HOME
The Info List - Demonym



--- Advertisement ---


A DEMONYM (/ˈdɛmənɪm/ ; δῆμος _dẽmos_ "people, tribe", ὄνομα _ónoma_ "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place. It is a neologism (i.e., a recently minted term); previously _GENTILIC_ was recorded in English dictionaries, e.g., the _ Oxford English Dictionary _ and _Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary_.

Examples of demonyms include a _ Pakistani _ for a person from Pakistan , _Swahili _ for a person of the Swahili coast , the colloquial _Kiwi _ for a person from New Zealand , and a _Cochabambino_ for a person from the city of Cochabamba .

Demonyms do not always clearly distinguish place of origin or ethnicity from place of residence or citizenship, and many demonyms overlap with the ethnonym for the ethnically dominant group of a region. Thus a _Thai_ may be any resident or citizen of Thailand of any ethnic group, or more narrowly a member of the Thai people . Conversely, some groups of people may be associated with multiple demonyms. For example, a native of the United Kingdom may be called a _ British person _, a _Briton_ or, informally, a _Brit_. In some languages, when a parallel demonym does not exist, a demonym is borrowed from another language as a nickname or descriptive adjective of a group of people.

In English, demonyms are capitalized and are often the same as the adjectival form of the place, e.g. _Egyptian_, _Japanese_, or _Greek_. Significant exceptions exist; for instance the adjectival form of Spain is "Spanish", but the demonym is "_Spaniard_".

English widely includes country-level demonyms such as _Ethiopian_ or _Guatemalan_ and more local demonyms such as _Wisconsinite _, _Chicagoan _, _Michigander _, "_Fluminense _", and "_Paulista _". Some places lack a commonly used and accepted demonym. This poses a particular challenge to those toponymists who research demonyms.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 Suffixation

* 2.1 _-(a)n_

* 2.1.1 Continents * 2.1.2 Countries * 2.1.3 States and provinces * 2.1.4 Cities

* 2.2 _-ian_

* 2.2.1 Countries * 2.2.2 States, provinces, counties, and cities

* 2.3 _-anian_ * 2.4 _-nian_ * 2.5 _-in(e)_

* 2.6 _-a(ñ/n)o/a, -e(ñ/n)o/a, or -i(ñ/n)o/a_

* 2.6.1 Countries and regions * 2.6.2 Cities

* 2.7 _-ite_ * 2.8 _-(e)r_ * 2.9 _-ish_ * 2.10 _-ene_ or _eek_ * 2.11 _-ensian_ * 2.12 _-ard_ * 2.13 _-ese, -lese, -vese, or -nese_ * 2.14 _-i(e)_ * 2.15 _-ic_ * 2.16 _-iot(e)_ * 2.17 _-asque_ * 2.18 _-(we)gian_ * 2.19 _-onian_ * 2.20 _-vian_ * 2.21 _-san_ * 2.22 _-ois(e), -ais(e)_ * 2.23 From Latin or Latinization

* 3 Prefixation

* 3.1 Cities

* 4 Not derived from the name

* 4.1 Formal * 4.2 Informal

* 5 Ethnic demonyms * 6 Fiction * 7 See also

* 8 References

* 8.1 Notes

* 9 External links

ETYMOLOGY

The word _gentilic_ comes from the Latin _gentilis_ ("of a clan, or gens") and the English suffix _-ic_. The word _demonym_ was derived from the Greek word meaning "populace" (δῆμος _demos _) with the suffix for "name" ( -onym ).

_National Geographic _ attributes the term "demonym" to Merriam-Webster editor Paul Dickson in a recent work from 1990. However, the word does not appear for nouns, adjectives, and verbs derived from geographical names in the Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary nor in prominent style manuals such as the _ Chicago Manual of Style _. It was subsequently popularized in this sense in 1997 by Dickson in his book _Labels for Locals_. Dickson. However, in _What Do You Call a Person From...? A Dictionary of Resident Names_ (the first edition of _Labels for Locals_) attributed the term to George H. Scheetz, in his _Names' Names: A Descriptive and Prescriptive Onymicon_ (1988), which is apparently where the term first appears. The term may have been fashioned after _demonymic_, which the _Oxford English Dictionary _ defines as the name of an Athenian citizen according to the deme to which the citizen belongs, with its first use traced to 1893.

SUFFIXATION

Several linguistic elements are used to create demonyms in the English language . The most common is to add a suffix to the end of the location name, slightly modified in some instances. These may resemble Late Latin , Semitic , Celtic , or Germanic suffixes, such as:

_-(A)N_

Continents

* Africa → African * Asia → Asian * Australia → Australian * Europe → European * North America → North American * South America → South American

Countries

* Afghanistan → Afghan * Albania → Albanian * Algeria → Algerian * Andorra → Andorran * Angola → Angolan * Antigua → Antiguan * Argentina → Argentinean * Armenia → Armenian * Assyria → Assyrian * Australia → Australian (also "Aboriginal ", or "Aussie") * Austria → Austrian * Azerbaijan → Azerbaijanian * Barbuda → Barbudan * Belize → Belizean * Bolivia → Bolivian * Bosnia → Bosnian * Brunei → Bruneian * Bulgaria → Bulgarian * Canada → Canadian * Cayman Islands → Caymanian * Chile → Chilean * Colombia → Colombian * Costa Rica → Costa Rican * Croatia → Croatian (also "_Croat_") * Cuba → Cuban * Czech Republic → Czech * Cyprus → Cypriot * Denmark → Danish * Dominica → Dominican * Dominican Republic → Dominican * El Salvador → Salvadoran * Eritrea → Eritrean * Estonia → Estonian * Ethiopia → Ethiopian * Fiji → Fijian * Gambia → Gambian * Gaza → Gazan * Georgia → Georgian * Germany → German * Guatemala → Guatemalan * Guinea → Guinean * Guyana → Guyanese * Haiti → Haitian * Honduras → Honduran * India → Indian * Indonesia → Indonesian * Israel → Israeli * Ivory Coast → Ivorian * Jamaica → Jamaican * Kenya → Kenyan * Korea (North) → North Korean * Korea (South) → South Korean * Latvia → Latvian * Liberia → Liberian * Libya → Libyan * Lithuania → Lithuanian * Macedonia → Macedonian * Malawi → Malawian * Malaysia → Malaysian * Mali → Malian * Man, Isle of → ManxMan * Mauritania → Mauritanian * Mauritius → Mauritian * Mexico → Mexican * Micronesia → Micronesian * Moldova → Moldovan * Mongolia → Mongolian (also _"Mongol"_) * Morocco → Moroccan * Mozambique → Mozambican * Namibia → Namibian * Nauru → Nauruan * Nicaragua → Nicaraguan * Nigeria → Nigerian * Palau → Palauan * Palestine → Palestinian * Papua New Guinea → Papua New Guinean * Paraguay → Paraguayan * Persia → Persian * Peru → Peruvian * Poland → Polish * Romania → Romanian * Russia → Russian * Rwanda → Rwandan (also "_Rwandese_") * Saint Lucia → Saint Lucian * Saint Vincent and the Grenadines → Vincentian * Samoa → Samoan * Saudi Arabia → Saudi Arabian (also "_Saudi_") * Serbia → Serbian (also "_Serb_") * Sierra Leone → Sierra Leonean * Singapore → Singaporean * Slovakia → Slovakian (also "_Slovak_") * Slovenia → Slovenian (also "_Slovene_") * South Africa → South African * Sri Lanka → Sri Lankan * St. Kitts and Nevis → Kittitian or Nevisian * Sweden → Swedish * Syria → Syrian * Lebanon → Lebanese * Tanzania → Tanzanian * Tonga → Tongan * Tunisia → Tunisian * Tuvalu → Tuvaluan * Uganda → Ugandan * United States of America → American * Uruguay → Uruguayan * Venezuela → Venezuelan * Yemen → Yemeni * Zambia → Zambian * Zimbabwe → Zimbabwean

States And Provinces

* Alaska → Alaskan * Alberta → Albertan * Andalusia → Andalusian * Arizona → Arizonan * Arkansas → Arkansan * Asturias → Asturian * Bavaria → Bavarian * Bohemia → Bohemian * Borneo → Bornean * British Columbia → British Columbian * California → Californian * Cantabria → Cantabrian * Carinthia → Carinthian * Colorado → Coloradan * Corsica → Corsican * Crete → Cretan * Crimea → Crimean * Dalmatia → Dalmatian * Delaware → Delawarean * Extremadura → Extremaduran * Florida → Floridan (more commonly "Floridian" below) * Galicia → Galician * Galilee → Galilean * Hawaiʻi → Hawaiian * Hebrides → Hebridean * Idaho → Idahoan * Illinois → Illinoisan * Indiana → Hoosier * Iowa → Iowan * Java → Javan (also "_Javanese_") * Johor → Johorean * Judea → Judean * Kansas → Kansan * Karelia → Karelian * Kedah → Kedahan * Kelantan → Kelantanese * Liguria → Ligurian * Louisiana → Louisianan (also "_Louisianian_") * Madeira → Madeiran * Malacca → Malaccan * Majorca → Majorcan * Manitoba → Manitoban * Masuria → Masurian * Michigan → Michigander * Minnesota → Minnesotan * Minorca → Minorcan * Mississippi → Mississippian * Missouri → Missourian * Moluccas → Moluccan * Montana → Montanan * Moravia → Moravian * Nebraska → Nebraskan * Negeri Sembilan → Negeri Sembilanese * Nevada → Nevadan * New Brunswick → New Brunswicker * New Hampshire → New Hampshirite * New Jersey → New Jerseyan * New Mexico → New Mexican * North Carolina → North Carolinian (also "_Carolinian_", see also South Carolina below) * North Dakota → North Dakotan * Nova Scotia → Nova Scotian * Ohio → Ohioan * Oklahoma → Oklahoman * Ontario → Ontarian * Oregon → Oregonian * Papua → Papuan * Pahang → Pahangese, Pahangite * Patagonia → Patagonian * Perlis → Perlisian * Perak → Perakian * Penang → Penangite * Pennsylvania → Pennsylvanian * Pomerania → Pomeranian * Puerto Rico → Puerto Rican * Samogitia → Samogitian * Sabah → Sabahan * Sardinia → Sardinian * Sarawak → Sarawakian * Silesia → Silesian * South Australia → South Australian * South Dakota → South Dakotan * South Carolina → South Carolinian (also "_Carolinian_") * Styria → Styrian * Sumatra → Sumatran * Tahiti → Tahitian * Tasmania → Tasmanian * Tennessee → Tennesseean * Terengganu → Terengganuan, Terengganurian * Texas → Texan * Thuringia → Thuringian * Transylvania → Transylvanian * Umbria → Umbrian * Utah → Utahn * Vermont → Vermonter * Victoria → Victorian * Virginia → Virginian * Wake Island → Wakean * Wallachia → Wallachian * Western Australia → Western Australian (informally, _Westralian_) * West Papua → West Papuan * Westphalia → Westphalian

* Yukon → Yukonian

Cities

* Alexandria → Alexandrian * Annapolis → Annapolitan * Atlanta → Atlantan * Austin → Austinite * Baltimore → Baltimorean * Bogotá → Bogotan * Canberra → Canberran * Cape Town - Capetonian * Charlotte → Charlottean * Chicago → Chicagoan * Cincinnati → Cincinnatian * El Paso → El Pasoan, El Paseño * Hanoi → Hanoian * Houston → Houstonian * Indianapolis → Indianapolitan * Jakarta → Jakartan * Kalamazoo → Kalamazooan * Kiev → Kievan * Kolkata → Calcuttan * Las Vegas → Las Vegan * Los Angeles → Los Angelan * Lancaster → Lancastrian * Liverpool → Liverpudlian * London → Londoner * Manchester → Mancunian * Miami → Miamian * Minneapolis → Minneapolitan * New York City → New Yorker * Oklahoma City → Oklahoma Cityan * Ottawa → Ottawan * Philadelphia → Philadelphian * Phoenix → Phoenician * Paris → Parisian * Pisa → Pisan * Regina → Reginan * Riga → Rigan * Rome → Roman * San Antonio → San Antonian * San Diego → San Diegan * San Francisco → San Franciscan * San Jose → San Josean * Sarasota → Sarasotan * Sioux City → Sioux Cityan * Springville → Springvillian * Sofia → Sofian * St. Louis → St. Louisan * Thebes → Theban * Toledo, Ohio → Toledoan * Toronto → Torontonian * Tucson → Tucsonan * Tulsa → Tulsan * Valencia → Valencian * Vilnius → Vilnian * Yuma → Yuman

_-IAN_

Countries

* Argentina → Argentinian (more commonly "_Argentine_", also "_Argentinean_") * Azerbaijan → Azerbaijanian (more accurately "_Azeri_") * Bahamas → Bahamian * Barbados → Barbadian (also "_Bajan_") * Belarus → Belarusian * Belgium → Belgian * Bermuda → Bermudian * Brazil → Brazilian * Cameroon → Cameroonian * Canada → Canadian (or Canadien in French) * Cayman Islands → Caymanian * Chad → Chadian * Comoros → Comorian * Croatia → Croatian * Ecuador → Ecuadorian * Egypt → Egyptian * Ghana → Ghanaian * Grenada → Grenadian * Hungary → Hungarian * India → Indian * Iran → Iranian (also "_Irani_" or "_Persian _") * Italy → Italian * Jordan → Jordanian * Laos → Laotian * Maldives → Maldivian * Mongolia → Mongolian (ethnic demonym "_Mongol_") * Palestine → Palestinian * Saint Vincent → Vincentian * Serbia → Serbian (ethnic demonym "_Serb_") * Slovakia → Slovakian (ethnic demonym "_Slovak_") * Slovenia → Slovenian (ethnic demonym "_Slovene_") * Trinidad → Trinidadian * Ukraine → Ukrainian

States, Provinces, Counties, And Cities

* Adelaide → Adelaidian * Alabama → Alabamian (also "_Alabaman_") * Athens → Athenian * Ballarat → Ballaratian * Birmingham, Alabama → Birminghamian * Blackburn → Blackburnian * Blackpool → Blackpudlian * Bangkok → Bangkokian * Boston → Bostonian * Brisbane → Brisbanian (also "_Brisbanite_") * Bristol → Bristolian * Burgundy → Burgundian * Calgary → Calgarian * Canary Islands → Canarian * Canterbury, New Zealand → Cantabrian * Cardiff → Cardiffian * Castile → Castilian * Chelmsford → Chelmsfordian * Chittagong → Chittagonian * Christchurch → Christchurchian (also "_Christchurcher_") * Corinth → Corinthian * Coventry → Coventrian * Cumbria → Cumbrian * Dayton → Daytonian * Devon → Devonian * Duluth → Duluthian * Edmonton → Edmontonian * Florida → Floridian * Fort Worth → Fort Worthian * Fredericton → Frederictonian * Gibraltar → Gibraltarian * Greenville → Greenvillian * Hamilton → Hamiltonian * Harrow → Harrovian * Hartlepool → Hartlepudlian * Hereford → Herefordian * Hesse → Hessian * Hobart → Hobartian * Houston → Houstonian * Isles of Scilly → Scillonian * Iowa City → Iowa Citian * Jessup → Jessupian * Kansas City → Kansas Citian * Kentucky → Kentuckian * Kingston →Kingstonian * Lancashire → Lancastrian * Lancaster → Lancastrian * Lethbridge → Lethbridgian * Liverpool → Liverpudlian (also, though insulting and a negative term "_Scouser_") * Louisiana → Louisianian (also "_Louisianan_") * Louisville → Louisvillian * Madrid → Madrilenian * Maharashtra → Maharashtrian * McKinney → McKinnian * Melbourne → Melburnian * Memphis → Memphian * Michigan → Michiganian or Michigander * Nelson → Nelsonian * New Guinea → New Guinian * New Orleans → New Orleanian * North Carolina → North Carolinian * Northern Territory → Territorian * Oregon → Oregonian * Paris → Parisian * Peterborough → Peterborian * Phoenix → Phoenician * Plymouth → Plymothian * Port Harcourt → Harcourtian * Preston, Lancashire →Prestonian * Prince George\'s County → Prince Georgian * Rivers State → Riverian * Saskatchewan → Saskatchewanian * Saskatoon → Saskatonian * Sicily → Sicilian * Solihull → Silhillian * South Carolina → South Carolinian * Swindon → Swindonian * Tel Aviv, Israel → Tel Avivian * Thrace → Thracian * Towcester → Towcestrian * Washington → Washingtonian * Wellington → Wellingtonian

* Wilmington → Wilmingtonian

_-ANIAN_

* Guam → Guamanian * Panama → Panamanian

_-NIAN_

* Bendigo → Bendigonian * Buffalo → Buffalonian * Manchester (UK) → Mancunian * Panama → Panamanian * Sligo → Sligonian * Tampa → Tampanian * Tobago → Tobagonian * Toronto → Torontonian * Torquay → Torquinian * Trinidad -webkit-column-count: 2; column-count: 2;">

* Akron → Akronite * Ann Arbor → Ann Arborite * Austin → Austinite * Bergen County, New Jersey → Bergenite * Boulder → Boulderite * Brisbane → Brisbanite (also "_Brisbanian_") * Bronx → Bronxite * Brooklyn → Brooklynite * Carson City, Nevada → Carsonite * Chennai → Chennaiite * Dallas → Dallasite * Decatur → Decaturite * Delhi → Delhite * Denton, Texas → Dentonite * Denver → Denverite * Dhaka → Dhakaite (also "_Dhakai_" or "_Dhakaiya_") * Dubai → Dubaiite * Dunedin → Dunedinite * Durban → Durbanite * Erie, Pennsylvania → Erieite * Gaya → Gayaite * Irmo, South Carolina → Irmite * Israel → Israelite (also "_Israeli_", depending on the usage; see below) * Istanbul → Istanbulite * Jerusalem → Jerusalemite * Karachi → Karachiite * Kerala → Keralite (also Malayali or Malayalee) * Manhattan → Manhattanite * Moscow → Muscovite (also Latin "_Muscovia_") * Montpelier, Vermont → Montpelierite * Mumbai → Mumbaiite * New Hampshire → New Hampshirite * Oban → Obanite * Odessa → Odessite * Patna → Patnaite * Perth → Perthite (also "_Perthian_" and "_Perthling_") * Putney → Putneyite * Queens → Queensite * Reading → Readingite * Reno, Nevada → Renoite * Ruskin, Florida → Ruskinite * Seattle → Seattleite * Seoul → Seoulite * Shiloh → Shilonite (as in: "_ Ahijah the Shilonite _") * Springfield (The Simpsons) → Springfieldianite * Spokane → Spokanite * Sydney → Sydneyite (also "_Sydneysider_") * Telangana → Telanganite * Tokyo → Tokyoite * Vancouver → Vancouverite * Vizag → Vizagite * Wenham, Massachusetts → Wenhamite * Westchester County, New York → Westchesterite * Whittier, California → Whittierite * Winston-Salem → Winston-Salemite * Wisconsin → Wisconsinite * Wyoming → Wyomingite

_-(E)R_

* Amsterdam → Amsterdammer * Auckland → Aucklander * Beijing → Beijinger * Belgrade → Belgrader * Berlin → Berliner * Bucharest → Bucharester * Budapest → Budapester * Cleveland → Clevelander * Cook Islands →Cook Islander * Copenhagen → Copenhagener * Detroit → Detroiter * Dublin → Dubliner * Dresden → Dresdener * Fife → Fifer * Frankfurt → Frankfurter * Greenland →Greenlander (also "_Greenlandic_") * Hamburg → Hamburger * Hannover → Hannoveraner * Hong Kong Hongkonger /Hong Konger (also "_Hong Kongese_"/"_Hongkongese_") * Iceland → Icelander (also "_Icelandic_") * Leeds → Loiner * Leipzig → Leipziger * Liechtenstein → Liechtensteiner * Little Rock, AR → Little Rocker * London → Londoner * Lorraine → Lorrainer * Luxembourg → Luxembourger * Maine → Mainer * Maryland → Marylander * Michigan → Michigander * Montreal → Montrealer * Netherlands → Netherlander (also "_Dutchman_" and "_Hollander_") * New England → New Englander * New York → New Yorker * New Zealand → New Zealander * Newfoundland → Newfoundlander * Pittsburgh → Pittsburgher * Prague → Praguer * Puntland → Puntlander * Quebec → Quebecker or Quebecer (though see below; irregular forms) * Queensland → Queenslander * Rhineland → Rhinelander * Rhode Island → Rhode Islander * Rotterdam → Rotterdammer * Saigon → Saigoner * Solomon Islands → Solomon Islander * Somaliland → Somalilander * Stockholm → Stockholmer * Stuttgart → Stuttgarter * Tallinn → Tallinner * Vermont → Vermonter * Winnipeg → Winnipegger * Yellowknife → Yellowknifer * Yukon → Yukoner * Zurich → Zuricher

Often used for European locations and Canadian locations

_-ISH_

(Usually suffixed to a truncated form of the toponym , or place-name.)

"-ish" is usually proper only as an adjective. See note below list.

* Åland → Ålandish * Britain , Great Britain and United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland → British (demonym "_Briton_") * Cornwall → Cornish (demonym "_Cornishman, Cornishwoman_") * Denmark → Danish (demonym "_Dane_") * England → English (demonym "_Englishman, Englishwoman_") * Finland → Finnish (demonym "_Finn_" or "_Finnic_") * Flanders → Flemish (demonym "_Fleming_") * Ireland → Irish (demonym "_Irishman, Irishwoman_") * Kurdistan → Kurdish (demonym "_Kurd_") * Luxembourg → Luxembourgish (demonym "_Luxembourger_") * Northern Ireland → Northern Irish * Poland → Polish (demonym "_Pole_") * Scotland → Scottish (demonym "_Scot_" or "_Scotsman, Scotswoman_") * Spain → Spanish (demonym "_Spaniard_") * Sweden → Swedish (demonym "_Swede_") * Turkey → Turkish (demonym "_Turk_")

_-ENE_ OR _EEK_

* Cairo → Cairene * Cyrenaica → Cyrene * Damascus → Damascene * Greece → Greek * Nazareth → Nazarene * Slovenia → Slovene (also "_Slovenian_")

Often used for Middle Eastern locations and European locations.

_-ENSIAN_

* Kingston-upon-Hull (UK) → Hullensian * Leeds (UK) → Leodensian

_-ARD_

* Spain → Spaniard (also "_Spanish_") * Savoy → Savoyard * Montagne → Montagnard

_-ESE, -LESE, -VESE, OR -NESE_

* Abruzzo → Abruzzese * Aragon → Aragonese * Aceh → Acehnese * Assam → Assamese * Bali → Balinese * Benin → Beninese (also "_Beninois_") * Bern → Bernese * Bhutan → Bhutanese * Bologna → Bolognese * Calabria → Calabrese * China → Chinese * Congo → Congolese * Da Lat → Dalatese * East Timor → East Timorese * Faroe Islands → Faroese * Gabon → Gabonese (also Gabonais/e) * Genoa → Genovese * Guangdong ("Canton") → Cantonese * Guyana → Guyanese * Hainan Hainanese * Hong Kong → Hongkongese * Hunan → Hunanese * Japan → Japanese * Java → Javanese (also "_Javan_") * Lebanon → Lebanese * Macao → Macanese/Chinese * Malta → Maltese * Manila → Manilese * Marshall Islands → Marshallese * Milan → Milanese * Myanmar/Burma → Burmese (though see below; irregular forms) * Nepal → Nepalese (also "_Nepali_") * Piedmont → Piedmontese * Pittsburgh → Pittsburghese (as used routinely by residents of Pittsburgh referring only to the accent/dialect) * Portugal → Portuguese * Rwanda → Rwandese (also "_Rwandan_") * San Marino → Sammarinese * Sark → Sarkese * Senegal → Senegalese * Shanghai → Shanghaiese * Siam → Siamese * Sikkim → Sikkimese * (South ) Sudan → (South) Sudanese * Suriname → Surinamese * Taiwan → Taiwanese * Togo → Togolese * Turin → Torinese * Tyrol → Tyrolese * Vienna → Viennese * Vietnam → Vietnamese

"-ese" is usually considered proper only as an adjective, or to refer to the entirety. Thus, "a Chinese person" is used rather than "a Chinese". Often used for East Asian and Francophone locations, from the similar-sounding French suffix _-ais(e)_, which is originally from the Latin adjectival ending _-ensis_, designating origin from a place: thus Hispaniensis (Spanish), Danensis (Danish), etc.

_-I(E)_

* Allahabad → Allahabadi * Azawad → Azawadi * Azerbaijan → Azeri (also "_Azerbaijanian_ or _Azerbaijani_") * Azra → Azragi * Balochistan → Balochistani (also "_Baloch_" or "_Baluch_" or "_Baluchi_") * Bahrain → Bahraini * Bangladesh → Bangladeshi * Barisal → Barisali (also "_Borishali_") * Bengal → Bengali * Bharat → Bharati * Bihar → Bihari * Birmingham (UK) → Brummie * Dagestan → Dagestani * Dhaka → Dhakai (also "_Dhakaiya_" or "_Dhakaite_") * Faridabad → Faridabadi * Glasgow → Weegie * Gujarat → Gujarati * Hayastan → Hayastani (also "_Armenian_") * Hazara → Hazaragi (also "_Azragi_") * Hyderabad → Hyderabadi * Iran → Irani (also "_Iranian_" or "_Persian_") * Iraq → Iraqi * Israel → Israeli (in the modern State of Israel) * Kerala Malayali or Malayalee (also Keralite) * Kashmir → Kashmiri * Kazakhstan → Kazakhstani (also "_Kazakh_") * Kurdistan → Kurdistani (also "_Kurdish_", "_Kurd_") * Kuwait → Kuwaiti * Kyrgyzstan → Kyrgyzstani (also "_Kyrgyz_") * Lahore → Lahori * Nepal → Nepali (also "_Nepalese_") * Oman → Omani * Pakistan → Pakistani * Punjab → Punjabi * Qatar → Qatari * Rajasthan → Rajasthani * Rangpur → Rangpuri * Sindh → Sindhi * Somalia → Somali * Sylhet → Sylheti (also "_Siloti_") * Tajikistan → Tajikistani (also "_Tajik_") * Tel Aviv → Tel Avivi (also "_Tel Avivim_" _(plural)_) * Turkmenistan → Turkmenistani (also "_Turkmen_") * United Arab Emirates → Emirati * Uzbekistan → Uzbekistani (also "_Uzbek_") * Yemen → Yemeni * Yorkshire
Yorkshire
→ Yorkie (also "_Yorkshireman_" or "_Tyke_")

Mostly for Middle Eastern and South Asian locales and in Latinate names for the various people that ancient Romans encountered (e.g. Allemanni , Helvetii )

_-IC_

* Finland → Finnic (also "_Finnish_" or "_Finn_") * Antarctica → Antarctic * Greenland → Greenlandic (also "_Greenlander_") * Iceland → Icelandic (also "Icelander") * Slavic countries → Slavs/Slavic

_-IOT(E)_

* Chios →Chiot * Corfu → Corfiot * Cyprus → Cypriot ("Cyprian" before 1960 independence of Cyprus) * Phanar → Phanariote

Used especially for Greek locations.

_-ASQUE_

* Monaco → Monégasque (native citizen of Monaco) * Menton → Mentonasque * Basque Country → Basque

Often used for French locations.

_-(WE)GIAN_

* Galloway → Galwegian * Galway → Galwegian * Glasgow → Glaswegian * Norway → Norwegian

_-ONIAN_

* Aberdeen → Aberdonian * Bath → Bathonian * Boston → Bostonian * Connacht → Connachtonian * Cork → Corkonian * Dundee → Dundonian * Halifax → Haligonian * Newport → Newportonian * Oxford → Oxonian * Edmonton →Edmontonian

Often used for British and Irish locations.

_-VIAN_

* Barrow-in-Furness → Barrovian * Harrow → Harrovian * Oamaru → Oamaruvian * Oslo → Oslovian * Peru → Peruvian * Warsaw → Warsovian * Waterloo → Waterluvian * Wythenshawe - Wythenshavian

_-SAN_

* Burkina Faso → Burkina Fasan

_-OIS(E), -AIS(E)_

* Benin → Beninois(e) (also Beninese) * Gabon → Gabonais(e) (also Gabonese) * Seychelles → Seychellois(e) * Quebec → Quebecois(e) (also Quebecker, most common within Canada )

While derived from French, these are also official demonyms in English.

FROM LATIN OR LATINIZATION

* Alsace → Alsatian (_Alsatia_) * Ashbourne → Ashburnian (_Essiburn_) * Cambridge Cantabrigian * Colchester → Colcestrian * Courland → Couronian (_Curonia_) * Exeter → Exonian * Germany → German (_Germani_) * Guernsey → Sarnian (_Sarnia_) * Halifax → Haligonian * Hispanic America Hispanic (_Hispania_) * Leeds Leodensian (_Ledesia_) * Lviv → Leopolitan (_Leopolis_) * Manchester → Mancunian (_Mancunia_) * Melbourne Melburnian (_Melburnia_) * Minneapolis → Minneapolitan * Naples → Neapolitan (_Neapolis_) * Newcastle → Novocastrian (_Novum Castrum_) * Orkney Islands Orcadian (_Orcadia_) * Oswestry → Oswestrian (_Oswestria_) * Shropshire → Salopian (_Salopia_) * Tripoli → Tripolitan (_Tripolis_) * Venice → Venetian * Wolverhampton → Wulfrunian

PREFIXATION

It is much rarer to find Demonyms created with a prefix. Mostly they are from Africa and the Pacific, and are not generally known or used outside the country concerned. In much of East Africa, a person of a particular ethnic group will be denoted by a prefix. For example, a person of the Luba people would be a Muluba, the plural form Baluba, and the language, Kiluba or Tshiluba . Similar patterns with minor variations in the prefixes exist throughout on a tribal level. And Fijians who are indigenous Fijians are known as Kaiviti (Viti being the Fijian name for Fiji ). On a country level:

* Botswana → Motswana (singlular), Batswana (plural) * Burundi → Umurundi (singular), Abarundi (plural) * Lesotho → Mosotho (singular), Basotho (plural)

In the Pacific, at least two countries use prefixation:

* Kiribati → i-Kiribati * Vanuatu → Ni-Vanuatu

CITIES

* Shillong → nong Shillong

NOT DERIVED FROM THE NAME

Demonyms may also not conform to the underlying naming of a particular place, but instead arise out of historical or cultural particularities that become associated with its denizens. These demonyms are usually more informal and colloquial. In the United States such informal demonyms frequently become associated with mascots of the intercollegiate sports teams of the state university system . In other countries the origins are often disputed.

FORMAL

* Buenos Aires Porteño * Rio de Janeiro Carioca * Massachusetts Bay Stater * Valparaíso Porteño

INFORMAL

* Arizona → Sand Cutter * Birmingham, England → Brummie * Canada Canuck * Connecticut Nutmegger * Indiana Hoosier * Jersey Jèrriais (adjectival), Jerseyman (demonym) * Kansas Jayhawker * Liverpool → Scouser or Liverpudlian * London, England → Cockney (Specifically: One hailing from East London, England) * Newcastle upon Tyne, England Geordie * Newfoundland, Canada Newfie * New Zealand → Kiwi * North Carolina Tar Heel * Scotland → Jock * Sydney → Sydneysider * Ohio → Buckeye * Oklahoma Okie , Sooner * Oldham → Yonner

ETHNIC DEMONYMS

* Abkhazia → Abkhaz * Afghanistan → Afghan * Arabia → Arab * Azerbaijan → Azerbaijani, Azeri * Catalonia → Catalan * Chechnya → Chechen * Cornwall → Cornishman, Cornishwoman * Croatia → Croat * Czech Republic → Czech * Denmark → Dane * England → Englishman, Englishwoman * Finland → Finn * Flanders → Fleming * France → French * Ingushetia → Ingush * Ireland → Irishman, Irishwoman * Jersey → Jerseyman, Jerseywoman * Kalmykia → Kalmyk * Kazakhstan → Kazakh * Kerry → Kerryman * KwaZulu → Zulu * Kurdistan → Kurd * Kyrgyzstan → Kyrgyz * Lapland → Lapp (note: considered offensive in Norwegian) * Luxembourg → Luxembourger * Mongolia → Mongol * Netherlands → Dutch * New South Wales → New South Welshman * Philippines - Filipino * Poland → Pole * Scotland → Scot, Scotsman, Scotswoman * Serbia → Serb * Slovakia → Slovak * Slovenia → Slovene * Somalia → Somali * Spain → Spaniard * Swaziland → Swazi * Sweden → Swede * Tajikistan → Tajik * Tamil Nadu → Tamil * Tatarstan →Tatar * Thailand → Thai * Turkey → Turk * Turkmenistan → Turkmen * Ulster → Ulsterman * Uzbekistan → Uzbek * Wales → Welsh * Yorkshire
Yorkshire
→ Yorkshireman, Yorkshirewoman

FICTION

Literature and science fiction have created a wealth of gentilics that are not directly associated with a cultural group. These will typically be formed using the standard models above. Examples include Martian for hypothetical people of Mars (credited to scientist Percival Lowell ) or _Gondorian_ for the people of Tolkien 's fictional land of Gondor .

Other science fiction examples include Jovian for those of Jupiter or its moons, and Venusian for those of Venus . Fictional aliens refer to the inhabitants of Earth as Earthling (from the diminutive _-ling_, ultimately from Old English _-ing_ meaning "descendant"), as well as "Terran", "Terrene", "Tellurian", "Earther", "Earthican", "Terrestrial", and "Solarian" (from Sol, the sun).

Fantasy literature which involves other worlds or other lands also has a rich supply of gentilics. Examples include _Lilliputians_ and _Brobdingnagians_, from the islands of Lilliput and Brobdingnag in the satire _Gulliver\'s Travels _.

In a few cases, where a linguistic background has been created, non-standard gentilics are formed (or the eponyms back-formed). Examples include Tolkien's _ Rohirrim _ (from Rohan ) and the Star Trek world's _ Klingon _ people (with various version of homeworld name).

SEE ALSO

* Geography portal

* List of adjectival and demonymic forms of place names

* List of adjectivals and demonyms for astronomical bodies

* List of adjectivals and demonyms for continental regions

* List of adjectivals and demonyms for subcontinental regions

* List of adjectival and demonymic forms for countries and nations

* List of adjectivals and demonyms for Australia * List of adjectivals and demonyms for Canada * List of adjectivals and demonyms for India * List of adjectivals and demonyms for Malaysia * List of adjectivals and demonyms for Mexico * List of adjectivals and demonyms for New Zealand * List of adjectivals and demonyms for the Philippines * List of adjectivals and demonyms for the United States

* List of adjectivals and demonyms for cities

* List of adjectivals and demonyms for former regions

* List of adjectivals and demonyms for Greco-Roman antiquity

* List of adjectivals and demonyms for fictional regions

* List of regional nicknames * Macedonia naming dispute * Nationality

-onym , especially ethnonym and Exonym and endonym

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ George H. Scheetz (1988). _Names' Names: A Descriptive and Pervasive Onymicon_. Schütz Verlag. * ^ "gentile, adj. and n.". _ Oxford English Dictionary _ (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press . September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) * ^ "gentile -- adj. of or belonging to a _gens_ or clan; belonging to any nation but the Jews; (gram.) denoting a race or country"--Davidson, Thomas, ed. (1901) _Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary of the English Language_. London: W. p. 382 * ^ "gentile -- adj. of or belonging to a _gens_ or clan; belonging to the Gentiles; (gram.) denoting a race or country"--Macdonald, A. M., ed. (1972) _Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary_; new ed. Edinburgh: W. p. 544 * ^ "Gramática Inglesa. Adjetivos Gentilicios". _mansioningles.com_. * ^ "Google Ngram Viewer". _google.com_. * ^ "Google Ngram Viewer". _google.com_. * ^ "Google Ngram Viewer". _google.com_. * ^ "Dictionary". _Merriam Webster_. Retrieved 25 July 2015. * ^ "Gentilés, Demonyms: What\'s in a Name?". _National Geographic Magazine _. National Geographic Society (U.S.). 177: 170. February 1990. * ^ William Safire (1997-12-14). "On Language; Gifts of Gab for 1998". _ New York Times _. * ^ _What Do You Call a Person From...? A Dictionary of Resident Names_ by Paul Dickson (Facts on File, February 1990). ISBN 978-0-8160-1983-0 . * ^ " Oxford English Dictionary". Oxford University Press. * ^ "Aristotle\'s _Constitution of Athens_, edited by J.E. Sandy, at the Internet Archive". p. 116. * ^ Press, AIP, Associated (2007). _Stylebook and briefing on media law_ (42nd ed.). New York: Basic Books. p. 112. ISBN 9780465004898 . * ^ "Investing in Future, Quiet Manhattan Apartments Next to Construction Sites" http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/12/realestate/manhattan-apartments-next-to-construction-sites.html * ^ "Copquin explains "Queensites" for New York Times - Yale Press Log". _Yale Press Log_. * ^ "Corkonian". _merriam-webster.com_. * ^ "North West Evening Mail". _nwemail.co.uk_. Archived from the original on 2014-05-31. * ^ "City of Waterloo on Twitter". * ^ "Massachusetts: General Laws, Section 35". _malegislature.gov_.

* ^ Prior to the Massachusetts State Legislature designating "Bay Stater" as the state's official demonym, other terms used included _Massachusett_, borrowed from the native Massachusett tribe, _Massachusite_, championed by the early English Brahmins , _Massachusettsian_, by analogy with other state demonyms, and _Masshole_, originally derogatory. * ^ "The State of Arizona - An Introduction to the Grand Canyon State". _netstate.com_. * ^ "Is it a slur to call someone a Jock?". _BBC_.

NOTES

* ^ Local usage generally reserves _Hawaiian_ as an ethnonym referring to Native Hawaiians . _Hawaii resident_ is the preferred local form to refer to state residents in general regardless of ethnicity.

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Look up DEMONYM _ or _GENTILIC _ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

_ Wikidata has the property: DEMONYM (P1549) _ (see uses)

* www.geography-site.co.uk Alphabetical list of world demonyms. * www.everything2.com Demonyms of the World. * CIA World Factbook – NATIONALITY * www.peoplefrom.co.uk Demonyms of the United Kingdom.

* v * t * e

Ethnicity

Related concepts

* Clan

* Ethnic group

* Ethnolinguistic group * Ethnoreligious group

* Indigenous peoples * Ingroups and outgroups * Meta-ethnicity * Metroethnicity * Minority group * Monoethnicity * Nation * Nationality * Panethnicity *