HOME
TheInfoList



In
phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies how humans produce and perceive sounds, or in the case of sign languages, the equivalent aspects of sign. Phoneticians—linguists who specialize in phonetics—study the physical properties of sp ...
, labiodentals are
consonant In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronounced with the front of the tongue; , pronounced with the back of the ...
s articulated with the lower lip and the upper
teeth A tooth (plural teeth) is a hard, calcification, calcified structure found in the jaws (or mouths) of many vertebrates and used to Mastication, break down food. Some animals, particularly carnivores, also use teeth for hunting or for defensive p ...

teeth
.


Labiodental consonant in IPA

The labiodental consonants identified by the
International Phonetic Alphabet The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin script Latin script, also known as Roman script, is a set of graphic signs (Writing system#General properties, script) b ...
are: The IPA chart shades out ''labiodental lateral consonants''. This is sometimes read as indicating that such sounds are not possible. In fact, the fricatives and often have lateral airflow, but no language makes a distinction for centrality, and the allophony is not noticeable. The IPA symbol refers to a sound occurring in Swedish, officially described as similar to the velar fricative but one dialectal variant is a rounded, velarized labiodental, less ambiguously rendered as . The labiodental click is an allophonic variant of the (bi)labial click.


Occurrence

The only common labiodental sounds to occur phonemically are the fricatives and the approximant. The labiodental flap occurs phonemically in over a dozen languages, but it is restricted geographically to central and southeastern Africa (Olson & Hajek 2003). With most other manners of articulation, the norm are
bilabial consonant In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a labial consonant place of articulation, articulated with both lips. Transcription The bilabial consonants identified by the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) are: Owere Igbo language, Igbo has a six-wa ...
s (which together with labiodentals, form the class of
labial consonant The term ''labial'' originates from ''Labium (disambiguation), Labium'' (Latin for "lip"), and is the adjective that describes anything of or related to lips, such as lip-like structures. Thus, it may refer to: * the lips ** In linguistics, a labial ...
s). is quite common, but in all or nearly all languages in which it occurs, it occurs only as an
allophone In phonology Phonology is a branch of linguistics that studies how languages or dialects systematically organize their sounds (or signs, in sign languages). The term also refers to the sound system of any particular language variety. At one ...
of before labiodental consonants such as and . It has been reported to occur phonemically in a dialect of Teke, but similar claims in the past have proven spurious. The XiNkuna dialect of Tsonga features a pair of affricates as phonemes. In some other languages, such as Xhosa, affricates may occur as allophones of the fricatives. These differ from the German voiceless labiodental affricate , which commences with a voiceless bilabial stop, bilabial p. All these affricates are rare sounds. The stops are not confirmed to exist as separate phonemes in any language. They are sometimes written as ''ȹ ȸ'' ''(qp'' and ''db'' Typographic ligature, ligatures). They may also be found in children's speech or as speech impediments.


consonants

Dentolabial consonants are the articulatory opposite of labiodentals: They are pronounced by contacting lower teeth against the upper lip. They are rare cross-linguistically, likely due to the prevalence of malocclusion, dental malocclusions (especially retrognathism) that make them difficult to produce, though one
allophone In phonology Phonology is a branch of linguistics that studies how languages or dialects systematically organize their sounds (or signs, in sign languages). The term also refers to the sound system of any particular language variety. At one ...
of Swedish has been described as a velarization, velarized dentolabial fricative, and the voiceless dentolabial fricative is apparently used in some of the southwestern dialects of Greenlandic (Vebæk 2006). The diacritic for dentolabial in the Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet, extensions of the IPA for disordered speech is a superscript bridge, , by analogy with the subscript bridge used for labiodentals: . Complex consonants such as affricates, prenasalized stops and the like are also possible.


See also

* Place of articulation * List of phonetics topics


References

* *Olson, Kenneth S. & John Hajek. 2003. Crosslinguistic insights on the labial flap. ''Linguistic Typology'' 7(2). 157–186. *Vebæk, Mâliâraq. 2006. The southernmost People of Greenland-Dialects and Memories (Vol. 337): Qavaat-Oqalunneri Eqqaamassaallu. Museum Tusculanum Press.


Further reading

* * * {{IPA navigation Place of articulation Labiodental consonants,