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DENMARK (/ˈdɛnmɑːrk/ ( listen ); Danish : Danmark, pronounced ( listen )), officially the KINGDOM OF DENMARK, is a Nordic country and a sovereign state . The southernmost of the Scandinavian nations, it is south-west of Sweden
Sweden
and south of Norway
Norway
, and bordered to the south by Germany
Germany
. The Kingdom of Denmark
Denmark
also comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
: the Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
and Greenland
Greenland
. Denmark
Denmark
proper consists of a peninsula, Jutland
Jutland
, and an archipelago of 443 named islands , with the largest being Zealand
Zealand
, Funen and the North Jutlandic Island . The islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. Denmark
Denmark
has an area of 42,924 km2 (16,573 sq mi), total area including Greenland
Greenland
and the Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
is 2,210,579 km2 (853,509 sq mi), and a population of 5.75 million (as of 2017 ).

The unified kingdom of Denmark
Denmark
emerged in the 10th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea . Denmark, Sweden
Sweden
and Norway
Norway
were ruled together under the Kalmar Union , established in 1397 and ending with Swedish secession in 1523. Denmark
Denmark
and Norway
Norway
remained under the same monarch until outside forces dissolved the union in 1814. The union with Norway
Norway
made it possible for Denmark
Denmark
to inherit the Faroe Islands, Greenland
Greenland
and Iceland
Iceland
. Beginning in the 17th century, there were several cessions of territory to Sweden. In the 19th century there was a surge of nationalist movements , which were defeated in the 1864 Second Schleswig
Schleswig
War . Denmark
Denmark
remained neutral during World War I
World War I
. In April 1940, a German invasion saw brief military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945. An industrialised exporter of agricultural produce in the second half of the 19th century, Denmark
Denmark
introduced social and labour-market reforms in the early 20th century that created the basis for the present welfare state model with a highly developed mixed economy .

The Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy , which had begun in 1660. It establishes a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy. The government and national parliament are seated in Copenhagen
Copenhagen
, the nation's capital , largest city and main commercial centre. Denmark exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm , devolving powers to handle internal affairs. Home rule was established in the Faroe Islands in 1948; in Greenland
Greenland
home rule was established in 1979 and further autonomy in 2009. Denmark
Denmark
became a member of the European Economic Community (now the EU ) in 1973, maintaining certain opt-outs ; it retains its own currency, the krone . It is among the founding members of NATO
NATO
, the Nordic Council
Nordic Council
, the OECD
OECD
, OSCE , and the United Nations
United Nations
; it is also part of the Schengen Area .

Denmark
Denmark
is considered to be one of the happiest countries in the world. Danes enjoy a high standard of living and the country ranks highly in some metrics of national performance, including education , health care , protection of civil liberties , democratic governance , prosperity and human development . The country ranks as having the world's highest social mobility , a high level of income equality , is the country with the lowest perceived level of corruption in the world , has one of the world's highest per capita incomes , and one of the world's highest personal income tax rates .

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Prehistory * 2.2 Viking and Middle Ages
Middle Ages
* 2.3 Early modern history (1536–1849) * 2.4 Constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy
(1849–present)

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Climate * 3.2 Ecology * 3.3 Environment

* 4 Administrative divisions

* 4.1 Regions * 4.2 Greenland
Greenland
and the Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands

* 5 Politics

* 5.1 Government * 5.2 Law and judicial system * 5.3 Foreign relations * 5.4 Military
Military

* 6 Economy

* 6.1 Science and technology * 6.2 Public policy * 6.3 Energy * 6.4 Transport

* 7 Demographics

* 7.1 Languages * 7.2 Religion * 7.3 Education * 7.4 Health

* 8 Culture

* 8.1 Media * 8.2 Music * 8.3 Architecture and design * 8.4 Literature and philosophy * 8.5 Painting and photography * 8.6 Cuisine
Cuisine
* 8.7 Sports

* 9 See also * 10 Notes * 11 References * 12 External links

ETYMOLOGY

Main article: Etymology of Denmark

The etymology of the word Denmark, and especially the relationship between Danes and Denmark
Denmark
and the unifying of Denmark
Denmark
as a single kingdom, is a subject which attracts debate. This is centred primarily on the prefix "Dan" and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the -"mark" ending.

Most handbooks derive the first part of the word, and the name of the people, from a word meaning "flat land", related to German Tenne "threshing floor", English den "cave". The -mark is believed to mean woodland or borderland (see marches ), with probable references to the border forests in south Schleswig
Schleswig
.

The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark
Denmark
itself is found on the two Jelling stones , which are runestones believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old (c. 955) and Harald Bluetooth (c. 965). The larger stone of the two is popularly cited as Denmark's "baptismal certificate" (dåbsattest), though both use the word "Denmark", in the form of accusative ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚢᚱᚴ "tanmaurk" () on the large stone, and genitive ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚱᚴᛅᚱ "tanmarkar" (pronounced ) on the small stone. The inhabitants of Denmark
Denmark
are there called "tani" (), or "Danes", in the accusative.

HISTORY

Main article: History of Denmark See also: History of Greenland
Greenland
and History of the Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands

PREHISTORY

The gilded side of the Trundholm sun chariot dating from the Nordic Bronze Age
Nordic Bronze Age

The earliest archaeological findings in Denmark
Denmark
date back to the Eem interglacial period from 130,000–110,000 BC . Denmark
Denmark
has been inhabited since around 12,500 BC and agriculture has been evident since 3900 BC. The Nordic Bronze Age
Nordic Bronze Age
(1800–600 BC) in Denmark
Denmark
was marked by burial mounds , which left an abundance of findings including lurs and the Sun Chariot .

During the Pre-Roman Iron Age (500 BC – AD 1), native groups began migrating south, and the first tribal Danes came to the country between the Pre-Roman and the Germanic Iron Age , in the Roman Iron Age (AD 1–400). The Roman provinces maintained trade routes and relations with native tribes in Denmark, and Roman coins have been found in Denmark. Evidence of strong Celtic cultural influence dates from this period in Denmark
Denmark
and much of North-West Europe
Europe
and is among other things reflected in the finding of the Gundestrup cauldron
Gundestrup cauldron
.

The tribal Danes came from the east Danish islands ( Zealand
Zealand
) and Scania
Scania
and spoke an early form of North Germanic . Historians believe that before their arrival, most of Jutland
Jutland
and the nearest islands were settled by tribal Jutes . The Jutes migrated to Great Britain eventually, some as mercenaries by Brythonic King Vortigern
Vortigern
, and were granted the south-eastern territories of Kent
Kent
, the Isle of Wight
Isle of Wight
and other areas, where they settled. They were later absorbed or ethnically cleansed by the invading Angles
Angles
and Saxons
Saxons
, who formed the Anglo- Saxons
Saxons
. The remaining Jutish population in Jutland
Jutland
assimilated in with the settling Danes .

A short note about the Dani in " Getica " by the historian Jordanes
Jordanes
is believed to be an early mention of the Danes, one of the ethnic groups from whom modern Danes are descended. The Danevirke defence structures were built in phases from the 3rd century forward and the sheer size of the construction efforts in AD 737 are attributed to the emergence of a Danish king. A new runic alphabet was first used around the same time and Ribe
Ribe
, the oldest town of Denmark, was founded about AD 700.

VIKING AND MIDDLE AGES

Main articles: Viking Age and Kalmar Union The Ladby ship
Ladby ship
, the largest ship burial found in Denmark
Denmark

From the 8th to the 10th century the wider Scandinavian region was the source of Vikings
Vikings
. They colonised, raided, and traded in all parts of Europe. The Danish Vikings
Vikings
were most active in the eastern and southern British Isles
British Isles
and Western Europe
Europe
. They conquered and settled parts of England
England
(known as the Danelaw
Danelaw
) under King Sweyn Forkbeard in 1013, and France
France
where Danes and Norwegians founded Normandy
Normandy
with Rollo
Rollo
as head of state. More Anglo-Saxon pence of this period have been found in Denmark
Denmark
than in England. Larger of the two Jelling stones, raised by Harald Bluetooth
Harald Bluetooth

Denmark
Denmark
was largely consolidated by the late 8th century and its rulers are consistently referred to in Frankish sources as kings (reges). Under the reign of Gudfred in 804 the Danish kingdom may have included all the lands of Jutland, Scania
Scania
and the Danish islands, excluding Bornholm. The extant Danish monarchy traces its roots back to Gorm the Old , who established his reign in the early 10th century. As attested by the Jelling stones , the Danes were Christianised around 965 by Harald Bluetooth
Harald Bluetooth
, the son of Gorm . It is believed that Denmark
Denmark
became Christian for political reasons so as not to get invaded by the rising Christian power in Europe, the Holy Roman Empire , which was an important trading area for the Danes. In that case, Harald built six fortresses around Denmark
Denmark
called Trelleborg and built a further Danevirke . In the early 11th century, Canute the Great won and united Denmark, England, and Norway
Norway
for almost 30 years with a Scandinavian army.

Throughout the High and Late Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
, Denmark
Denmark
also included Skåneland (the areas of Scania, Halland
Halland
, and Blekinge
Blekinge
in present-day south Sweden) and Danish kings ruled Danish Estonia
Danish Estonia
, as well as the duchies of Schleswig
Schleswig
and Holstein
Holstein
. Most of the latter two now form the state of Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
in northern Germany.

In 1397, Denmark
Denmark
entered into a personal union with Norway
Norway
and Sweden , united under Queen Margaret I . The three countries were to be treated as equals in the union. However, even from the start, Margaret may not have been so idealistic—treating Denmark
Denmark
as the clear "senior" partner of the union. Thus, much of the next 125 years of Scandinavian history revolves around this union, with Sweden
Sweden
breaking off and being re-conquered repeatedly. The issue was for practical purposes resolved on 17 June 1523, as Swedish King Gustav Vasa conquered the city of Stockholm
Stockholm
. The Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
spread to Scandinavia
Scandinavia
in the 1530s, and following the Count\'s Feud civil war, Denmark
Denmark
converted to Lutheranism in 1536. Later that year, Denmark entered into a union with Norway.

EARLY MODERN HISTORY (1536–1849)

Main articles: Denmark– Norway
Norway
and Danish colonial empire The Battle of Öland during the Scanian War, between an allied Dano-Norwegian -Dutch fleet and the Swedish navy, 1 June 1676

After Sweden
Sweden
permanently broke away from the personal union, Denmark tried on several occasions to reassert control over its neighbour. King Christian IV attacked Sweden
Sweden
in the 1611–1613 Kalmar War
Kalmar War
but failed to accomplish his main objective of forcing it to return to the union. The war led to no territorial changes, but Sweden
Sweden
was forced to pay a war indemnity of 1 million silver riksdaler to Denmark, an amount known as the Älvsborg ransom . King Christian used this money to found several towns and fortresses, most notably Glückstadt (founded as a rival to Hamburg
Hamburg
) and Christiania . Inspired by the Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
, he founded a similar Danish company and planned to claim Ceylon as a colony, but the company only managed to acquire Tranquebar on India's Coromandel Coast
Coromandel Coast
. Denmark's large colonial aspirations were limited to a few key trading posts in Africa and India
India
. The empire was sustained by trade with other major powers, and plantations – ultimately a lack of resources led to its stagnation.

In the Thirty Years\' War , Christian tried to become the leader of the Lutheran
Lutheran
states in Germany
Germany
but suffered a crushing defeat at the Battle of Lutter
Battle of Lutter
. The result was that the Catholic army under Albrecht von Wallenstein was able to invade, occupy, and pillage Jutland, forcing Denmark
Denmark
to withdraw from the war . Denmark
Denmark
managed to avoid territorial concessions, but King Gustavus Adolphus ' intervention in Germany
Germany
was seen as a sign that the military power of Sweden
Sweden
was on the rise while Denmark's influence in the region was declining. In 1643, Swedish armies invaded Jutland
Jutland
and claimed Scania in 1644. In the Denmark– Norway
Norway
union, Denmark
Denmark
was the dominant partner, and eventually gained rule over Norway
Norway
and Norwegian dependencies ( Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
, Iceland
Iceland
and Greenland
Greenland
).

In the 1645 Treaty of Brømsebro , Denmark
Denmark
surrendered Halland, Gotland
Gotland
, the last parts of Danish Estonia, and several provinces in Norway. In 1657, King Frederick III declared war on Sweden
Sweden
and marched on Bremen-Verden . This led to a massive Danish defeat and the armies of King Charles X Gustav
Charles X Gustav
of Sweden
Sweden
conquered both Jutland
Jutland
, Funen , and much of Zealand
Zealand
before signing the Peace of Roskilde
Roskilde
in February 1658, which gave Sweden
Sweden
control of Scania, Blekinge
Blekinge
, Trøndelag
Trøndelag
, and the island of Bornholm
Bornholm
. Charles X Gustav
Charles X Gustav
quickly regretted not having wrecked Denmark
Denmark
and in August 1658, he began a two-year-long siege of Copenhagen
Copenhagen
but failed to take the capital. In the following peace settlement, Denmark
Denmark
managed to maintain its independence and regain control of Trøndelag
Trøndelag
and Bornholm.

Denmark
Denmark
tried to regain control of Scania
Scania
in the Scanian War (1675–1679) but it ended in failure. After the Great Northern War (1700–21), Denmark
Denmark
managed to restore control of the parts of Schleswig
Schleswig
and Holstein
Holstein
ruled by the house of Holstein-Gottorp in the 1720 Treaty of Frederiksborg and the 1773 Treaty of Tsarskoye Selo , respectively. Denmark
Denmark
prospered greatly in the last decades of the 18th century due to its neutral status allowing it to trade with both sides in the many contemporary wars. In the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
, Denmark traded with both France
France
and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and joined the League of Armed Neutrality with Russia
Russia
, Sweden, and Prussia
Prussia
. The British considered this a hostile act and attacked Copenhagen
Copenhagen
in 1801 and 1807 , in one case carrying off the Danish fleet , in the other, burning large parts of the Danish capital. This led to the so-called Danish-British Gunboat War . British control of the waterways between Denmark
Denmark
and Norway
Norway
proved disastrous to the union's economy and in 1813 Denmark– Norway
Norway
went bankrupt .

The union was dissolved by the Treaty of Kiel in 1814; the Danish monarchy "irrevocably and forever" renounced claims to the Kingdom of Norway
Norway
in favour of the Swedish king. Denmark
Denmark
kept the possessions of Iceland
Iceland
(which retained the Danish monarchy until 1944), the Faroe Islands and Greenland
Greenland
, all of which had been governed by Norway
Norway
for centuries. Apart from the Nordic colonies, Denmark
Denmark
continued to rule over Danish India
India
from 1620 to 1869, the Danish Gold Coast (Ghana) from 1658 to 1850, and the Danish West Indies
Danish West Indies
from 1671 to 1917.

CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY (1849–PRESENT)

The National Constitutional Assembly was convened by King Frederick VII in 1848 to adopt the Constitution of Denmark .

A nascent Danish liberal and national movement gained momentum in the 1830s; after the European Revolutions of 1848
Revolutions of 1848
, Denmark
Denmark
peacefully became a constitutional monarchy on 5 June 1849. A new constitution established a two-chamber parliament . Denmark
Denmark
faced war against both Prussia
Prussia
and Habsburg Austria in what became known as the Second Schleswig
Schleswig
War , lasting from February to October 1864. Denmark
Denmark
was defeated and obliged to cede Schleswig
Schleswig
and Holstein
Holstein
to Prussia
Prussia
. This loss came as the latest in the long series of defeats and territorial loss that had begun in the 17th century. After these events, Denmark pursued a policy of neutrality in Europe.

Industrialisation came to Denmark
Denmark
in the second half of the 19th century. The nation\'s first railroads were constructed in the 1850s, and improved communications and overseas trade allowed industry to develop in spite of Denmark's lack of natural resources. Trade unions developed starting in the 1870s. There was a considerable migration of people from the countryside to the cities, and Danish agriculture became centred on the export of dairy and meat products.

Denmark
Denmark
maintained its neutral stance during World War I
World War I
. After the defeat of Germany, the Versailles powers offered to return the region of Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
to Denmark. Fearing German irredentism , Denmark refused to consider the return of the area without a plebiscite ; the two Schleswig
Schleswig
Plebiscites took place on 10 February and 14 March 1920, respectively. On 10 July 1920, Northern Schleswig
Schleswig
was recovered by Denmark, thereby adding some 163,600 inhabitants and 3,984 square kilometres (1,538 sq mi).

In 1939 Denmark
Denmark
signed a 10-year non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany
Germany
but Germany
Germany
invaded Denmark
Denmark
on 9 April 1940 and the Danish government quickly surrendered. World War II
World War II
in Denmark
Denmark
was characterised by economic co-operation with Germany
Germany
until 1943, when the Danish government refused further co-operation and its navy scuttled most of its ships and sent many of its officers to Sweden, which was neutral. The Danish resistance performed a rescue operation that managed to evacuate several thousand Jews and their families to safety in Sweden
Sweden
before the Germans
Germans
could send them to death camps. Some Danes supported Nazism by joining the Danish Nazi Party or volunteering to fight with Germany
Germany
as part of the Frikorps Danmark . Iceland
Iceland
severed ties to Denmark
Denmark
and became an independent republic in 1944; Germany
Germany
surrendered in May 1945; in 1948, the Faroe Islands gained home rule ; in 1949, Denmark
Denmark
became a founding member of NATO
NATO
. Denmark
Denmark
became a member of the European Union
European Union
in 1973 and signed the Lisbon Treaty
Lisbon Treaty
in 2007.

Denmark
Denmark
was a founding member of European Free Trade Association (EFTA). During the 1960s, the EFTA countries were often referred to as the Outer Seven , as opposed to the Inner Six of what was then the European Economic Community (EEC). In 1973, along with Britain and Ireland, Denmark
Denmark
joined the European Economic Community (now the European Union
European Union
) after a public referendum . The Maastricht Treaty , which involved further European integration, was rejected by the Danish people in 1992; it was only accepted after a second referendum in 1993, which provided for four opt-outs from policies. The Danes rejected the euro as the national currency in a referendum in 2000 . Greenland
Greenland
gained home rule in 1979 and was awarded self-determination in 2009. Neither the Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
nor Greenland
Greenland
are members of the European Union, the Faroese having declined membership of the EEC in 1973 and Greenland
Greenland
in 1986, in both cases because of fisheries policies.

Constitutional change in 1953 led to a single-chamber parliament elected by proportional representation, female accession to the Danish throne, and Greenland
Greenland
becoming an integral part of Denmark. The centre-left Social Democrats led a string of coalition governments for most of the second half of the 20th century, introducing the Nordic welfare model . The Liberal Party and the Conservative People\'s Party have also led centre-right governments. In recent years the right-wing populist Danish People\'s Party has emerged as a major party—becoming the second-largest following the 2015 general election —during which time immigration and integration have become major issues of public debate.

GEOGRAPHY

Main article: Geography of Denmark
Geography of Denmark
Also related: Geography of the Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
and Geography of Greenland
Greenland
A satellite image of Jutland
Jutland
and the Danish islands

Located in Northern Europe
Europe
, Denmark
Denmark
consists of the peninsula of Jutland
Jutland
and 443 named islands (1,419 islands above 100 square metres (1,100 sq ft) in total). Of these, 74 are inhabited (January 2015), with the largest being Zealand
Zealand
, the North Jutlandic Island , and Funen . The island of Bornholm
Bornholm
is located east of the rest of the country, in the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
. Many of the larger islands are connected by bridges; the Øresund Bridge connects Zealand
Zealand
with Sweden; the Great Belt Bridge connects Funen with Zealand; and the Little Belt Bridge connects Jutland
Jutland
with Funen. Ferries or small aircraft connect to the smaller islands. The largest cities with populations over 100,000 are the capital Copenhagen
Copenhagen
on Zealand; Aarhus
Aarhus
and Aalborg
Aalborg
in Jutland; and Odense
Odense
on Funen. A map showing major urban areas , islands and connecting bridges

The country occupies a total area of 42,924 square kilometres (16,573 sq mi) The area of inland water is 700 km2 (270 sq mi), variously stated as from 500 – 700 km2 (193–270 sq m). Lake Arresø northwest of Copenhagen
Copenhagen
is the largest lake. The size of the land area cannot be stated exactly since the ocean constantly erodes and adds material to the coastline, and because of human land reclamation projects (to counter erosion). Post-glacial rebound raises the land by a bit less than 1 cm (0.4 in) per year in the north and east, extending the coast. A circle enclosing the same area as Denmark
Denmark
would be 234 kilometres (145 miles) in diameter with a circumference of 742 km (461 mi). It shares a border of 68 kilometres (42 mi) with Germany to the south and is otherwise surrounded by 8,750 km (5,437 mi) of tidal shoreline (including small bays and inlets ). No location in Denmark
Denmark
is farther from the coast than 52 km (32 mi). On the south-west coast of Jutland, the tide is between 1 and 2 m (3.28 and 6.56 ft), and the tideline moves outward and inward on a 10 km (6.2 mi) stretch. Denmark's territorial waters total 105,000 square kilometres (40,541 square miles).

Denmark's northernmost point is Skagen
Skagen
's point (the north beach of the Skaw) at 57° 45' 7" northern latitude; the southernmost is Gedser point (the southern tip of Falster
Falster
) at 54° 33' 35" northern latitude; the westernmost point is Blåvandshuk
Blåvandshuk
at 8° 4' 22" eastern longitude; and the easternmost point is Østerskær at 15° 11' 55" eastern longitude. This is in the archipelago Ertholmene 18 kilometres (11 mi) north-east of Bornholm. The distance from east to west is 452 kilometres (281 mi), from north to south 368 kilometres (229 mi). Bay
Bay
of Aarhus
Aarhus
viewed from southern Djursland

The country is flat with little elevation, having an average height above sea level of 31 metres (102 ft). The highest natural point is Møllehøj , at 170.86 metres (560.56 ft). A sizeable portion of Denmark's terrain consists of rolling plains whilst the coastline is sandy, with large dunes in northern Jutland. Although once extensively forested, today Denmark
Denmark
largely consists of arable land . It is drained by a dozen or so rivers , and the most significant include the Gudenå , Odense
Odense
, Skjern , Suså and Vidå —a river that flows along its southern border with Germany.

The Kingdom of Denmark
Denmark
includes two overseas territories, both well to the west of Denmark: Greenland, the world\'s largest island , and the Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
in the North Atlantic Ocean. These territories are self-governing and form part of the Danish Realm .

CLIMATE

Denmark
Denmark
has a temperate climate, characterised by mild winters, with mean temperatures in January of 1.5 °C (34.7 °F), and cool summers, with a mean temperature in August of 17.2 °C (63.0 °F). The most extreme temperatures recorded in Denmark, since 1874 when recordings began, was 36.4 °C (97.5 °F) in 1975 and −31.2 °C (−24.2 °F) in 1982. Denmark
Denmark
has an average of 179 days per year with precipitation, on average receiving a total of 765 millimetres (30 in) per year; autumn is the wettest season and spring the driest. The position between a continent and an ocean means that weather often changes.

Because of Denmark's northern location, there are large seasonal variations in daylight. There are short days during the winter with sunrise coming around 8:45 am and sunset 3:45 pm (standard time), as well as long summer days with sunrise at 4:30 am and sunset at 10 pm (daylight saving time ).

CLIMATE DATA FOR DENMARK (2001–2010)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 3.3 (37.9) 3.3 (37.9) 6.1 (43) 11.5 (52.7) 15.5 (59.9) 18.5 (65.3) 21.6 (70.9) 21.2 (70.2) 17.5 (63.5) 12.3 (54.1) 7.9 (46.2) 4.2 (39.6) 11.9 (53.4)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 1.5 (34.7) 1.2 (34.2) 3.0 (37.4) 7.5 (45.5) 11.4 (52.5) 14.6 (58.3) 17.4 (63.3) 17.2 (63) 13.8 (56.8) 9.4 (48.9) 5.7 (42.3) 2.2 (36) 8.8 (47.8)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −0.8 (30.6) −1.3 (29.7) −0.2 (31.6) 3.6 (38.5) 7.4 (45.3) 10.6 (51.1) 13.4 (56.1) 13.5 (56.3) 10.2 (50.4) 6.2 (43.2) 3.2 (37.8) −0.3 (31.5) 5.5 (41.9)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 66 (2.6) 50 (1.97) 43 (1.69) 37 (1.46) 53 (2.09) 68 (2.68) 77 (3.03) 91 (3.58) 62 (2.44) 83 (3.27) 75 (2.95) 61 (2.4) 765 (30.12)

AVERAGE RAINY DAYS (≥ 1MM) 18 15 13 11 13 13 14 16 14 17 20 17 181

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 47 71 146 198 235 239 232 196 162 111 58 45 1,739

Source: Danmarks Meteorologiske Institut

ECOLOGY

Further information: List of forests in Denmark , List of mammals of Denmark
Denmark
, and List of birds of Denmark The Danish landscape is characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts. Beech trees are common throughout Denmark, especially in the sparse woodlands.

Denmark
Denmark
belongs to the Boreal Kingdom and can be subdivided into two ecoregions : the Atlantic mixed forests and Baltic mixed forests. Almost all of Denmark's primeval temperate forests have been destroyed or fragmented, chiefly for agricultural purposes during the last millennia. The deforestation has created large swaths of heathland and devastating sand drifts . In spite of this, there are several larger second growth woodlands in the country and, in total, 12.9% of the land is now forested. Norway
Norway
spruce is the most widespread tree (2017), being important in the production of Christmas
Christmas
trees .

Roe deer occupy the countryside in growing numbers, and large-antlered red deer can be found in the sparse woodlands of Jutland. Denmark
Denmark
is also home to smaller mammals, such as polecats , hares and hedgehogs . Approximately 400 bird species inhabit Denmark and about 160 of those breed in the country. Large marine mammals include healthy populations of Harbour porpoise , growing numbers of pinnipeds and occasional visits of large whales, including blue whales and orcas . Cod
Cod
, herring and plaice are abundant fish in Danish waters and form the basis for a large fishing industry .

ENVIRONMENT

Land and water pollution are two of Denmark's most significant environmental issues , although much of the country's household and industrial waste is now increasingly filtered and sometimes recycled. The country has historically taken a progressive stance on environmental preservation ; in 1971 Denmark
Denmark
established a Ministry of Environment and was the first country in the world to implement an environmental law in 1973. To mitigate environmental degradation and global warming the Danish Government has signed the Climate Change- Kyoto Protocol . However, the national ecological footprint is 8.26 global hectares per person, which is very high compared to a world average of 1.7 in 2010. Contributing factors to this value are an exceptional high value for cropland but also a relatively high value for grazing land, which may be explained by the substantially high meat production in Denmark
Denmark
(115.8 kilograms (255 lb) meat annually per capita) and the large economic role of the meat and dairy industries. In December 2014, the Climate Change Performance Index for 2015 placed Denmark
Denmark
at the top of the table, explaining that although emissions are still quite high, the country was able to implement effective climate protection policies.

Denmark
Denmark
has an outstanding performance in the global Environmental Performance Index (EPI) with an overall ranking of 4 out of 180 countries in 2016. This recent and significant increase in ranking and performance is mostly due to remarkable achievements in energy efficiency and reductions in CO2 emission levels. A future implementation of air quality improvements are expected. The EPI was established in 2001 by the World Economic Forum
World Economic Forum
as a global gauge to measure how well individual countries perform in implementing the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals
Sustainable Development Goals
. The environmental areas where Denmark
Denmark
performs best (i.e. lowest ranking) are sanitation (12), water resource management (13) and health impacts of environmental issues (14), followed closely by the area of biodiversity and habitat. The latter are due to the many protection laws and protected areas of significance within the country even though the EPI is not considering how well these laws and regulations are affecting the current biodiversity and habitats in reality; one of many weaknesses in the EPI. Denmark
Denmark
performs worst (i.e. highest ranking) in the areas of environmental effects of fisheries (128) and forest management (96). The very poor ranking in the fisheries area are due to alarmingly low and continually rapidly declining fish stocks, placing Denmark
Denmark
among the worst performing countries of the world. Denmark's territories, Greenland
Greenland
and the Faroe Islands, kill approximately 650 whales per year.

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

Main articles: Regions of Denmark and Municipalities of Denmark Midtjylland Nordjylland Syddanmark Hovedstaden Sjælland

Denmark, with a total area of 43,094 square kilometres (16,639 sq mi), is divided into five administrative regions (Danish : regioner). The regions are further subdivided into 98 municipalities (kommuner). The easternmost land in Denmark, the Ertholmene archipelago, with an area of 39 hectares (0.16 sq m), is neither part of a municipality nor a region but belongs to the Ministry of Defence .

The regions were created on 1 January 2007 to replace the 16 former counties . At the same time, smaller municipalities were merged into larger units, reducing the number from 270. Most municipalities have a population of at least 20,000 to give them financial and professional sustainability, although a few exceptions were made to this rule. The administrative divisions are led by directly elected councils, elected proportionally every four years; the most recent Danish local elections were held on 19 November 2013. Other regional structures use the municipal boundaries as a layout, including the police districts , the court districts and the electoral wards .

REGIONS

The governing bodies of the regions are the regional councils , each with forty-one councillors elected for four-year terms. The councils are headed by regional district chairmen (regionsrådsformanden), who are elected by the council. The areas of responsibility for the regional councils are the national health service , social services and regional development . Unlike the counties they replaced, the regions are not allowed to levy taxes and the health service is partly financed by a national health care contribution until 2018 (sundhedsbidrag), partly by funds from both government and municipalities. From 1 January 2019 this contribution will be abolished, as it is being replaced by higher income tax instead.

The area and populations of the regions vary widely; for example, the Capital Region , which encompasses the Copenhagen
Copenhagen
metropolitan area with the exception of the subtracted province East Zeeland but includes the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
island of Bornholm
Bornholm
, has a population three times larger than that of North Denmark Region
North Denmark Region
, which covers the more sparsely populated area of northern Jutland. Under the county system certain densely populated municipalities, such as Copenhagen Municipality and Frederiksberg , had been given a status equivalent to that of counties, making them first-level administrative divisions. These sui generis municipalities were incorporated into the new regions under the 2007 reforms.

DANISH NAME ENGLISH NAME ADMIN. CENTRE Largest city (populous) Population (January 2017) Total area (km²)

Hovedstaden Capital Region of Denmark Hillerød
Hillerød
Copenhagen
Copenhagen
1,807,404 2,568.29

Midtjylland Central Denmark Region Viborg Aarhus
Aarhus
1,304,253 13,095.80

Nordjylland North Denmark Region
North Denmark Region
Aalborg
Aalborg
Aalborg
Aalborg
587,335 7,907.09

Sjælland Region Zealand
Zealand
Sorø Roskilde
Roskilde
832,553 7,268.75

Syddanmark Region of Southern Denmark Vejle
Vejle
Odense
Odense
1,217,224 12,132.21

SOURCE: Regional and municipal key figures

GREENLAND AND THE FAROE ISLANDS

Main article: The unity of the Realm See also: Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
and Greenland
Greenland
Kunoy
Kunoy
island, Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands

The Kingdom of Denmark
Denmark
is a unitary state that comprises, in addition to Denmark
Denmark
proper, two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
: Greenland
Greenland
and the Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
. They have been integrated parts of the Danish Realm since the 18th century; however, due to their separate historical and cultural identities, these parts of the Realm have extensive political powers and have assumed legislative and administrative responsibility in a substantial number of fields. The Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
gained home rule in 1948 and Greenland in 1979, having previously had the status of counties .

Greenland
Greenland
and the Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
have their own home governments and parliaments and are effectively self-governing in regards to domestic affairs. High Commissioners (Rigsombudsmand) act as representatives of the Danish government in the Faroese Løgting and in the Greenlandic Parliament , but they cannot vote. The Faroese home government is defined to be an equal partner with the Danish national government, while the Greenlandic people are defined as a separate people with the right to self-determination .

COUNTRY POPULATION (2015) TOTAL AREA CAPITAL LOCAL PARLIAMENT PREMIER

Greenland
Greenland
(Kalaallit Nunaat) 56,114 2,166,086 km2 (836,330 sq mi) Nuuk
Nuuk
Inatsisartut Kim Kielsen
Kim Kielsen

Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
(Føroyar) 49,079 1,399 km2 (540.16 sq mi) Tórshavn Løgting Aksel V. Johannesen

POLITICS

Main article: Politics of Denmark See also: Politics of the Faroe Islands and Politics of Greenland
Greenland
Queen Margrethe II Lars Løkke Rasmussen The Queen of Denmark
Denmark
and her Prime Minister

Politics in Denmark
Denmark
operate under a framework laid out in the Constitution of Denmark . First written in 1849, it establishes a sovereign state in the form of a constitutional monarchy , with a representative parliamentary system . The monarch officially retains executive power and presides over the Council of State (privy council ). In practice, the duties of the Monarch are strictly representative and ceremonial , such as the formal appointment and dismissal of the Prime Minister and other Government ministers. The Monarch is not answerable for his or her actions, and their person is sacrosanct . Hereditary monarch Queen Margrethe II has been head of state since 14 January 1972.

GOVERNMENT

Main articles: Folketing
Folketing
and Cabinet of Denmark

The Danish Parliament is unicameral and called the Folketing
Folketing
(Danish : Folketinget). It is the legislature of the Kingdom of Denmark, passing acts that apply in Denmark
Denmark
and, variably, Greenland
Greenland
and the Faroe Islands. The Folketing
Folketing
is also responsible for adopting the state\'s budgets , approving the state's accounts, appointing and exercising control of the Government, and taking part in international co-operation. Bills may be initiated by the Government or by members of parliament . All bills passed must be presented before the Council of State to receive Royal Assent
Royal Assent
within thirty days in order to become law. Christiansborg Palace houses the Folketing, the Supreme Court , and Government offices.

Denmark
Denmark
is a representative democracy with universal suffrage . Membership of the Folketing
Folketing
is based on proportional representation of political parties, with a 2% electoral threshold. Danes elect 175 members to the Folketing, with Greenland
Greenland
and the Faroe Islands electing an additional two members each—179 members in total. Parliamentary elections are held at least every four years, but it is within the powers of the Prime Minister to ask the Monarch to call for an election before the term has elapsed. On a vote of no confidence , the Folketing
Folketing
may force a single minister or an entire government to resign.

The Government of Denmark
Denmark
operates as a cabinet government , where executive authority is exercised—formally, on behalf of the Monarch—by Prime Minister and other cabinet ministers , who head ministries . As the executive branch, the Cabinet is responsible for proposing bills and a budget, executing the laws, and guiding the foreign and internal policies of Denmark. The position of prime minister belongs to the person most likely to command the confidence of a majority in the Folketing; this is usually the current leader of the largest political party or, more effectively, through a coalition of parties . A single party generally does not have sufficient political power in terms of the number of seats to form a cabinet on its own; Denmark
Denmark
has often been ruled by coalition governments , themselves sometimes minority governments dependent on non-government parties.

Following a general election defeat , in June 2015 Helle Thorning-Schmidt , leader of the Social Democrats (Socialdemokraterne), resigned as Prime Minister. She was succeeded by Lars Løkke Rasmussen
Lars Løkke Rasmussen
, the leader of the Liberal Party (Venstre). Rasmussen became the leader of a cabinet that, unusually, consisted entirely of ministers from his own party. In the next cabinet , created November 2016, there are several political parties represented.

LAW AND JUDICIAL SYSTEM

Main articles: Law of Denmark and Courts of Denmark
Courts of Denmark
See also: Crime in Denmark
Denmark

Denmark
Denmark
has a civil law system with some references to Germanic law . Denmark
Denmark
resembles Norway
Norway
and Sweden
Sweden
in never having developed a case-law like that of England
England
and the United States
United States
nor comprehensive codes like those of France
France
and Germany. Much of its law is customary .

The judicial system of Denmark
Denmark
is divided between courts with regular civil and criminal jurisdiction and administrative courts with jurisdiction over litigation between individuals and the public administration. Articles sixty-two and sixty-four of the Constitution ensure judicial independence from government and Parliament by providing that judges shall only be guided by the law, including acts, statutes and practice. The Kingdom of Denmark
Denmark
does not have a single unified judicial system – Denmark
Denmark
has one system, Greenland
Greenland
another, and the Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
a third. However, decisions by the highest courts in Greenland
Greenland
and the Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
may be appealed to the Danish High Courts. The Danish Supreme Court is the highest civil and criminal court responsible for the administration of justice in the Kingdom.

FOREIGN RELATIONS

Main article: Foreign relations of Denmark

Denmark
Denmark
wields considerable influence in Northern Europe
Europe
and is a middle power in international affairs. In recent years, Greenland
Greenland
and the Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
have been guaranteed a say in foreign policy issues such as fishing, whaling , and geopolitical concerns. The foreign policy of Denmark
Denmark
is substantially influenced by its membership of the European Union
European Union
(EU); Denmark
Denmark
joined the European Economic Community (EEC), the EU's predecessor, in 1973. Denmark
Denmark
held the Presidency of the Council of the European Union
European Union
on seven occasions, most recently from January to June 2012. Following World War II
World War II
, Denmark
Denmark
ended its two-hundred-year-long policy of neutrality . It has been a founding member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) since 1949, and membership remains highly popular.

As a member of Development Assistance Committee (DAC), Denmark
Denmark
has for a long time been among the countries of the world contributing the largest percentage of gross national income to development aid . In 2015, Denmark
Denmark
contributed 0.85% of its gross national income (GNI) to foreign aid and was one of only six countries meeting the longstanding UN target of 0.7% of GNI. The country participates in both bilateral and multilateral aid, with the aid usually administered by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs . The organisational name of Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA) is often used, in particular when operating bilateral aid.

MILITARY

See also: Danish Defence
Danish Defence
and Military
Military
history of Denmark
Denmark
Danish MP-soldiers conducting advanced law enforcement training

Denmark's armed forces are known as the Danish Defence
Danish Defence
(Danish : Forsvaret). The Minister of Defence is commander-in-chief of the Danish Defence, and serves as chief diplomatic official abroad. During peacetime, the Ministry of Defence employs around 33,000 in total. The main military branches employ almost 27,000: 15,460 in the Royal Danish Army , 5,300 in the Royal Danish Navy and 6,050 in the Royal Danish Air Force (all including conscripts). The Danish Emergency Management Agency employs 2,000 (including conscripts), and about 4,000 are in non-branch-specific services like the Danish Defence Command and the Danish Defence
Danish Defence
Intelligence Service . Furthermore, around 55,000 serve as volunteers in the Danish Home Guard .

Denmark
Denmark
is a long-time supporter of international peacekeeping , but since the NATO
NATO
bombing of Yugoslavia in 1999 and the War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in 2001, Denmark
Denmark
has also found a new role as a warring nation, participating actively in several wars and invasions. This relatively new situation has stirred some internal critique, but the Danish population has generally been very supportive, in particular of the War in Afghanistan. The Danish Defence
Danish Defence
has around 1,400 staff in international missions, not including standing contributions to NATO
NATO
SNMCMG1 . Danish forces were heavily engaged in the former Yugoslavia in the UN Protection Force ( UNPROFOR ), with IFOR , and now SFOR . Between 2003 and 2007, there were approximately 450 Danish soldiers in Iraq
Iraq
. Denmark
Denmark
also strongly supported American operations in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and has contributed both monetarily and materially to the ISAF . These initiatives are often described by the authorities as part of a new "active foreign policy" of Denmark.

ECONOMY

Further information: Economy of Denmark
Economy of Denmark
and List of companies of Denmark
Denmark
Lego
Lego
bricks are produced by The Lego
Lego
Group , headquartered in Billund .

Denmark
Denmark
has a developed mixed economy that is classed as a high-income economy by the World Bank
World Bank
. It ranks 18th in the world in terms of GDP (PPP) per capita and 6th in nominal GDP per capita . Denmark's economy stands out as one of the most free in the Index of Economic Freedom and the Economic Freedom of the World
Economic Freedom of the World
. It is the 13th most competitive economy in the world, and 8th in Europe, according to the World Economic Forum
World Economic Forum
in its Global Competitiveness Report 2014–2015.

Denmark
Denmark
has the fourth highest ratio of tertiary degree holders in the world. The country ranks highest in the world for workers\' rights . GDP per hour worked was the 13th highest in 2009. The country has a market income inequality close to the OECD
OECD
average, but after public cash transfers the income inequality is very low . According to the International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
, Denmark
Denmark
has the world\'s highest minimum wage . As Denmark
Denmark
has no minimum wage legislation, the high wage floor has been attributed to the power of trade unions . For example, as the result of a collective bargaining agreement between the 3F trade union and the employers group Horesta, workers at McDonald\'s and other fast food chains make the equivalent of US$ 20 an hour, which is more than double what their counterparts earn in the United States, and have access to five weeks' paid vacation, parental leave and a pension plan. Union density in 2015 was 68%. Denmark
Denmark
is a leading producer of pork , and the largest exporter of pork products in the EU.

Once a predominantly agricultural country on account of its arable landscape, since 1945 Denmark
Denmark
has greatly expanded its industrial base so that by 2006 industry contributed about 25% of GDP and agriculture less than 2%. Major industries include iron , steel , chemicals , food processing , pharmaceuticals , shipbuilding and construction . The country's main exports are: industrial production/manufactured goods 73.3% (of which machinery and instruments were 21.4%, and fuels (oil, natural gas), chemicals, etc. 26%); agricultural products and others for consumption 18.7% (in 2009 meat and meat products were 5.5% of total export; fish and fish products 2.9%). Denmark
Denmark
is a net exporter of food and energy and has for a number of years had a balance of payments surplus while battling an equivalent of approximately 39% of GNP foreign debt or more than DKK 300 billion. Denmark
Denmark
is a member of the European Single Market
European Single Market
.

A liberalisation of import tariffs in 1797 marked the end of mercantilism and further liberalisation in the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century established the Danish liberal tradition in international trade that was only to be broken by the 1930s. Even when other countries, such as Germany
Germany
and France, raised protection for their agricultural sector because of increased American competition resulting in much lower agricultural prices after 1870, Denmark
Denmark
retained its free trade policies, as the country profited from the cheap imports of cereals (used as feedstuffs for their cattle and pigs) and could increase their exports of butter and meat of which the prices were more stable. Today, Denmark
Denmark
is part of the European Union 's internal market , which represents more than 508 million consumers. Several domestic commercial policies are determined by agreements among European Union
European Union
(EU) members and by EU legislation. Support for free trade is high among the Danish public; in a 2007 poll 76% responded that globalisation is a good thing. 70% of trade flows are inside the European Union. As of 2014 , Denmark's largest export partners are Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Norway.

Denmark's currency, the krone (DKK), is pegged at approximately 7.46 kroner per euro through the ERM . Although a September 2000 referendum rejected adopting the euro , the country follows the policies set forth in the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union
European Union
and meets the economic convergence criteria needed to adopt the euro. The majority of the political parties in the Folketing
Folketing
support adopting the euro, but as yet a new referendum has not been held, despite plans; scepticism of the EU among Danish voters has historically been strong.

Denmark
Denmark
is home to many multinational companies, among them: A.P. Møller-Mærsk (international shipping), Arla Foods (dairy), Lego Group (toys), Danfoss
Danfoss
(industrial services), Carlsberg Group (beer), Vestas
Vestas
(wind turbines ), and the pharmaceutical companies Leo Pharma and Novo Nordisk
Novo Nordisk
.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

See also: Internet in Denmark
Internet in Denmark
With an investment of 8.5 million euros over the ten-year construction period, Denmark
Denmark
confirms participation in E-ELT.

Denmark
Denmark
has a long tradition of scientific and technological invention and engagement, and has been involved internationally from the very start of the scientific revolution . In current times, Denmark
Denmark
is participating in many high-profile international science and technology projects, including CERN
CERN
, ITER
ITER
, ESA
ESA
, ISS and E-ELT
E-ELT
.

In the 20th century, Danes have also been innovative in several fields of the technology sector. Danish companies have been influential in the shipping industry with the design of the largest and most energy efficient container ships in the world, the Maersk Triple E class , and Danish engineers have contributed to the design of MAN Diesel engines. In the software and electronic field, Denmark contributed to design and manufacturing of Nordic Mobile Telephones , and the now-defunct Danish company DanCall was among the first to develop GSM
GSM
mobile phones.

Life science is a key sector with extensive research and development activities. Danish engineers are world-leading in providing diabetes care equipment and medication products from Novo Nordisk
Novo Nordisk
and, since 2000, the Danish biotech company Novozymes , the world market leader in enzymes for first generation starch based bioethanol, has pioneered development of enzymes for converting waste to cellulosic ethanol . Medicon Valley , spanning the Øresund Region between Zealand
Zealand
and Sweden, is one of Europe's largest life science clusters , containing a large number of life science companies and research institutions located within a very small geographical area.

Danish-born computer scientists and software engineers have taken leading roles in some of the world's programming languages: Anders Hejlsberg ( Turbo Pascal , Delphi , C# ); Rasmus Lerdorf ( PHP ); Bjarne Stroustrup ( C++
C++
); David Heinemeier Hansson
David Heinemeier Hansson
( Ruby on Rails ); Lars Bak , a pioneer in virtual machines (V8 , Java VM , Dart ). Physicist Lene Vestergaard Hau is the first person to stop light, leading to advances in quantum computing , nanoscale engineering and linear optics .

PUBLIC POLICY

See also: Flexicurity and Taxation in Denmark

Danes enjoy a high standard of living and the Danish economy is characterised by extensive government welfare provisions . Like other Nordic countries, Denmark
Denmark
has adopted the Nordic Model
Nordic Model
, which combines free market capitalism with a comprehensive welfare state and strong worker protection . As a result of its acclaimed "flexicurity" model, Denmark
Denmark
has the most free labour market in Europe, according to the World Bank. Employers can hire and fire whenever they want (flexibility), and between jobs, unemployment compensation is very high (security). Establishing a business can be done in a matter of hours and at very low costs. No restrictions apply regarding overtime work, which allows companies to operate 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. Denmark
Denmark
has a competitive corporate tax rate of 24.5% and a special time-limited tax regime for expatriates. The Danish taxation system is broad based, with a 25% value-added tax , in addition to excise taxes, income taxes and other fees. The overall level of taxation (sum of all taxes, as a percentage of GDP) is estimated to be 46% in 2011.

As of 2014 , 6% of the population was reported to live below the poverty line , when adjusted for taxes and transfers. Denmark
Denmark
has the 2nd lowest relative poverty rate in the OECD
OECD
, below the 11.3% OECD average. The share of the population reporting that they feel that they cannot afford to buy sufficient food in Denmark
Denmark
is less than half of the OECD
OECD
average. With an employment rate of 72.8%, Denmark
Denmark
ranks 7th highest among the OECD
OECD
countries, and above the OECD
OECD
average of 66.2%. The number of unemployed people is forecast to be 65,000 in 2015. The number of people in the working age group, less disability pensioners etc., will grow by 10,000 to 2,860,000, and jobs by 70,000 to 2,790,000; part-time jobs are included. Because of the present high demand and short supply of skilled labour, for instance for factory and service jobs, including hospital nurses and physicians, the annual average working hours have risen, especially compared with the recession 1987–1993. Increasingly, service workers of all kinds are in demand, i.e. in the postal services and as bus drivers, and academics.

The level of unemployment benefits is dependent on former employment (the maximum benefit is at 90% of the wage) and at times also on membership of an unemployment fund, which is almost always—but need not be—administered by a trade union, and the previous payment of contributions. However, the largest share of the financing is still carried by the central government and is financed by general taxation, and only to a minor degree from earmarked contributions. There is no taxation, however, on proceeds gained from selling one's home (provided there was any home equity (friværdi)), as the marginal tax rate on capital income from housing savings is around 0%.

ENERGY

Main article: Energy in Denmark Middelgrunden , an offshore wind farm near Copenhagen
Copenhagen

Denmark
Denmark
has considerably large deposits of oil and natural gas in the North Sea
North Sea
and ranks as number 32 in the world among net exporters of crude oil and was producing 259,980 barrels of crude oil a day in 2009. Denmark
Denmark
is a long-time leader in wind power : In 2015 wind turbines provided 42.1% of the total electricity power consumption. in May 2011 Denmark
Denmark
derived 3.1% of its gross domestic product from renewable (clean) energy technology and energy efficiency, or around €6.5 billion ($9.4 billion). Denmark
Denmark
is connected by electric transmission lines to other European countries. On 6 September 2012, Denmark
Denmark
launched the biggest wind turbine in the world, and will add four more over the next four years.

Denmark\'s electricity sector has integrated energy sources such as wind power into the national grid. Denmark
Denmark
now aims to focus on intelligent battery systems (V2G ) and plug-in vehicles in the transport sector. The country is a member nation of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA).

TRANSPORT

Main article: Transport in Denmark Great Belt Fixed Link, The East Bridge as seen from Zealand
Zealand
Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Airport is the largest airport in Scandinavia
Scandinavia
and 15th-busiest in Europe
Europe
.

Significant investment has been made in building road and rail links between regions in Denmark, most notably the Great Belt Fixed Link
Great Belt Fixed Link
, which connects Zealand
Zealand
and Funen . It is now possible to drive from Frederikshavn in northern Jutland
Jutland
to Copenhagen
Copenhagen
on eastern Zealand without leaving the motorway. The main railway operator is DSB for passenger services and DB Schenker Rail
DB Schenker Rail
for freight trains. The railway tracks are maintained by Banedanmark . The North Sea
North Sea
and the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
are intertwined by various, international ferry links. Construction
Construction
of the Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link , connecting Denmark
Denmark
and Germany
Germany
with a second link, will start in 2015. Copenhagen
Copenhagen
has a rapid transit system, the Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Metro , and an extensive electrified suburban railway network, the S-train . In the four largest cities – Copenhagen
Copenhagen
, Aarhus
Aarhus
, Odense
Odense
, Aalborg
Aalborg
– light rail systems are planned to be in operation around 2020.

Cycling in Denmark
Cycling in Denmark
is a very common form of transport, particularly for the young and for city dwellers. With a network of bicycle routes extending more than 12,000 km and an estimated 7,000 km of segregated dedicated bicycle paths and lanes , Denmark
Denmark
has a solid bicycle infrastructure .

Private vehicles are increasingly used as a means of transport. Because of the high registration tax (150%), VAT (25%), and one of the world's highest income tax rates, new cars are very expensive. The purpose of the tax is to discourage car ownership. In 2007, an attempt was made by the government to favour environmentally friendly cars by slightly reducing taxes on high mileage vehicles. However, this has had little effect, and in 2008 Denmark
Denmark
experienced an increase in the import of fuel inefficient old cars, as the cost for older cars—including taxes—keeps them within the budget of many Danes. As of 2011 , the average car age is 9.2 years.

With Norway
Norway
and Sweden, Denmark
Denmark
is part of the Scandinavian Airlines flag carrier . Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Airport is Scandinavia's busiest passenger airport, handling over 25 million passengers in 2014. Other notable airports are Billund Airport , Aalborg
Aalborg
Airport , and Aarhus
Aarhus
Airport .

DEMOGRAPHICS

Main article: Demographics of Denmark

Population by ancestry (Q1 2016) People of Danish origin (88.67%) Immigrant (9.47%) Descendant of an immigrant (2.86%)

The population of Denmark, as defined by Statistics Denmark , was estimated in January 2017 to be 5,748,769. The median age is 41.4 years, with 0.97 males per female. The total fertility rate is 1.73 children born per woman; despite the low birth rate, the population is still growing at an average annual rate of 0.22%. The World Happiness Report frequently ranks Denmark's population as the happiest in the world. This has been attributed to the country's highly regarded education and health care systems, and its low level of income inequality .

Denmark
Denmark
is an historically homogeneous nation. However, as with its Scandinavian neighbours, Denmark
Denmark
has recently transformed from a nation of net emigration , up until World War II, to a nation of net immigration. Today, immigration to Denmark
Denmark
consists particularly of asylum seekers and persons who arrive as family dependants. In addition, Denmark
Denmark
annually receives a number of citizens from Western countries , notably Nordic countries, the EU, and North America, who seek residency to work or study for a definite period of time. Recently, substantial numbers of workers—several tens of thousands—from the new EU accession countries , especially Poland and the Baltic nations, have arrived to perform menial labour in construction, agriculture, consumer industries, and cleaning. Overall, the net migration rate in 2015 was 2.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population, comparable to the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and well below other North European countries, except the Baltic states.

There are no official statistics on ethnic groups , but according to 2016 figures from Statistics Denmark, approximately 86.9% of the population was of Danish descent, defined as having at least one parent who was born in Denmark
Denmark
and has Danish citizenship. The remaining 13.1% were of a foreign background, defined as immigrants or descendants of recent immigrants. With the same definition, the most common countries of origin were Poland
Poland
, Turkey
Turkey
, Germany
Germany
, Iraq
Iraq
, Romania
Romania
, Syria , Somalia , Iran , Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, and Balkan states.

LARGEST CITIES IN DENMARK (AS OF 1 JANUARY 2016 )

Copenhagen
Copenhagen

Aarhus
Aarhus
RANK CORE CITY REGION URBAN POPULATION MUNICIPAL POPULATION

* view * talk * edit

Odense
Odense

Aalborg
Aalborg

1 COPENHAGEN Capital Region of Denmark 1,280,371 591,481

2 AARHUS Central Denmark Region 264,716 330,639

3 ODENSE Region of Southern Denmark 175,245 198,972

4 AALBORG North Denmark Region
North Denmark Region
112,194 210,316

5 ESBJERG Region of Southern Denmark 72,151 115,748

6 RANDERS Central Denmark Region 62,342 97,520

7 KOLDING Region of Southern Denmark 59,712 91,695

8 HORSENS Central Denmark Region 57,517 87,736

9 VEJLE Region of Southern Denmark 54,862 111,743

10 ROSKILDE Region Zealand
Zealand
50,046 86,207

Source: Statistics Denmark

LANGUAGES

Main article: Languages of Denmark
Languages of Denmark

Danish is the de facto national language of Denmark. Faroese and Greenlandic are the official languages of the Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
and Greenland
Greenland
respectively. German is a recognised minority language in the area of the former South Jutland
Jutland
County (now part of the Region of Southern Denmark
Denmark
), which was part of the German Empire prior to the Treaty of Versailles . Danish and Faroese belong to the North Germanic (Nordic) branch of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
, along with Icelandic , Norwegian , and Swedish . There is a limited degree of mutual intelligibility between Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish . Danish is more distantly related to German, which is a West Germanic language. Greenlandic or "Kalaallisut" belongs to the Eskimo–Aleut languages ; it is closely related to the Inuit languages
Inuit languages
in Canada, such as Inuktitut
Inuktitut
, and entirely unrelated to Danish.

A large majority (86%) of Danes speak English as a second language, generally with a high level of proficiency . German is the second-most spoken foreign language, with 47% reporting a conversational level of proficiency. Denmark
Denmark
had 25,900 native speakers of German in 2007 (mostly in the South Jutland
Jutland
area).

RELIGION

Main article: Religion in Denmark
Religion in Denmark

Christianity is the dominant religion in Denmark. In January 2017, 75.9% of the population of Denmark
Denmark
were members of the Church of Denmark
Denmark
(Den Danske Folkekirke), the officially established church, which is Protestant
Protestant
in classification and Lutheran
Lutheran
in orientation. This is down 1.0% compared to the year earlier and 1.9% down compared to two years earlier. Despite the high membership figures, only 3% of the population regularly attend Sunday services and only 19% of Danes consider religion to be an important part of their life.

CHURCH OF DENMARK YEAR POPULATION MEMBERS PERCENTAGE

1990 5,135,409 4,584,450 89.3%

2000 5,330,500 4,536,422 85.1%

2005 5,413,600 4,498,703 83.3%

2010 5,534,738 4,479,214 80.9%

2015 5,659,715 4,400,754 77.8%

2016 5,707,251 4,387,571 76.9%

2017 5,748,769 4,361,518 75.9%

STATISTICAL DATA: 1984, 1990–2017, SOURCE: KIRKEMINISTERIET

Roskilde
Roskilde
Cathedral has been the burial place of Danish royalty since the 15th century. In 1995 it became a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
.

The Constitution states that a member of the Royal Family must be a member of the Church of Denmark, though the rest of the population is free to adhere to other faiths. In 1682 the state granted limited recognition to three religious groups dissenting from the Established Church: Roman Catholicism , the Reformed Church and Judaism , although conversion to these groups from the Church of Denmark remained illegal initially. Until the 1970s, the state formally recognised "religious societies" by royal decree . Today, religious groups do not need official government recognition, they can be granted the right to perform weddings and other ceremonies without this recognition. Denmark\'s Muslims make up approximately 3.7% of the population and form the country's second largest religious community and largest minority religion. The Danish Foreign Ministry estimates that other religious groups comprise less than 1% of the population individually and approximately 2% when taken all together.

According to a 2010 Eurobarometer Poll, 28% of Danish citizens polled responded that they "believe there is a God", 47% responded that they "believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 24% responded that they "do not believe there is any sort of spirit, God or life force". Another poll, carried out in 2009, found that 25% of Danes believe Jesus
Jesus
is the son of God , and 18% believe he is the saviour of the world.

EDUCATION

Main article: Education in Denmark The oldest surviving Danish lecture plan dated 1537 from the University
University
of Copenhagen
Copenhagen
The Royal Danish Library in Copenhagen
Copenhagen

All educational programmes in Denmark
Denmark
are regulated by the Ministry of Education and administered by local municipalities. Folkeskole covers the entire period of compulsory education, encompassing primary and lower secondary education . Most children attend folkeskole for 10 years, from the ages of 6 to 16. There are no final examinations, but pupils can choose to go to a test when finishing ninth grade (14–15 years old). The test is obligatory if further education is to be attended. Pupils can alternatively attend an independent school (friskole), or a private school (privatskole), such as Christian schools or Waldorf schools .

Following graduation from compulsory education, there are several continuing educational opportunities; the Gymnasium (STX) attaches importance in teaching a mix of humanities and science, Higher Technical Examination Programme (HTX) focuses on scientific subjects and the Higher Commercial Examination Programme emphasises on subjects in economics. Higher Preparatory Examination (HF) is similar to Gymnasium (STX), but is one year shorter. For specific professions, there is vocational education , training young people for work in specific trades by a combination of teaching and apprenticeship .

The government records upper secondary school completion rates of 95% and tertiary enrollment and completion rates of 60%. All university and college (tertiary) education in Denmark
Denmark
is free of charges; there are no tuition fees to enrol in courses. Students aged 18 or above may apply for state educational support grants, known as Statens Uddannelsesstøtte (SU), which provides fixed financial support, disbursed monthly. Danish universities offer international students a range of opportunities for obtaining an internationally recognised qualification in Denmark. Many programmes may be taught in the English language , the academic lingua franca , in bachelor\'s degrees , master\'s degrees , doctorates and student exchange programmes .

HEALTH

See also: Health care in Denmark

As of 2015 , Denmark
Denmark
has a life expectancy of 80.6 years at birth (78.6 for men, 82.5 for women), up from 76.9 years in 2000. This ranks it 27th among 193 nations, behind the other Nordic countries
Nordic countries
. The National Institute of Public Health of the University
University
of Southern Denmark
Denmark
has calculated 19 major risk factors among Danes that contribute to a lowering of the life expectancy; this includes smoking, alcohol, drug abuse and physical inactivity . Although the obesity rate is lower than in North America and most other European countries, the large number of Danes becoming overweight is an increasing problem and results in an annual additional consumption in the health care system of DKK 1,625 million. In a 2012 study, Denmark had the highest cancer rate of all countries listed by the World Cancer Research Fund International ; researchers suggest the reasons are better reporting, but also lifestyle factors like heavy alcohol consumption , smoking and physical inactivity.

Denmark
Denmark
has a universal health care system , characterised by being publicly financed through taxes and, for most of the services, run directly by the regional authorities. One of the sources of income is a national health care contribution (sundhedsbidrag) (2007–11:8%; '12:7%; '13:6%; '14:5%; '15:4%; '16:3%; '17:2%; '18:1%; '19:0%) but it is being phased out and will be gone from January 2019, with the income taxes in the lower brackets being raised gradually each year instead. Another source comes from the municipalities that had their income taxes raised by 3 percentage points from 1 January 2007, a contribution confiscated from the former county tax to be used from 1 January 2007 for health purposes by the municipalities instead. This means that most health care provision is free at the point of delivery for all residents. Additionally, roughly two in five have complementary private insurance to cover services not fully covered by the state, such as physiotherapy . As of 2012 , Denmark
Denmark
spends 11.2% of its GDP on health care; this is up from 9.8% in 2007 (US$3,512 per capita). This places Denmark
Denmark
above the OECD
OECD
average and above the other Nordic countries.

CULTURE

Main article: Culture of Denmark
Culture of Denmark
See also: LGBT rights in Denmark
LGBT rights in Denmark

Denmark
Denmark
shares strong cultural and historic ties with its Scandinavian neighbours Sweden
Sweden
and Norway. It has historically been one of the most socially progressive cultures in the world. In 1969, Denmark
Denmark
was the first country to legalise pornography , and in 2012, Denmark
Denmark
replaced its "registered partnership " laws, which it had been the first country to introduce in 1989, with gender-neutral marriage . Modesty and social equality are important parts of Danish culture. Statue of philosopher Søren Kierkegaard

The astronomical discoveries of Tycho Brahe
Tycho Brahe
(1546–1601), Ludwig A. Colding 's (1815–88) neglected articulation of the principle of conservation of energy , and the contributions to atomic physics of Niels Bohr
Niels Bohr
(1885–1962) indicate the range of Danish scientific achievement. The fairy tales of Hans Christian Andersen
Hans Christian Andersen
(1805–1875), the philosophical essays of Søren Kierkegaard (1813–55), the short stories of Karen Blixen
Karen Blixen
(penname Isak Dinesen ), (1885–1962), the plays of Ludvig Holberg
Ludvig Holberg
(1684–1754), and the dense, aphoristic poetry of Piet Hein (1905–96), have earned international recognition, as have the symphonies of Carl Nielsen
Carl Nielsen
(1865–1931). From the mid-1990s, Danish films have attracted international attention, especially those associated with Dogme 95 like those of Lars von Trier .

A major feature of Danish culture is Jul (Danish Christmas
Christmas
). The holiday is celebrated throughout December, starting either at the beginning of Advent or on 1 December with a variety of traditions, culminating with the Christmas
Christmas
Eve meal.

There are five Danish heritage sites inscribed on the UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage list in Northern Europe
Europe
: Christiansfeld , a Moravian Church Settlement, the Jelling Mounds (Runic Stones and Church) , Kronborg Castle , Roskilde
Roskilde
Cathedral , and The par force hunting landscape in North Zealand
Zealand
.

MEDIA

Main articles: Cinema of Denmark and Television in Denmark

Danish mass media date back to the 1540s, when handwritten fly sheets reported on the news. In 1666, Anders Bording
Anders Bording
, the father of Danish journalism, began a state paper . In 1834, the first liberal, factual newspaper appeared, and the 1849 Constitution established lasting freedom of the press in Denmark
Denmark
. Newspapers flourished in the second half of the 19th century, usually tied to one or another political party or trade union. Modernisation, bringing in new features and mechanical techniques, appeared after 1900. The total circulation was 500,000 daily in 1901, more than doubling to 1.2 million in 1925. The German occupation during World War II
World War II
brought informal censorship; some offending newspaper buildings were simply blown up by the Nazis. During the war, the underground produced 550 newspapers—small, surreptitiously printed sheets that encouraged sabotage and resistance. Director Lars von Trier , who co-created the Dogme film movement

Danish cinema dates back to 1897 and since the 1980s has maintained a steady stream of product due largely to funding by the state-supported Danish Film Institute . There have been three big internationally important waves of Danish cinema: erotic melodrama of the silent era ; the increasingly explicit sex films of the 1960s and 1970s; and lastly, the Dogme 95 movement of the late 1990s, where directors often used hand-held cameras to dynamic effect in a conscious reaction against big-budget studios. Danish films have been noted for their realism, religious and moral themes, sexual frankness and technical innovation. The Danish filmmaker Carl Th. Dreyer (1889–1968) is considered one of the greatest directors of early cinema .

Other Danish filmmakers of note include Erik Balling
Erik Balling
, the creator of the popular Olsen-banden films; Gabriel Axel , an Oscar -winner for Babette\'s Feast in 1987; and Bille August
Bille August
, the Oscar -, Palme d\'Or - and Golden Globe -winner for Pelle the Conqueror
Pelle the Conqueror
in 1988. In the modern era, notable filmmakers in Denmark
Denmark
include Lars von Trier , who co-created the Dogme movement, and multiple award-winners Susanne Bier and Nicolas Winding Refn . Mads Mikkelsen is a world-renowned Danish actor, having starred in films such as King Arthur , Casino Royale , the Danish film The Hunt , and the American TV series Hannibal . Another renowned Danish actor Nikolaj Coster-Waldau
Nikolaj Coster-Waldau
is internationally known for playing the role of Jaime Lannister in the critically acclaimed HBO series Game of Thrones .

Danish mass media and news programming are dominated by a few large corporations. In printed media JP/Politikens Hus and Berlingske Media , between them, control the largest newspapers Politiken , Berlingske Tidende and Jyllands-Posten and major tabloids B.T. and Ekstra Bladet . In television , publicly owned stations DR and TV 2 have large shares of the viewers. DR in particular is famous for its high quality TV-series often sold to foreign broadcasters and often with strong leading female characters like internationally known actresses Sidse Babett Knudsen and Sofie Gråbøl . In radio, DR has a near monopoly, currently broadcasting on all four nationally available FM channels, competing only with local stations.

MUSIC

Main article: Music of Denmark A sample from Carl Nielsen
Carl Nielsen
's Wind Quintet with the theme from Min Jesus, lad mit hjerte få

Copenhagen
Copenhagen
and its multiple outlying islands have a wide range of folk traditions . The Royal Danish Orchestra is among the world's oldest orchestras. Denmark's most famous classical composer is Carl Nielsen , especially remembered for his six symphonies and his Wind Quintet , while the Royal Danish Ballet
Royal Danish Ballet
specialises in the work of the Danish choreographer August Bournonville
August Bournonville
. Danes have distinguished themselves as jazz musicians, and the Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Jazz
Jazz
Festival has acquired an international reputation. The modern pop and rock scene has produced a few names of note internationally, including , Aqua , Lukas Graham
Lukas Graham
, D-A-D
D-A-D
, Oh Land , The Raveonettes
The Raveonettes
, Michael Learns to Rock , King Diamond , Alphabeat
Alphabeat
, Kashmir , Mew and Volbeat , among others . Lars Ulrich , the drummer of the band Metallica
Metallica
, has become the first Danish musician to be inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame .

Roskilde
Roskilde
Festival near Copenhagen
Copenhagen
is the largest music festival in Northern Europe
Europe
since 1971 and Denmark
Denmark
has many recurring music festivals of all genres throughout, including Aarhus
Aarhus
International Jazz
Jazz
Festival , Skanderborg Festival , The Blue Festival in Aalborg, Esbjerg
Esbjerg
International Chamber Music Festival and Skagen
Skagen
Festival among many others.

ARCHITECTURE AND DESIGN

Main articles: Architecture of Denmark and Danish design
Danish design
Grundtvig\'s Church in Copenhagen. An example of expressionist architecture.

Denmark's architecture became firmly established in the Middle Ages when first Romanesque , then Gothic churches and cathedrals sprang up throughout the country. From the 16th century, Dutch and Flemish designers were brought to Denmark, initially to improve the country's fortifications, but increasingly to build magnificent royal castles and palaces in the Renaissance style. During the 17th century, many impressive buildings were built in the Baroque style, both in the capital and the provinces. Neoclassicism from France
France
was slowly adopted by native Danish architects who increasingly participated in defining architectural style. A productive period of Historicism ultimately merged into the 19th-century National Romantic style .

The 20th century brought along new architectural styles; including expressionism , best exemplified by the designs of architect Peder Vilhelm Jensen-Klint , which relied heavily on Scandinavian brick Gothic traditions; and Nordic Classicism , which enjoyed brief popularity in the early decades of the century. It was in the 1960s that Danish architects such as Arne Jacobsen entered the world scene with their highly successful Functionalist architecture . This, in turn, has evolved into more recent world-class masterpieces including Jørn Utzon
Jørn Utzon
's Sydney Opera House
Sydney Opera House
and Johan Otto von Spreckelsen
Johan Otto von Spreckelsen
's Grande Arche de la Défense in Paris, paving the way for a number of contemporary Danish designers such as Bjarke Ingels to be rewarded for excellence both at home and abroad.

Danish design
Danish design
is a term often used to describe a style of functionalistic design and architecture that was developed in the mid-20th century, originating in Denmark. Danish design
Danish design
is typically applied to industrial design, furniture and household objects, which have won many international awards. The Royal Porcelain Factory is famous for the quality of its ceramics and export products worldwide. Danish design
Danish design
is also a well-known brand, often associated with world-famous, 20th-century designers and architects such as Børge Mogensen , Finn Juhl , Hans Wegner
Hans Wegner
, Arne Jacobsen , Poul Henningsen and Verner Panton
Verner Panton
. Other designers of note include Kristian Solmer Vedel (1923–2003) in the area of industrial design, Jens Quistgaard (1919–2008) for kitchen furniture and implements and Ole Wanscher (1903–1985) who had a classical approach to furniture design.

LITERATURE AND PHILOSOPHY

Main articles: Danish literature and Danish philosophy A portrait of Hans Christian Andersen
Hans Christian Andersen
(1836), by Christian Albrecht Jensen

The first known Danish literature is myths and folklore from the 10th and 11th century. Saxo Grammaticus , normally considered the first Danish writer, worked for bishop Absalon on a chronicle of Danish history ( Gesta Danorum ). Very little is known of other Danish literature from the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. With the Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
came Ludvig Holberg
Ludvig Holberg
whose comedy plays are still being performed.

In the late 19th century, literature was seen as a way to influence society. Known as the Modern Breakthrough , this movement was championed by Georg Brandes , Henrik Pontoppidan (awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature ) and J. P. Jacobsen . Romanticism
Romanticism
influenced the renowned writer and poet Hans Christian Andersen
Hans Christian Andersen
, known for his stories and fairy tales , e.g. The Ugly Duckling , The Little Mermaid and The Snow Queen . In recent history Johannes Vilhelm Jensen was also awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature
Nobel Prize for Literature
. Karen Blixen
Karen Blixen
is famous for her novels and short stories. Other Danish writers of importance are Herman Bang , Gustav Wied
Gustav Wied
, William Heinesen , Martin Andersen Nexø , Piet Hein , Hans Scherfig , Klaus Rifbjerg
Klaus Rifbjerg
, Dan Turèll , Tove Ditlevsen , Inger Christensen and Peter Høeg .

Danish philosophy has a long tradition as part of Western philosophy . Perhaps the most influential Danish philosopher was Søren Kierkegaard , the creator of Christian existentialism . Kierkegaard had a few Danish followers, including Harald Høffding , who later in his life moved on to join the movement of positivism . Among Kierkegaard's other followers include Jean-Paul Sartre who was impressed with Kierkegaard's views on the individual, and Rollo
Rollo
May , who helped create humanistic psychology . Another Danish philosopher of note is Grundtvig , whose philosophy gave rise to a new form of non-aggressive nationalism in Denmark, and who is also influential for his theological and historical works.

PAINTING AND PHOTOGRAPHY

Main articles: Danish art
Danish art
and Photography in Denmark
Photography in Denmark
Woman in front of a Mirror, (1841), by Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg
Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg

While Danish art
Danish art
was influenced over the centuries by trends in Germany
Germany
and the Netherlands, the 15th- and 16th-century church frescos , which can be seen in many of the country's older churches, are of particular interest as they were painted in a style typical of native Danish painters.

The Danish Golden Age , which began in the first half of the 19th century, was inspired by a new feeling of nationalism and romanticism, typified in the later previous century by history painter Nicolai Abildgaard . Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg
Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg
was not only a productive artist in his own right but taught at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts where his students included notable painters such as Wilhelm Bendz , Christen Købke , Martinus Rørbye , Constantin Hansen
Constantin Hansen
, and Wilhelm Marstrand .

In 1871, Holger Drachmann
Holger Drachmann
and Karl Madsen
Karl Madsen
visited Skagen
Skagen
in the far north of Jutland
Jutland
where they quickly built up one of Scandinavia's most successful artists\' colonies specialising in Naturalism and Realism rather than in the traditional approach favoured by the Academy. Hosted by Michael and his wife Anna , they were soon joined by P.S. Krøyer , Carl Locher
Carl Locher
and Laurits Tuxen
Laurits Tuxen
. All participated in painting the natural surroundings and local people. Similar trends developed on Funen with the Fynboerne who included Johannes Larsen , Fritz Syberg and Peter Hansen , and on the island of Bornholm
Bornholm
with the Bornholm
Bornholm
school of painters including Niels Lergaard , Kræsten Iversen and Oluf Høst
Oluf Høst
.

Painting has continued to be a prominent form of artistic expression in Danish culture, inspired by and also influencing major international trends in this area. These include impressionism and the modernist styles of expressionism , abstract painting and surrealism . While international co-operation and activity has almost always been essential to the Danish artistic community, influential art collectives with a firm Danish base includes De Tretten (1909–1912), Linien (1930s and 1940s), COBRA (1948–51), Fluxus (1960s and 1970s), De Unge Vilde (1980s) and more recently Superflex (founded in 1993). Most Danish painters of modern times have also been very active with other forms of artistic expressions, such as sculpting, ceramics, art installations, activism, film and experimental architecture. Notable Danish painters from modern times representing various art movements include Theodor Philipsen (1840–1920, impressionism and naturalism), Anna Klindt Sørensen (1899–1985, expressionism), Franciska Clausen (1899–1986, Neue Sachlichkeit, cubism, surrealism and others), Henry Heerup (1907–1993, naivism), Robert Jacobsen
Robert Jacobsen
(1912–1993, abstract painting), Carl Henning Pedersen (1913–2007, abstract painting), Asger Jorn
Asger Jorn
(1914–1973, Situationist, abstract painting), Bjørn Wiinblad (1918–2006, art deco, orientalism), Per Kirkeby (b. 1938, neo-expressionism, abstract painting), Per Arnoldi (b. 1941, pop art), Michael Kvium (b. 1955, neo-surrealism) and Simone Aaberg Kærn (b. 1969, superrealism).

Danish photography has developed from strong participation and interest in the very beginnings of the art of photography in 1839 to the success of a considerable number of Danes in the world of photography today. Pioneers such as Mads Alstrup and Georg Emil Hansen paved the way for a rapidly growing profession during the last half of the 19th century. Today Danish photographers such as Astrid Kruse Jensen and Jacob Aue Sobol are active both at home and abroad, participating in key exhibitions around the world.

CUISINE

Main article: Danish cuisine Smørrebrød
Smørrebrød
– a variety of Danish open sandwiches piled high with delicacies

The traditional cuisine of Denmark, like that of the other Nordic countries and of Northern Germany
Germany
, consists mainly of meat, fish and potatoes. Danish dishes are highly seasonal, stemming from the country's agricultural past, its geography, and its climate of long, cold winters.

The open sandwiches on rye bread, known as smørrebrød , which in their basic form are the usual fare for lunch, can be considered a national speciality when prepared and decorated with a variety of fine ingredients. Hot meals traditionally consist of ground meats , such as frikadeller (meat balls of veal and pork) and hakkebøf (minced beef patties), or of more substantial meat and fish dishes such as flæskesteg (roast pork with crackling) and kogt torsk (poached cod) with mustard sauce and trimmings. Denmark
Denmark
is known for its Carlsberg and Tuborg beers and for its akvavit and bitters .

Since around 1970, chefs and restaurants across Denmark
Denmark
have introduced gourmet cooking, largely influenced by French cuisine . Also inspired by continental practices, Danish chefs have recently developed a new innovative cuisine and a series of gourmet dishes based on high-quality local produce known as New Danish cuisine . As a result of these developments, Denmark
Denmark
now have a considerable number of internationally acclaimed restaurants of which several have been awarded Michelin stars . This includes Geranium and Noma in Copenhagen.

SPORTS

Main article: Sport in Denmark Michael Laudrup , named the best Danish soccer player of all time by the Danish Football Association

Sports are popular in Denmark, and its citizens participate in and watch a wide variety. The national sport is football (soccer), with over 320,000 players in more than 1600 clubs . Denmark
Denmark
qualified six times consecutively for the European Championships between 1984 and 2004, and were crowned European champions in 1992 ; other significant achievements include winning the Confederations Cup in 1995 and reaching the quarter-final of the 1998 World Cup. Notable Danish footballers include Allan Simonsen
Allan Simonsen
, named the best player in Europe in 1977, Peter Schmeichel , named the "World's Best Goalkeeper" in 1992 and 1993, and Michael Laudrup , named the best Danish player of all time by the Danish Football Association .

There is much focus on handball , too. The women\'s national team celebrated great successes during the 1990s. On the men\'s side , Denmark
Denmark
has won eight medals—two gold (in 2008 and 2012), three silver (in 2011, 2013 and 2014) and three bronze (in 2002, 2004 and 2006)—the most that have been won by any team in European Handball Championship history.

In recent years, Denmark
Denmark
has made a mark as a strong cycling nation, with Michael Rasmussen reaching King of the Mountains status in the Tour de France
France
in 2005 and 2006. Other popular sports include golf—which is mostly popular among those in the older demographic; tennis —in which Denmark
Denmark
is successful on a professional level; basketball — Denmark
Denmark
joined the international governing body FIBA in 1951; rugby—the Danish Rugby Union dates back to 1950; hockey — often competing in the top division in the Men's World Championships; rowing— Denmark
Denmark
specialise in lightweight rowing and are particularly known for their lightweight coxless four, having won six gold and two silver World Championship medals and three gold and two bronze Olympic medals; and several indoor sports—especially badminton , table tennis and gymnastics, in each of which Denmark
Denmark
holds World Championships and Olympic medals . Denmark's numerous beaches and resorts are popular locations for fishing, canoeing, kayaking, and many other water-themed sports.

SEE ALSO

* Index of Denmark-related articles * Denmark
Denmark
gives its name to the Danian Age of the Paleocene Epoch of geological time * Outline of Denmark
Outline of Denmark

* Denmark
Denmark
portal * Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
portal * Greenland
Greenland
portal * European Union
European Union
portal

NOTES

* ^ Kong Christian has equal status as a national anthem but is generally used only on royal and military occasions. * ^ A B C D The Kingdom of Denmark's territory in continental Europe
Europe
is referred to as " Denmark
Denmark
proper" (Danish : egentlig Danmark), "metropolitan Denmark", or simply Denmark. In this article, usage of "Denmark" excludes Greenland
Greenland
and the Faroe Islands. * ^ Tórshavn is the capital of the Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
; and Nuuk
Nuuk
is the capital of Greenland
Greenland
. * ^ Faroese is co-official with Danish in the Faroe Islands. Greenlandic is the sole official language in Greenland. German is recognised as a protected minority language in the South Jutland
Jutland
area of Denmark. * ^ The Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
became the first territory to be granted home rule on 24 March 1948. Greenland
Greenland
also gained autonomy on 1 May 1979. * ^ A B C This data is for Denmark
Denmark
proper only. For data relevant to Greenland
Greenland
and the Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
see their respective articles. * ^ In the Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
the currency has a separate design and is known as the króna , but is not a separate currency.

* ^ Other time zones used in Greenland
Greenland
and the Faroe Islands include: WET , EGT , WGT and AST . Marginal DST time zones, offset by one hour, include: GMT , EGST , WGST , ADT * ^ The TLD .eu is shared with other European Union countries. Greenland
Greenland
( .gl ) and the Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
( .fo ) have their own TLDs. * ^ Danish : Kongeriget Danmark, pronounced ( listen ). See also: The unity of the Realm * ^ The island of Bornholm
Bornholm
is offset to the east of the rest of the country, in the Baltic Sea. * ^ Denmark
Denmark
has a codified constitution . Changes to it require an absolute majority in two consecutive parliamentary terms and the approval of at least 40% of the electorate through a referendum. * ^ The Constitution refers to "the King" (Danish : kongen), rather than the gender-neutral term "monarch". In light of the restriction of powers of the monarchy, this is best interpreted as referring to the government Cabinet. * ^ The Economist Intelligence Unit , while acknowledging that democracy is difficult to measure, listed Denmark
Denmark
5th on its index of democracy . * ^ The Faroese declined membership in 1973; Greenland
Greenland
chose to leave the EEC in 1985, following a referendum . * ^ As measured in official development assistance (ODA). Denmark, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden
Sweden
and the United Kingdom exceeded the United Nations' ODA target of 0.7% of GNI. * ^ The Church of Denmark
Church of Denmark
is the established church (or state religion) in Denmark
Denmark
and Greenland; the Church of the Faroe Islands became an independent body in 2007.

REFERENCES

* ^ "Not one but two national anthems". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark
Denmark
. Retrieved 18 May 2014. * ^ A B C Stone et al. 2008 , p. 31. * ^ A B C " Area
Area
by region – StatBank Denmark
Denmark
– data and statistics". * ^ A B C D E F "Population at the first day of the quarter by municipality, sex, age, marital status, ancestry, country of origin and citizenship". Statistics Denmark . Retrieved 13 February 2017. January 2017 * ^ A B "Population, births, deaths and migrations by sex, village/city, monthly (1985–2017)". Hagstova Føroya. Retrieved 30 August 2017. * ^ A B "2017 Population". Statistics Greenland. Retrieved 30 August 2017. * ^ A B C D "Denmark". International Monetary Fund. * ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/fields/2172.html#da * ^ "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 23 March 2017. * ^ " Denmark
Denmark
in numbers 2010" (PDF). Statistics Denmark. Retrieved 2 May 2013. * ^ Melnick, Meredith (22 October 2013). " Denmark
Denmark
Is Considered The Happiest Country. You\'ll Never Guess Why". The Huffington Post. * ^ A B " Democracy Index 2014" (PDF). The Economist/Economist Intelligence Unit. 2015. Retrieved 23 August 2015. * ^ 2013 Legatum Prosperity Index™: Global prosperity rising while US and UK economies decline. Legatum Institute , 29 October 2013. Archived 6 August 2014 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ " Denmark
Denmark
Country Profile: Human Development Indicators". United Nations Development Programme. Archived from the original on 28 March 2013. Retrieved 19 April 2013. * ^ Dave Serchuk. Happy Country=Social Mobility? Forbes
Forbes
. 12 July 2011 * ^ "1997–2001". The World Bank
World Bank
. 1997. Retrieved 11 November 2012. * ^ A B C "The Danish Tax System". Aarhus
Aarhus
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University
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Bibliography

* Stone, Andrew; Bain, Carolyn; Booth, Michael; Parnell, Fran (2008). Denmark
Denmark
(5th ed.). Footscray, Victoria: Lonely Planet. p. 31. ISBN 978-1-74104-669-4 . * (in Danish) Busck, Steen and Poulsen, Henning (ed.), "Danmarks historie – i grundtræk", Aarhus
Aarhus
Universitetsforlag, 2002, ISBN 87-7288-941-1 * Gammelgaard, Frederik; Sørensen, Niels (1998). Danmark – en demokratisk stat (in Danish). Alinea. ISBN 87-23-00280-8 . * Jørgensen, Gitte (1995). Sådan styres Danmark (in Danish). Flachs. ISBN 87-7826-031-0 . * (in Danish) Michaelsen, Karsten Kjer, "Politikens bog om Danmarks oldtid", Politikens Forlag (1. bogklubudgave), 2002, ISBN 87-00-69328-6 * (in Swedish) Nationalencyklopedin, vol. 4, Bokförlaget Bra Böcker, 2000, ISBN 91-7024-619-X .

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