_DER SPIEGEL_ (German pronunciation: , lit. _"The Mirror"_) is a
German weekly news magazine published in
It was founded in 1947 by John Seymour Chaloner (de), a British
army officer, and
Rudolf Augstein , a former
_Der Spiegel_ is known in German-speaking countries mostly for its investigative journalism . It has played a key role in uncovering many political scandals such as the Spiegel scandal in 1962 and the Flick affair in the 1980s. According to _ The Economist _, _Der Spiegel_ is one of continental Europe 's most influential magazines.
* 1 History * 2 Reception
* 3.1 Criticism
* 4 Bans * 5 Head office * 6 Editors-in-chief * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links
The first edition of _Der Spiegel_ was published in
After 1950, the magazine was owned by Rudolf Augstein and John Jahr; Jahr's share merged with Richard Gruner in 1965 to form the publishing company Gruner + Jahr . In 1969, Augstein bought out Gruner + Jahr for DM 42 million and became the sole owner of _Der Spiegel_. In 1971, Gruner + Jahr bought back a 25% share in the magazine. In 1974, Augstein restructured the company to make the employees shareholders. All employees with more than three years seniority were offered the opportunity to become an associate and participate in the management of the company, as well as in the profits.
Since 1952, _Der Spiegel_ has been headquartered in its own building in the old town part of Hamburg.
_Der Spiegel'_s circulation rose quickly. From 15,000 copies in 1947,
it grew to 65,000 in 1948 and 437,000 in 1961. It was nearly 500,000
copies in 1962. By the 1970s, it had reached a plateau at about
900,000 copies. When the
German re-unification in 1990 made it
available to a new readership in former East
The magazine's influence is based on two pillars; firstly the moral authority established by investigative journalism since the early years and proven alive by several impressive scoops during the 1980s; secondly the economic power of the prolific _Spiegel_ publishing house. Since 1988, it has produced the TV programme _Spiegel TV_, and further diversified during the 1990s.
During the second quarter of 1992 the circulation of _Der Spiegel_ was 1.1 million copies. In 1994, _ Spiegel Online _ was launched. It has separate and independent editorial staff from _Der Spiegel_. In 1999 the circulation of _Der Spiegel_ was 1,061,000 copies.
_Der Spiegel_ had an average circulation of 1,076,000 copies in 2003. In 2007 the magazine started a new regional supplement in Switzerland . It was the first regional supplement of the magazine which covers 50-page review of Switzerland.
In 2010 _Der Spiegel_ was employing the equivalent of 80 full-time fact checkers , which the _ Columbia Journalism Review _ called "most likely the world's largest fact checking operation". The same year it was the third best-selling general interest magazine in Europe with a circulation of 1,016,373 copies.
Stefan Aust took over in 1994, the magazine's readers realised
that his personality was different from his predecessor. In 2005, a
documentary by Stephan Lamby quoted him as follows: "We stand at a
very big cannon!" Politicians of all stripes who had to deal with the
magazine's attention often voiced their disaffection for it. The
Franz Josef Strauß contended that _Der
Spiegel_ was "the
_Der Spiegel_ often produces feature-length articles on problems
_Der Spiegel_ has a distinctive reputation for revealing political
misconduct and scandals. Online Encyclopædia Britannica emphasizes
this quality of the magazine as follows: "The magazine is renowned for
its aggressive, vigorous, and well-written exposes of government
malpractice and scandals." It merited recognition for this as early
as 1950, when the federal parliament launched an inquiry into
_Spiegel_'s accusations that bribed members of parliament had promoted
Spiegel scandal in 1962, which followed the release of a
report about the possibly low state of readiness of the German armed
forces , minister of defence and conservative figurehead Franz Josef
Strauß had _Der Spiegel_ investigated. In the course of this
investigation, the editorial offices were raided by police while
Rudolf Augstein and other _Der Spiegel_ editors were arrested on
charges of treason. Despite a lack of sufficient authority, Strauß
even went after the article's author, Conrad Ahlers, who was
consequently arrested in
Spiegel scandal is now remembered for altering the political
culture of post-war
In 2010, the magazine supported
WikiLeaks in publishing leaked
materials from the United States State Department , along with _The
Guardian _, _
The New York Times _, _
El País _, and _
Le Monde _ and
in October 2013 with the help of former
The leading role of the magazine in investigative journalism and its
monopoly came to end in 2013 since other German media outlets,
Süddeutsche Zeitung _, _
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One of the main criticism of _Der Spiegel_ concerns its use of language. In 1957, writer Hans Magnus Enzensberger published his essay _Die Sprache des Spiegels_ (“The Language of Der Spiegel”), in which he criticised what he called a "pretended objectivity". Wolf Schneider, an eminent journalist and stylist has called _Der Spiegel_ "the biggest mangler of the German language" and used quotations from the magazine as examples of inept German in his style guides. Their criticism was not so much one of linguistic aesthetics as an argument that _Der Spiegel_ "hides and distorts its actual topics and issues by manipulative semantics and rhetoric rather than by reporting and analysing them". In 1957, however, Enzensberger admitted in a written statement that no other contemporary German magazine attained the _Spiegel_'s level of objectivity.
Opinions about the level of language employed by _Der Spiegel_ changed in the late 1990s. After hiring many of Germany's best feature writers, _Der Spiegel_ has become known for its "Edelfedern" ("noble quills"—wordsmiths). The magazine frequently wins the Egon Erwin Kisch Prize for the best German feature. _Der Spiegel_ ended up joining the ranks of the guardians of proper grammar and jargon with the _Zwiebelfisch_ ("(printer's) pie") column on the magazine's website, which has even produced several best-selling books.
Some critics, in particular the media historian Lutz Hachmeister and the Augstein biographer and former _Der Spiegel_ author Otto Köhler, have brought charges against the magazine's dealings with former Nazis, even SS officers. Allegedly, _Der Spiegel_, which at other times showed no restraint when exposing the Nazi past of public figures, distorted history and covered up for criminals after enlisting insiders hired to write about Third Reich topics. Its early reports and serials about the Reichstag fire , written by former SS officers Paul Carell (who had also served as chief press spokesman for Nazi Germany's Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop ) and Fritz Tobias , have since been considered influential in historiography because since the 1960s the _Spiegel_ reports written by these two authors have been corroborated by authoritative historian Hans Mommsen .
_Der Spiegel_ began moving into its current head office in HafenCity
in September 2011. The facility was designed by Henning Larsen
* 1962–1968: Claus Jacobi * 1968–1973: Günter Gaus * 1973–1986: Erich Böhme and Johannes K. Engel * 1986–1989: Erich Böhme and Werner Funk * 1989–1994: Hans Werner Kilz and Wolfgang Kaden * 1994–2008: Stefan Aust * 2008–2011: Mathias Müller von Blumencron and Georg Mascolo * 2011–2013: Georg Mascolo * 2013–2014: Wolfgang Büchner * 13 January 2015 – present: Klaus Brinkbäumer
* List of magazines in
* ^ "DER SPIEGEL is Germany\'s oldest news magazine, founded in
1946 as an obvious imitation of America\'s TIME and NEWSWEEK
magazines". Retrieved 9 April 2011.
* ^ Kevin J. O'Brien (19 April 2004). "Scoop on Bundesbank head
returns focus to Der Spiegel". _
International Herald Tribune _.
Archived from the original on 26 February 2008. Retrieved 2 January
* ^ "Average circulation: 1.1 million". Retrieved 9 April 2011.
* ^ Catherine C. Fraser; Dierk O. Hoffmann (1 January 2006). _Pop
Culture Germany!: Media, Arts, and Lifestyle_. ABC-CLIO. p. 200. ISBN
978-1-85109-733-3 . Retrieved 14 November 2014.
* ^ Laudatory submission for Hero of World Press Freedom Award:
* ^ "