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_DER SPIEGEL_ (German pronunciation: , lit. _"The Mirror"_) is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg
Hamburg
. It is one of Europe's largest publications of its kind, with a weekly circulation of 840,000.

It was founded in 1947 by John Seymour Chaloner (de), a British army officer, and Rudolf Augstein , a former Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
radio operator who was recognized in 2000 by the International Press Institute as one of the fifty World Press Freedom Heroes . _ Spiegel Online _, the online sibling of _Der Spiegel_, was launched in 1994 with an independent editorial staff. Typically, the magazine has a content to advertising ratio of 2:1.

_Der Spiegel_ is known in German-speaking countries mostly for its investigative journalism . It has played a key role in uncovering many political scandals such as the Spiegel scandal in 1962 and the Flick affair in the 1980s. According to _ The Economist _, _Der Spiegel_ is one of continental Europe 's most influential magazines.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Reception

* 3 Investigative journalism

* 3.1 Criticism

* 4 Bans * 5 Head office * 6 Editors-in-chief * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links

HISTORY

Old Spiegel headquarters, Hamburg
Hamburg
Spiegel headquarters since 2011, Hamburg
Hamburg

The first edition of _Der Spiegel_ was published in Hanover
Hanover
on Saturday, 4 January 1947. Its release was initiated and sponsored by the British occupational administration and preceded by a magazine titled _Diese Woche_ (meaning _This Week_ in English), which had first been published in November 1946. After disagreements with the British, the magazine was handed over to Rudolf Augstein as chief editor, and was renamed _Der Spiegel_. From the first edition in January 1947, Augstein held the position of editor-in-chief, which he retained until his death on 7 November 2002.

After 1950, the magazine was owned by Rudolf Augstein and John Jahr; Jahr's share merged with Richard Gruner in 1965 to form the publishing company Gruner + Jahr . In 1969, Augstein bought out Gruner + Jahr for DM 42 million and became the sole owner of _Der Spiegel_. In 1971, Gruner + Jahr bought back a 25% share in the magazine. In 1974, Augstein restructured the company to make the employees shareholders. All employees with more than three years seniority were offered the opportunity to become an associate and participate in the management of the company, as well as in the profits.

Since 1952, _Der Spiegel_ has been headquartered in its own building in the old town part of Hamburg.

_Der Spiegel'_s circulation rose quickly. From 15,000 copies in 1947, it grew to 65,000 in 1948 and 437,000 in 1961. It was nearly 500,000 copies in 1962. By the 1970s, it had reached a plateau at about 900,000 copies. When the German re-unification in 1990 made it available to a new readership in former East Germany
Germany
, the circulation exceeded one million.

The magazine's influence is based on two pillars; firstly the moral authority established by investigative journalism since the early years and proven alive by several impressive scoops during the 1980s; secondly the economic power of the prolific _Spiegel_ publishing house. Since 1988, it has produced the TV programme _Spiegel TV_, and further diversified during the 1990s.

During the second quarter of 1992 the circulation of _Der Spiegel_ was 1.1 million copies. In 1994, _ Spiegel Online _ was launched. It has separate and independent editorial staff from _Der Spiegel_. In 1999 the circulation of _Der Spiegel_ was 1,061,000 copies.

_Der Spiegel_ had an average circulation of 1,076,000 copies in 2003. In 2007 the magazine started a new regional supplement in Switzerland . It was the first regional supplement of the magazine which covers 50-page review of Switzerland.

In 2010 _Der Spiegel_ was employing the equivalent of 80 full-time fact checkers , which the _ Columbia Journalism Review _ called "most likely the world's largest fact checking operation". The same year it was the third best-selling general interest magazine in Europe with a circulation of 1,016,373 copies.

RECEPTION

When Stefan Aust took over in 1994, the magazine's readers realised that his personality was different from his predecessor. In 2005, a documentary by Stephan Lamby quoted him as follows: "We stand at a very big cannon!" Politicians of all stripes who had to deal with the magazine's attention often voiced their disaffection for it. The outspoken conservative Franz Josef Strauß contended that _Der Spiegel_ was "the Gestapo
Gestapo
of our time". He referred to journalists in general as "rats". The Social Democrat Willy Brandt
Willy Brandt
called it "Scheißblatt" (i.e., a "shit paper") during his term in office as Chancellor .

_Der Spiegel_ often produces feature-length articles on problems affecting Germany
Germany
(like demographic trends, the federal system's gridlock or the issues of its education system) and describes optional strategies and their risks in depth. The magazine plays the role of opinion leader in the German press.

INVESTIGATIVE JOURNALISM

_Der Spiegel_ has a distinctive reputation for revealing political misconduct and scandals. Online Encyclopædia Britannica emphasizes this quality of the magazine as follows: "The magazine is renowned for its aggressive, vigorous, and well-written exposes of government malpractice and scandals." It merited recognition for this as early as 1950, when the federal parliament launched an inquiry into _Spiegel_'s accusations that bribed members of parliament had promoted Bonn
Bonn
over Frankfurt
Frankfurt
as the seat of West Germany's government.

During the Spiegel scandal in 1962, which followed the release of a report about the possibly low state of readiness of the German armed forces , minister of defence and conservative figurehead Franz Josef Strauß had _Der Spiegel_ investigated. In the course of this investigation, the editorial offices were raided by police while Rudolf Augstein and other _Der Spiegel_ editors were arrested on charges of treason. Despite a lack of sufficient authority, Strauß even went after the article's author, Conrad Ahlers, who was consequently arrested in Spain
Spain
where he was on holiday. When the legal case collapsed, the scandal led to a major shake-up in chancellor Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
's cabinet and Strauß had to stand down. The affair was generally received as an attack on the freedom of the press. Since then, _Der Spiegel_ has repeatedly played a significant role in revealing political grievances and misdeeds, including the Flick Affair .

The Spiegel scandal is now remembered for altering the political culture of post-war Germany
Germany
and—with the first mass demonstrations and public protests—being a turning point from the old Obrigkeitsstaat (authoritarian state) to a modern democracy .

In 2010, the magazine supported WikiLeaks in publishing leaked materials from the United States State Department , along with _The Guardian _, _ The New York Times _, _ El País _, and _ Le Monde _ and in October 2013 with the help of former NSA
NSA
contractor Edward Snowden unveiled the systematic wiretapping of Chancellor of Germany
Germany
Angela Merkel 's private cell phone over a period of over 10 years at the hands of the National Security Agency 's Special
Special
Collection Service (SCS).

The leading role of the magazine in investigative journalism and its monopoly came to end in 2013 since other German media outlets, including _ Süddeutsche Zeitung _, _ Bild
Bild
_, ARD and ZDF , began to effectively deal with political scandals .

CRITICISM

_ This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2012)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_

One of the main criticism of _Der Spiegel_ concerns its use of language. In 1957, writer Hans Magnus Enzensberger published his essay _Die Sprache des Spiegels_ (“The Language of Der Spiegel”), in which he criticised what he called a "pretended objectivity". Wolf Schneider, an eminent journalist and stylist has called _Der Spiegel_ "the biggest mangler of the German language" and used quotations from the magazine as examples of inept German in his style guides. Their criticism was not so much one of linguistic aesthetics as an argument that _Der Spiegel_ "hides and distorts its actual topics and issues by manipulative semantics and rhetoric rather than by reporting and analysing them". In 1957, however, Enzensberger admitted in a written statement that no other contemporary German magazine attained the _Spiegel_'s level of objectivity.

Opinions about the level of language employed by _Der Spiegel_ changed in the late 1990s. After hiring many of Germany's best feature writers, _Der Spiegel_ has become known for its "Edelfedern" ("noble quills"—wordsmiths). The magazine frequently wins the Egon Erwin Kisch Prize for the best German feature. _Der Spiegel_ ended up joining the ranks of the guardians of proper grammar and jargon with the _Zwiebelfisch_ ("(printer's) pie") column on the magazine's website, which has even produced several best-selling books.

Some critics, in particular the media historian Lutz Hachmeister and the Augstein biographer and former _Der Spiegel_ author Otto Köhler, have brought charges against the magazine's dealings with former Nazis, even SS officers. Allegedly, _Der Spiegel_, which at other times showed no restraint when exposing the Nazi past of public figures, distorted history and covered up for criminals after enlisting insiders hired to write about Third Reich topics. Its early reports and serials about the Reichstag fire , written by former SS officers Paul Carell (who had also served as chief press spokesman for Nazi Germany's Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop ) and Fritz Tobias , have since been considered influential in historiography because since the 1960s the _Spiegel_ reports written by these two authors have been corroborated by authoritative historian Hans Mommsen .

BANS

A special 25 March edition of _Der Spiegel_ on Islam
Islam
was banned in Egypt
Egypt
in April 2008 for publishing material deemed by authorities to be insulting Islam
Islam
and the Prophet Muhammed .

HEAD OFFICE

_Der Spiegel_ began moving into its current head office in HafenCity in September 2011. The facility was designed by Henning Larsen Architects of Denmark
Denmark
. The magazine was previously located in a high-rise building with 8,226 square metres (88,540 sq ft) of office space.

EDITORS-IN-CHIEF

* 1962–1968: Claus Jacobi * 1968–1973: Günter Gaus * 1973–1986: Erich Böhme and Johannes K. Engel * 1986–1989: Erich Böhme and Werner Funk * 1989–1994: Hans Werner Kilz and Wolfgang Kaden * 1994–2008: Stefan Aust * 2008–2011: Mathias Müller von Blumencron and Georg Mascolo * 2011–2013: Georg Mascolo * 2013–2014: Wolfgang Büchner * 13 January 2015 – present: Klaus Brinkbäumer

SEE ALSO

* List of magazines in Germany
Germany
* List of non-English newspapers with English language subsections * Spiegel affair

* Hamburg
Hamburg
portal * Journalism portal

REFERENCES

* ^ "DER SPIEGEL is Germany\'s oldest news magazine, founded in 1946 as an obvious imitation of America\'s TIME and NEWSWEEK magazines". Retrieved 9 April 2011. * ^ Kevin J. O'Brien (19 April 2004). "Scoop on Bundesbank head returns focus to Der Spiegel". _ International Herald Tribune _. Archived from the original on 26 February 2008. Retrieved 2 January 2008. * ^ "Average circulation: 1.1 million". Retrieved 9 April 2011. * ^ Catherine C. Fraser; Dierk O. Hoffmann (1 January 2006). _Pop Culture Germany!: Media, Arts, and Lifestyle_. ABC-CLIO. p. 200. ISBN 978-1-85109-733-3 . Retrieved 14 November 2014. * ^ Laudatory submission for Hero of World Press Freedom Award: Rudolf Augstein * ^ " Der Spiegel
Der Spiegel
and Germany\'s press: His country\'s mirror". _The Economist_. 16 November 2002. Retrieved 30 June 2013. Mr Augstein's success in making Der Spiegel
Der Spiegel
one of continental Europe's most influential magazines... * ^ _A_ _B_ "Six Decades of Quality Journalism: The History of DER SPIEGEL". _Der Spiegel_. 5 October 2011. Retrieved 23 March 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ Frank Esser; Uwe Hartung (2004). "Nazis, Pollution, and no Sex: Political Scandals as a Reflection of Political Culture in Germany". _American Behavioral Scientist_. 47 (1040): 1040–1071. doi :10.1177/0002764203262277 . Retrieved 4 October 2013. * ^ Georg Hellack (1992). "Press, Radio and Television in the Federal Republic of Germany" (Report). _Inter Nationes_. Bonn. Retrieved 27 April 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ Christina Schäffner (2005). "Bringing a German Voice to English-speaking Readers: Spiegel International". _Language and Intercultural Communication_. 5 (2): 154–167. doi :10.1080/14708470508668891 . Retrieved 4 October 2013. * ^ Anne Penketh; Philip Oltermann; Stephen Burgen (12 June 2014). "European newspapers search for ways to survive digital revolution". _The Guardian_. Paris, Berlin, Barcelona. Retrieved 7 January 2015. * ^ Ingomar Kloss; M. Abe (1 January 2001). _Advertising Worldwide: Advertising Conditions in Selected Countries_. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 130. ISBN 978-3-540-67713-0 . Retrieved 29 March 2015. * ^ "European Publishing Monitor" (Report). _Turku School of Economics (Media Group)_. March 2007. Retrieved 27 March 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ Stephan Russ-Mohl (27 June 2007). "The Lemon Dealers". _Der Tagesspiegel_. Retrieved 23 December 2014. * ^ Craig Silverman (9 April 2010). "Inside the World’s Largest Fact Checking Operation. A conversation with two staffers at _Der Spiegel_". _Columbia Journalism Review_. * ^ "World Magazine Trends 2010/2011" (PDF). _FIPP_. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 June 2012. Retrieved 2 April 2015. * ^ ""We stand at a very big cannon!" Aust ranks his influence with the Spiegel - and openly acknowledges that he has enemies.". Retrieved 9 April 2011. * ^ "Strauss claimed that journalists were like vermin around shit (Ratten und Schmeißfliegen)". Retrieved 9 April 2011. * ^ "The best investigative reporting, the widest foreign coverage, the sharpest political analysis, and the most insightful social commentary". _The Economist_. 14 November 2002. Retrieved 9 April 2011. * ^ Sarah Lambert (29 September 1992). "\'Der Spiegel\' report hits VW shares". _ The Independent
The Independent
_. London. Retrieved 9 April 2011. * ^ "Holders of sovereign bonds, while taking a so-called haircut, would be guaranteed half the bond’s face value as an incentive to take part in debt restructuring, Spiegel said". Retrieved 9 April 2011. * ^ "Here\'s how Spiegel puts it: "