of arms reads in Latin, "Vita, Veritas,
Victoria". This translates into English as, "Life, Truth,
Derry is characterised by its distinctively hilly topography. The
River Foyle forms a deep valley as it flows through the city, making
Derry a place of very steep streets and sudden, startling views. The
original walled city of Londonderry lies on a hill on the west bank of
the River Foyle. In the past, the river branched and enclosed this
wooded hill as an island; over the centuries, however, the western
branch of the river dried up and became a low-lying and boggy district
that is now called the Bogside.
Derry extends considerably north and west of the city
walls and east of the river. The half of the city the west of the
Foyle is known as the Cityside and the area east is called the
Waterside. The Cityside and Waterside are connected by the Craigavon
Bridge and Foyle Bridge, and by a foot bridge in the centre of the
city called Peace Bridge. The district also extends into rural areas
to the southeast of the city.
This much larger city, however, remains characterised by the often
extremely steep hills that form much of its terrain on both sides of
the river. A notable exception to this lies on the north-eastern edge
of the city, on the shores of Lough Foyle, where large expanses of sea
and mudflats were reclaimed in the middle of the 19th century. Today,
these slob lands are protected from the sea by miles of sea walls and
dikes. The area is an internationally important bird sanctuary, ranked
among the top 30 wetland sites in the UK.
Other important nature reserves lie at Ness Country Park, 10 miles
(16 km) east of Derry; and at
Prehen Wood, within the city's
Derry has, like most of Ireland, a temperate maritime climate
according to the
Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification system. The nearest
Met Office Weather Station for which climate data is
available is Carmoney, just west of
City of Derry Airport
City of Derry Airport and
about 5 miles (8 km) north east of the city centre. However,
observations ceased in 2004 and the nearest Weather Station is
currently Ballykelly, due 12 miles (19 km) east north east.
Typically, 27 nights of the year will report an air frost at
Ballykelly, and at least 1 mm of precipitation will be reported
on 170 days (1981–2010 averages).
The lowest temperature recorded at Carmoney was −11.0 °C
(12.2 °F) on 27 December 1995.
Climate data for Ballykelly SAMOS (
Derry Airport 1981–2010)
Average high °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Derry Urban Area
Derry Urban Area (DUA), including the city and the neighbouring
settlements of Culmore,
Newbuildings and Strathfoyle, is classified as
a city by the
Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (NISRA)
since its population exceeds 75,000. On census day (27 March 2011)
there were 105,066 people living in
Derry Urban Area. Of these, 27%
were aged under 16 years and 14% were aged 60 and over; 49% of the
population were male and 51% were female; 75% were from a Roman
Catholic background and 23% (up three per cent from 2001) were from a
The mid-2006 population estimate for the wider
Derry City Council area
was 107,300. Population growth in 2005/06 was driven by natural
change, with net out-migration of approximately 100 people.
The city was one of the few in Ireland to experience an increase in
population during the Irish Potato Famine as migrants came to it from
other, more heavily affected areas.
"No Surrender" mural outside city wall, taken in 2004
Concerns have been raised by both communities over the increasingly
divided nature of the city. There were about 17,000 Protestants on the
west bank of the
River Foyle in 1971. The proportion rapidly
declined during the 1970s; the 2011 census recorded 3,169
Protestants on the west bank, compared to 54,976 Catholics, and it
is feared that the city could become permanently divided.
However, concerted efforts have been made by local community, church
and political leaders from both traditions to redress the problem. A
conference to bring together key actors and promote tolerance was held
in October 2006. The Rt Rev. Dr Ken Good, the Church of Ireland
Derry and Raphoe, said he was happy living on the cityside.
"I feel part of it. It is my city and I want to encourage other
Protestants to feel exactly the same", he said.
Support for Protestants in the district has been strong from the
former SDLP city Mayor Helen Quigley. Cllr Quigley has made inclusion
and tolerance key themes of her mayoralty. The Mayor Helen Quigley
said it is time for "everyone to take a stand to stop the scourge of
sectarian and other assaults in the city."
Du Pont facility at Maydown
The economy of the district was based significantly on the textile
industry until relatively recently. For many years women were often
the sole wage earners working in the shirt factories while the men
predominantly in comparison had high levels of unemployment. This
led to significant male emigration. The history of shirt making in
the city dates back as far as 1831 and is said to have been started by
William Scott and his family who first exported shirts to Glasgow.
Within 50 years, shirt making in the city was the most prolific in the
UK with garments being exported all over the world. It was known so
well that the industry received a mention in
Das Kapital by Karl Marx,
when discussing the factory system:
The shirt factory of Messrs. Tille at Londonderry, which employs 1,000
operatives in the factory itself, and 9,000 people spread up and down
the country and working in their own houses.
The industry reached its peak in the 1920s employing around 18,000
people. In modern times however the textile industry declined due
to in most part cheaper Asian wages.
A long-term foreign employer in the area is Du Pont, which has been
Maydown since 1958, its first European production
Neoprene was manufactured at
subsequently followed by Hypalon. More recently
Lycra and Kevlar
production units were active. Thanks to a healthy worldwide demand
Kevlar which is made at the plant, the facility recently undertook
a £40 million upgrade to expand its global
Kevlar production. Du Pont
has stated that contributing factors to its continued commitment to
Maydown are "low labour costs, excellent communications, and
tariff-free, easy access to the Britain and European continent."
Seagate production facility
In the last 15 years there has been a drive to increase inward
investment in the city, more recently concentrating on digital
industries. Currently the three largest private-sector employers are
American firms. Economic successes have included call centres and
a large investment by Seagate, which has operated a factory in the
Springtown Industrial Estate since 1993. Seagate currently employs
over 1,000 people, producing more than half of the company's total
requirement for hard drive read-write heads.
A controversial new employer in the area was
Raytheon Systems Limited,
a software division of the American defence contractor, which was set
Derry in 1999. Although some of the local people welcomed
the jobs boost, others in the area objected to the jobs being provided
by a firm involved heavily in the arms trade. Following four
years of protest by the Foyle Ethical Investment Campaign, in 2004
Derry City Council passed a motion declaring the district a "A
'No – Go' Area for the Arms Trade", and in 2006 its
offices were briefly occupied by anti-war protestors who became known
Raytheon 9. In 2009, the company announced that it was not
renewing its lease when it expired in 2010 and was looking for a new
location for its operations.
Significant multinational employers in the region include Firstsource
of India, DuPont, INVISTA, Stream International, Seagate Technology,
Northbrook Technology of the United
States, Arntz Belting and Invision Software of Germany, and Homeloan
Management of the UK. Major local business employers include Desmonds,
Northern Ireland's largest privately owned company, manufacturing and
sourcing garments, E&I Engineering, St. Brendan's Irish Cream
Liqueur and Mc
Cambridge Duffy, one of the largest insolvency practices
in the UK.
Even though the city provides cheap labour by standards in Western
Europe, critics have noted that the grants offered by the Northern
Ireland Industrial Development Board have helped land jobs for the
area that only last as long as the funding lasts. This was
reflected in questions to the Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State
for Northern Ireland, Richard Needham, in 1990. It was noted that
it cost £30,000 to create one job in an American firm in Northern
Critics of investment decisions affecting the district often point to
the decision to build a new university building in nearby
Coleraine rather than developing the Ulster
UniversityMagee Campus. Another major government decision affecting
the city was the decision to create the new town of
Belfast, which again was detrimental to the development of the city.
Even in October 2005, there was perceived bias against the
comparatively impoverished North West of the province, with a major
civil service job contract going to Belfast. Mark Durkan, the Social
Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) leader and Member of Parliament
(MP) for Foyle was quoted in the
Belfast Telegraph as saying:
The fact is there has been consistent under-investment in the North
West and a reluctance on the part of the Civil Service to see or
support anything west of the Bann, except when it comes to rate
increases, then they treat us equally.
In July 2005, the Irish Minister for Finance, Brian Cowen, called for
a joint task force to drive economic growth in the cross border
region. This would have implications for Counties Londonderry, Tyrone,
and Donegal across the border.
Austins department store
The city is the north west's foremost shopping district, housing two
large shopping centres along with numerous shop packed streets serving
much of the greater county, as well as Tyrone and Donegal.
The city centre has two main shopping centres; the Foyleside Shopping
Centre which has 45 stores and 1,430 parking spaces, and the Richmond
Centre, which has 39 retail units. The Quayside Shopping Centre also
serves the city-side and there is also Lisnagelvin Shopping Centre in
the Waterside. These centres, as well as local-run businesses, feature
numerous national and international stores. A recent addition was the
Crescent Link Retail Park located in the Waterside with many
international chain stores, including Homebase, Currys & PC World
(stores combined), Carpet Right, Maplin, Argos Extra, Toys R Us,
Halfords, DW Sports (formerly JJB Sports), Pets at Home, Next Home,
Starbucks, McDonald's, Tesco Express and M&S Simply Food. In the
short period of time that this site has been operational, it has
quickly grown to become the second largest retail park in Northern
Ireland (second only to Sprucefield in Lisburn). Plans have also
been approved for Derry's first Asda store, which will be located at
the retail park sharing a unit with Homebase. Sainsbury's also
applied for planning permission for a store at Crescent Link, but
Alex Attwood turned it down.
Until the store's closure in March 2016, the city was also home to the
world's oldest independent department store, Austins. Established in
1830, Austins predates
Edinburgh by 5 years,
London by 15 years and
Macy's of New
York by 25 years. The
Edwardian building is located within the walled
city in the area known as The Diamond.
St Eugene's Cathedral
Bishop Street Courthouse
Long Tower Church
Derry is renowned for its architecture. This can be primarily ascribed
to the formal planning of the historic walled city of
Derry at the
core of the modern city. This is centred on the Diamond with a
collection of late Georgian, Victorian and
maintaining the gridlines of the main thoroughfares (Shipquay Street,
Ferryquay Street, Butcher Street and Bishop Street) to the City Gates.
St Columb's Cathedral
St Columb's Cathedral does not follow the grid pattern reinforcing its
civic status. This
Church of Ireland
Church of Ireland Cathedral was the first
post-Reformation Cathedral built for an
Anglican church. The
construction of the
St Eugene's Cathedral
St Eugene's Cathedral in the
Bogside in the 19th-century was another major architectural addition
to the city. The Townscape Heritage Initiative has funded restoration
works to key listed buildings and other older structures.
In the three centuries since their construction, the city walls have
been adapted to meet the needs of a changing city. The best example of
this adaptation is the insertion of three additional gates –
Castle Gate, New Gate and Magazine Gate – into the walls in the
course of the 19th century. Today, the fortifications form a
continuous promenade around the city centre, complete with cannon,
avenues of mature trees and views across Derry. Historic buildings
within the city walls include St Augustine's Church, which sits on the
city walls close to the site of the original monastic settlement; the
copper-domed Austin's department store, which claims to the oldest
such store in the world; and the imposing Greek Revival Courthouse on
Bishop Street. The red-brick late-Victorian Guildhall, also crowned by
a copper dome, stands just beyond Shipquay Gate and close to the river
There are many museums and sites of interest in and around the city,
including the Foyle Valley Railway Centre, the
Amelia Earhart Centre
And Wildlife Sanctuary, the
Apprentice Boys Memorial Hall, Ballyoan
Cemetery, The Bogside, numerous murals by the
Bogside Artists, Derry
Craft Village, Free
Derry Corner, O'Doherty Tower (now home to part of
the Tower Museum), the Harbour Museum, the Museum of Free Derry,
Chapter House Museum, the Workhouse Museum, the Nerve Centre, St.
Columb's Park and Leisure Centre, Creggan Country Park, The Millennium
Forum and the Foyle and
Attractions include museums, a vibrant shopping centre and trips to
the Giant's Causeway, which is approximately 50 miles (80 km)
away, though poorly connected by public transport. Lonely Planet
Derry the fourth best city in the world to see in 2013.
In 2011, on the 25th of June, the Peace Bridge opened. It is a cycle
and foot bridge that begins from the Guild Hall in the city centre of
Derry City to
Ebrington Square and St Columb’s Park on the far side
of the River Foyle. It symbolizes the unity of the Protestant
community and the Nationalist community who are settled on either
sides of the Foyle River. "The
Derry Peace Bridge has become an
integral part of
Derry City’s infrastructure and has changed the way
local people use and view their city with over 3 million people having
crossed it so far and many of the locals using it daily".
Future projects include the Walled City Signature Project, which
intends to ensure that the city's walls become a world class tourist
experience. The Ilex Urban Regeneration Company is charged with
delivering several landmark redevelopments. It has taken control of
British Army barracks in the centre of the city. The
Ebrington site is nearing completion and is linked to the city centre
by the new Peace Bridge.
Peace Bridge in Derry
Foyle Bridge showing Derry-to-
Belfast rail link
The transport network is built out of a complex array of old and
modern roads and railways throughout the city and county. The city's
road network also makes use of two bridges to cross the River Foyle,
Craigavon Bridge and the Foyle Bridge, the longest bridge in
Derry also serves as a major transport hub for travel
throughout nearby County Donegal.
In spite of it being the second city of
Northern Ireland (and it being
the second-largest city in all of Ulster), road and rail links to
other cities are below par for its standing. Many business leaders
claim that government investment in the city and infrastructure has
been badly lacking. Some have stated that this is due to its outlying
border location whilst others have cited a sectarian bias against the
region west of the
River Bann due to its high proportion of
Catholics. There is no direct motorway link with
Belfast. The rail link to
Belfast has been downgraded over the years
so that, presently, it is not a viable alternative to the roads for
industry to rely on. There are currently plans for £1 billion worth
of transport infrastructure investment in and around the
district. Planned upgrades to the A5
Dublin road agreed as part
Good Friday Agreement
Good Friday Agreement and St. Andrews Talks fell through when
the government of the
Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland reneged on its funding
citing the recent economic crisis.
Most public transport in
Northern Ireland is operated by the
subsidiaries of Translink. Originally the city's internal bus network
was run by Ulsterbus, which still provides the city's connections with
other towns in Northern Ireland. The city's buses are now run by
Ulsterbus Foyle, just as Translink Metro now provides the bus
service in Belfast. The
Ulsterbus Foyle network offers 13 routes
across the city into the suburban areas, excluding an Easibus link
which connects to the Waterside and Drumahoe, and a free Rail
Link Bus runs from the Waterside Railway Station to the city centre.
All buses leave from the Foyle Street Bus Station in the city centre.
Long-distance buses depart from Foyle Street Bus Station to
destinations throughout Ireland. Buses are operated by both Ulsterbus
Bus Éireann on cross-border routes.
Lough Swilly formerly
operated buses to Co. Donegal, but the company entered liquidation and
is no longer in operation. There is a half-hourly service to Belfast
every day, called the Maiden City Flyer, which is the Goldline Express
flagship route. There are hourly services to Strabane, Omagh,
Letterkenny and Buncrana, and up to twelve services a day
to bring people to Dublin. There is a daily service to Sligo, Galway,
Shannon Airport and Limerick.
Main article: City of
Derry Airport, the council-owned airport near Eglinton, has
been growing in recent years with new investment in extending the
runway and plans to redevelop the terminal. It is hoped that the
new investment will add to the airport's currently limited array of
domestic and international flights and reduce the annual subsidy of
£3.5 million from the local council.
The A2 from
Maydown to Eglinton, serving airport, has recently been
turned into a dual carriageway. City of
Derry airport is the main
regional airport for County Donegal,
County Londonderry and west
County Tyrone as well as
Derry City itself.
The airport is served by
Ryanair with scheduled flights to Glasgow
Airport and Liverpool, all year round with a summer schedule to
Alicante and Faro.
Northern Ireland Railways (N.I.R.) has a single route from Londonderry
railway station (also known as Waterside Station) on the Waterside to
Belfast Great Victoria Street via Coleraine, Ballymoney, Ballymena,
Antrim, Mossley West and
Belfast Central. The service, which had been
allowed to deteriorate in the 1990s, has since been improved by
In 2008 the Department for Regional Development announced plans to
have the track re-laid between
Coleraine by 2013, add a
passing loop to increase traffic capacity and increase the number of
trains by introducing two additional diesel multiple units. The
£86 million plan will reduce the journey time to
Belfast by 30
minutes and allow commuter trains to arrive before 9 a.m. for the
first time. Many still do not use the train, because, at over two
hours, it is slower centre-to-centre than the 100-minute Ulsterbus
Goldline Express service.
Ireland's railway network in 1906
Throughout the first half of the 20th century the city was served by
four different railways that between them linked the city with much of
the province of Ulster, plus a harbour railway network that linked the
other four lines. There was also a tramway on the City side of the
19th and 20th century growth
Derry's first railway was the
Irish gauge (5 ft 3 in
(1,600 mm)) Londonderry and
Enniskillen Railway (L&ER).
Construction began in 1845 from a temporary station at Cow Market on
the City side of the Foyle, reached
Strabane in 1847 and was
extended from Cow Market to its permanent terminus at Foyle Road in
1850. The L&ER reached
Omagh in 1852 and
1854, and was absorbed into the Great Northern Railway (Ireland)
The Londonderry and
Coleraine Railway (L&CR), also Irish gauge,
reached the city in 1852 and opened its terminus at Waterside.
Belfast and Northern Counties Railway leased the line from 1861
and took it over in 1871.
Londonderry and Lough Swilly Railway
Londonderry and Lough Swilly Railway opened between Farland Point
Lough Swilly and a temporary terminus at Pennyburn in 1863. In
1866 it extended from Pennyburn to its permanent terminus at Graving
Dock. The L&LSR was
Irish gauge until 1885, when it was
converted to 3 ft (914 mm) narrow gauge for through running
Londonderry Port and Harbour Commissioners (LPHC) linked Graving
Dock and Foyle Road stations with a railway through Middle Quay in
1867, and linked this line with Waterside station by a railway over
the new Carlisle Bridge in 1868. The bridge was replaced in 1933
with the double-deck
Craigavon Bridge, with the LPHC railway on its
In 1900 the 3 ft (914 mm) gauge Donegal Railway extended
Strabane to Derry, establishing a terminus at Victoria Road. This
was next to Carlisle Bridge and had a junction with the LPHC
railway. The LPHC line was altered to dual gauge which allowed
3 ft (914 mm) gauge traffic between the Donegal Railway and
L&LSR as well as
Irish gauge traffic between the GNR and
B&NCR. In 1906 the
Northern Counties Committee
Northern Counties Committee (NCC, successor to
the B&NCR) and the GNR jointly took over the Donegal Railway,
making it the
County Donegal Railways Joint Committee (CDRJC).
United Kingdom Government subsidised both the L&LSR and the
Donegal Railway to build long extensions into remote parts of County
Donegal. By 1905 these served much of the county, making Derry
(and also Strabane) a key rail hub for the county.
City of Derry Tramways
City of Derry Tramways was opened in 1897. This was a
standard gauge (1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in))
line served by horse trams and was never electrified. The tramway
had only one line, was 1.5 miles (2.4 km) long, and ran along the
City side of the Foyle parallel to the LPHC's line on that side of the
river. It was closed in 1919.
20th century decline
The partition of Ireland in 1922 turned the boundary with County
Donegal into an international frontier. This changed trade patterns to
the railways' detriment and placed border posts on every line to and
Derry except the NCC route to Coleraine. The L&LSR
crossed the border between Pennyburn and Bridge End, the CDRJC crossed
just beyond Strabane, and the GNR line crossed twice between
Strabane. Stops for customs inspections greatly delayed trains
and disrupted timekeeping.
Over the next few years customs agreements between the two states
enabled GNR trains to and from
Derry to pass through the Free State
without inspection unless they were scheduled to serve local stations
on the west bank of the Foyle, and for goods on all railways to be
carried between different parts of the Free State to pass through
Northern Ireland under customs bond. However, local passenger and
goods traffic continued to be delayed by customs examinations.
In the 1920s and 30s and again after the Second World War the railways
also faced increasing road competition. The L&LSR closed its line
in 1953, followed by the CDRJC in 1954. The
Authority took over the NCC in 1949 and the GNR's lines in Northern
Ireland in 1958. The UTA also took over the LPHC railway, which it
closed in 1962. In accordance with The Benson Report submitted to
Northern Ireland Government in 1963, the UTA closed the former GNR
Derry in 1965.
Since 1965 the former L&CR line has been Derry's sole railway
link. As such it has carried not only passenger services between Derry
Belfast but also
CIÉ freight services using
Derry as a railhead
The largest road investment in the north west's history is now (2010)
taking place with building of the 'A2 Broadbridge
Maydown to City of
Derry Airport dualling' project and announcement of the 'A6
Dungiven Dualling Scheme' which will help to
reduce the travel time to Belfast. The latter project brings a
dual-carriageway link between Northern Ireland's two largest cities
one step closer. The project is costing £320 million and is expected
to be completed in 2016.
In October 2006 the
Government of Ireland
Government of Ireland announced that it was to
invest €1 billion in Northern Ireland; and one of the planned
projects will be 'The A5 Western Transport Corridor', the
complete upgrade of the A5
Omagh – Aughnacloy (– Dublin)
road, around 90 kilometres (56 miles) long, to dual carriageway
It is not yet known if these two separate projects will connect at any
point, although there have been calls for some form of connection
between the two routes. In June 2008 Conor Murphy, Minister for
Regional Development, announced that there will be a study into the
feasibility of connecting the A5 and A6. Should it proceed, the
scheme would most likely run from
Drumahoe to south of
the south east of the City.
A mass of surrendered German U-boats at their mooring at Lisahally
Londonderry Port at
Lisahally is the United Kingdom's most westerly
port and has capacity for 30,000-ton vessels. The
Londonderry Port and
Harbour Commissioners (LPHC) announced record turnover, record profits
and record tonnage figures for the year ended March 2008. The figures
are the result of a significant capital expenditure programme for the
period 2000 to 2007 of about £22 million. Tonnage handled by LPHC
increased almost 65% between 2000 and 2007, according to the
latest[when?] annual results.
The port gave vital Allied service in the longest running campaign of
the Second World War, the Battle of the Atlantic, and saw the
surrender of the German U-Boat fleet at
Lisahally on 8 May 1945.
River Foyle is navigable from the coast at
approximately 10 miles (16 km) inland. In 1796, the Strabane
Canal was opened, continuing the navigation a further 4 miles
(6 km) southwards to Strabane. The canal was closed in 1962.
Magee College became a campus of
Ulster University in 1969.
Derry is home to the
Magee Campus of
Ulster University, formerly Magee
College. However, Lockwood's 1960s decision to locate Northern
Ireland's second university in
Coleraine rather than
contribute to the formation of the civil rights movement that
ultimately led to The Troubles.
Derry was the town more closely
associated with higher learning, with
Magee College already more than
a century old by that time. In the mid-1980s a half-hearted
attempt was made at rectifying this mistake by forming Magee College
as a campus of the
Ulster University but this has failed to stifle
calls for the establishment of an independent University in
can grow to it full potential. The campus has never thrived and
currently only has 3,500 students out of a total
student population of 27,000. Ironically, although
Coleraine is blamed
by many in the city for 'stealing the University', it has only 5,000
students, the remaining 19,000 being based in Belfast.
North West Regional College
North West Regional College is also based in the city. In recent
years it has grown to almost 30,000 students.
One of the two oldest secondary schools in
Northern Ireland is located
in Derry, Foyle and Londonderry College. It was founded in 1616 by the
merchant taylors and remains a popular choice. Other secondary schools
include St. Columb's College, Oakgrove Integrated College, St
Cecilia's College, St Mary's College, St. Joseph's Boys' School,
Lisneal College, Thornhill College, Lumen Christi College and St.
Brigid's College. There are also numerous primary schools.
Derry GAA team ahead of the 2009 National League final
The city is home to sports clubs and teams. Both association football
Gaelic football are popular in the area.
In association football, the city's most prominent clubs include Derry
City who play in the national league of the Republic of Ireland;
Institute of the
NIFL Championship and
Oxford United Stars and
Trojans, both of the
Northern Ireland Intermediate League. In addition
to these clubs, who all play in national leagues, other clubs are
based in the city. The local football league governed by the IFA is
the North-West Junior League, which contains many clubs from the city,
such as BBOB (Boys Brigade Old Boys) and Lincoln Courts. The city's
other junior league is the
Derry and District League
Derry and District League and teams from
the city and surrounding areas participate, including Don Boscos and
Creggan Swifts. The
Foyle Cup youth soccer tournament is held annually
in the city. It has attracted many notable teams in the past,
including Werder Bremen,
IFK Göteborg and Ferencváros.
Derry City taking on
Paris Saint-Germain at the Brandywell Stadium
during the 2006 UEFA Cup
Derry GAA are the county team and play in the
Gaelic Athletic Association's National Football League,
Football Championship and All-Ireland Senior Football Championship.
They also field hurling teams in the equivalent tournaments. There are
many Gaelic games clubs in and around the city, for example Na Magha
CLG, Steelstown GAC, Doire Colmcille CLG, Seán Dolans GAC, Na
Piarsaigh CLG Doire Trasna and Slaughtmanus GAC.
There are many boxing clubs, the most well-known being The Ring Boxing
Club, which is based on the City side, and associated with Charlie
Nash and John Duddy, amongst others.
A recent development has seen the formation of Rochester's Amateur
Boxing club, bringing boxing to the residents of the city's Waterside.
Rugby Union is also quite popular in the city, with the City of Derry
Rugby Club situated not far from the city centre. City of Derry
won both the
Ulster Towns Cup and the
Ulster Junior Cup in 2009.
Londonderry YMCA RFC is another rugby club and is based in the village
Drumahoe which is in the outskirts of the city.
The city's only basketball club is
North Star Basketball Club
North Star Basketball Club which
has teams in the Basketball
Northern Ireland senior and junior
Cricket is also a popular sport in the city, particularly in the
Waterside. The city is home to two cricket clubs, Brigade
Cricket Club, both of whom play in the North West
Golf is also a sport which is popular with many in the city. There are
two golf clubs situated in the city, City of
Derry Golf Club and Foyle
International Golf Centre.
Hands Across the Divide sculpture, by Maurice Harron
In recent years the city and surrounding countryside have become well
known for their artistic legacy, producing Nobel Prize-winning poet
Seamus Heaney, poet Seamus Deane, playwright Brian Friel,
writer and music critic Nik Cohn, artist Willie Doherty,
socio-political commentator and activist Eamonn McCann and bands
such as The Undertones. The large political gable-wall murals of
Bogside Artists, Free
Derry Corner, the Foyle Film Festival, the Derry
Walls, St Eugene's and St Columb's Cathedrals and the annual Halloween
street carnival are popular tourist attractions. In 2010, Derry
was named the UK's tenth 'most musical' city by PRS for
Peace Flame Monument, unveiled in May 2013
In May 2013 a perpetual Peace Flame Monument was unveiled by Martin
Luther King III and
Presbyterian minister Rev. David Latimer. The
flame was lit by children from both traditions in the city and is one
of only 15 such flames across the world.
The local papers the
Derry Journal (known as the Londonderry Journal
until 1880) and the
Londonderry Sentinel reflect the divided history
of the city: the Journal was founded in 1772 and is Ireland's second
oldest newspaper; the Sentinel newspaper was formed in 1829 when
new owners of the Journal embraced Catholic Emancipation, and the
editor left the paper to set up the Sentinel.
There are numerous radio stations receivable: the largest stations
based in the city are BBC Radio Foyle and the commercial station
There was a locally based television station, C9TV, one of only two
local or 'restricted' television services in Northern Ireland, which
ceased broadcasts in 2007.
The city's night-life is mainly focused on the weekends, with several
bars and clubs providing "student nights" during the weekdays.
Waterloo Street and Strand Road provide the main venues. Waterloo
Street, a steep street lined with both Irish traditional and modern
pubs, frequently has live rock and traditional music at night.
Derry became the first city to be designated UK City of
Culture, having been awarded the title in July 2010.
Also in 2013 the city hosted Radio 1's Big Weekend and the
The "Banks of the Foyle Hallowe'en Carnival" (known in Irish as Féile
na Samhna) in
Derry are a huge tourism boost for the city. The
carnival is promoted as being the first and longest running Halloween
carnival in the whole of Ireland, It is called the largest
street party in Ireland by the
Derry Visitor and Convention Bureau
with more than 30,000 ghoulish revellers taking to the streets
In March, the city hosts the Big Tickle Comedy Festival, which in 2006
Dara Ó Briain
Dara Ó Briain and Colin Murphy. In April the city plays host
City of Derry Jazz and Big Band Festival and in November the
Foyle Film Festival, the biggest film festival in Northern Ireland.
Every summer the city hosts Tomo-Dachi, Ireland's largest Anime
convention, which in July 2006 was held at Magee College, Ulster
Siege of Derry
Siege of Derry is commemorated annually by the fraternal
Apprentice Boys of Derry
Apprentice Boys of Derry in the week-long Maiden City
The Instinct Festival is an annual youth festival celebrating the
Arts. It is held around Easter and has proven a success in recent
Celtronic is a major annual electronic dance festival held at venues
all around the city. The 2007 Festival featured the DJ, Erol Alkan.
The Millennium Forum
The Millennium Forum is the main theatre in the city, it holds
numerous shows weekly.
On 9 December 2007
Derry entered the Guinness Book of Records when
13,000 Santas gathered to break the world record, beating previous
records held by
Liverpool and Las Vegas.
Winner of the 2005
Britain in Bloom
Britain in Bloom competition (City category).
References in popular music
Main article: List of notable people from Derry
Millennium Forum, Newmarket Street
Notable people who were born or have lived in
Frederick Hervey, Bishop of
Derry and 4th Earl of Bristol
William Thomas Gaul, became Bishop of Mashonaland
Edward Leach, recipient of the Victoria Cross
The Restoration dramatist George Farquhar
Authors Joyce Cary, Seamus Deane,
Jennifer Johnston and Nell
Nobel laureate Seamus Heaney
Social Democratic and Labour Party
Social Democratic and Labour Party founder and Nobel Peace Prize
winner John Hume
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine winner William C.
Deputy First Minister of
Northern Ireland Martin McGuinness
Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland national football team head coach Martin O'Neill
Everton player Darron Gibson
Amanda Burton and Roma Downey
Girls Aloud member Nadine Coyle
Neil Hannon lead singer of The Divine Comedy
Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest winner and former politician Dana
The Undertones and their one-time lead singer Feargal Sharkey
Jimmy McShane of Baltimora
Triathlete Aileen Morrison
Tom McGuinness, Gaelic footballer
Damian McGinty and Keith Harkin, vocalists with the group Celtic
John Park, recipient of the Victoria Cross
Daniel Quigley (World ISKA Professional Super Heaveyweight Kickboxing
Miles Ryan, recipient of the Victoria Cross
List of abbeys and priories in County Londonderry
List of towns and villages in Northern Ireland
Scouting in Northern Ireland
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^ "Derry". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
^ "Londonderry". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 4 April
^ "Derry/Londonderry". BBC. Archived from the original on 21 October
2007. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
^ "The Communications Market 2007" (PDF). Ofcom. p. 14. Archived
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^ DERRY REGIONAL CITY – Business Investment. Retrieved 1 November
2008. Archived 29 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Library Ireland – Sketches of Olden Days in Northern Ireland
^ Anthony David Mills (6 November 2003). A Dictionary of British
Oxford University Press. pp. 430–.
ISBN 978-0-19-852758-9. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
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I was born in Londonderry
I was born in
Derry City too
Oh what a special child
To see such things and still to smile
I know that there was something wrong
But I kept my head down and carried on.
— The Divine Comedy, "Sunrise"
In 1803 we sailed out to sea,
Out from the sweet town of Derry,
For Australia bound if we did not all drown,
And the marks of our fetters we carried...
— Bobby Sands, "Back Home in Derry"
It is old but it is beautiful, and its colours they are fine.
It was worn at Derry, Aughrim,
Enniskillen and the Boyne.
My father wore it as a youth in bygone days of yore.
And on the Twelfth I love to wear the sash my father wore
— Anon., "The Sash"
...In the early morning the shirt factory horn called women from
the Moor and the Bog.
While the men on the dole played a mother's role,
fed the children and then walked the dog.
And when times got tough there was just about enough.
But they saw it through without complaining.
For deep inside was a burning pride in the town I loved so well.
There was music there in the
Derry air, like a language that we all
— Phil Coulter, "The Town I Loved So Well"
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Derry visitor information
Londonderry Chamber of Commerce
Places in County Londonderry
List of places in County Londonderry
North East Liberties of Coleraine
North West Liberties of Londonderry
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