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A DEMONYM (/ˈdɛmənɪm/ ; δῆμος dẽmos "people, tribe", ὄνομα ónoma "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place. It is a neologism (i.e., a recently minted term); previously GENTILIC was recorded in English dictionaries, e.g., the Oxford English Dictionary and Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary.

Examples of demonyms include a Pakistani for a person from Pakistan
Pakistan
, Swahili for a person of the Swahili coast , the colloquial Kiwi for a person from New Zealand
New Zealand
, and a Cochabambino for a person from the city of Cochabamba .

Demonyms do not always clearly distinguish place of origin or ethnicity from place of residence or citizenship, and many demonyms overlap with the ethnonym for the ethnically dominant group of a region. Thus a Thai may be any resident or citizen of Thailand
Thailand
of any ethnic group, or more narrowly a member of the Thai people . Conversely, some groups of people may be associated with multiple demonyms. For example, a native of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
may be called a British person
British person
, a Briton or, informally, a Brit. In some languages, when a parallel demonym does not exist, a demonym is borrowed from another language as a nickname or descriptive adjective of a group of people.

In English, demonyms are capitalized and are often the same as the adjectival form of the place, e.g. Egyptian, Japanese, or Greek. Significant exceptions exist; for instance the adjectival form of Spain
Spain
is "Spanish", but the demonym is "Spaniard".

English widely includes country-level demonyms such as Ethiopian or Guatemalan and more local demonyms such as Wisconsinite , Chicagoan , Michigander , "Fluminense ", and "Paulista ". Some places lack a commonly used and accepted demonym. This poses a particular challenge to those toponymists who research demonyms.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 Suffixation

* 2.1 -(a)n

* 2.1.1 Continents * 2.1.2 Countries * 2.1.3 States and provinces * 2.1.4 Cities

* 2.2 -ian

* 2.2.1 Countries * 2.2.2 States, provinces, counties, and cities

* 2.3 -anian * 2.4 -nian * 2.5 -in(e)

* 2.6 -a(ñ/n)o/a, -e(ñ/n)o/a, or -i(ñ/n)o/a

* 2.6.1 Countries and regions * 2.6.2 Cities

* 2.7 -ite * 2.8 -(e)r * 2.9 -ish * 2.10 -ene or eek * 2.11 -ensian * 2.12 -ard * 2.13 -ese, -lese, -vese, or -nese * 2.14 -i(e) * 2.15 -ic * 2.16 -iot(e) * 2.17 -asque * 2.18 -(we)gian * 2.19 -onian * 2.20 -vian * 2.21 -san * 2.22 -ois(e), -ais(e) * 2.23 From Latin or Latinization

* 3 Prefixation

* 3.1 Cities

* 4 Not derived from the name

* 4.1 Formal * 4.2 Informal

* 5 Ethnic demonyms * 6 Fiction * 7 See also

* 8 References

* 8.1 Notes

* 9 External links

ETYMOLOGY

The word gentilic comes from the Latin gentilis ("of a clan, or gens") and the English suffix -ic. The word demonym was derived from the Greek word meaning "populace" (δῆμος demos ) with the suffix for "name" ( -onym ).

National Geographic attributes the term "demonym" to Merriam-Webster editor Paul Dickson in a recent work from 1990. However, the word does not appear for nouns, adjectives, and verbs derived from geographical names in the Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary nor in prominent style manuals such as the Chicago
Chicago
Manual of Style . It was subsequently popularized in this sense in 1997 by Dickson in his book Labels for Locals. Dickson. However, in What Do You Call a Person From...? A Dictionary of Resident Names (the first edition of Labels for Locals) attributed the term to George H. Scheetz, in his Names' Names: A Descriptive and Prescriptive Onymicon (1988), which is apparently where the term first appears. The term may have been fashioned after demonymic, which the Oxford English Dictionary defines as the name of an Athenian
Athenian
citizen according to the deme to which the citizen belongs, with its first use traced to 1893.

SUFFIXATION

Several linguistic elements are used to create demonyms in the English language
English language
. The most common is to add a suffix to the end of the location name, slightly modified in some instances. These may resemble Late Latin , Semitic , Celtic , or Germanic suffixes, such as:

-(A)N

Continents

* Africa
Africa
→ African * Asia
Asia
→ Asian * Australia
Australia
→ Australian * Europe
Europe
→ European * North America
North America
→ North American * South America
South America
→ South American

Countries

* Afghanistan
Afghanistan
→ Afghan * Albania
Albania
→ Albanian * Algeria
Algeria
→ Algerian * Andorra → Andorran * Angola
Angola
→ Angolan * Antigua → Antiguan * Argentina
Argentina
→ Argentinean * Armenia
Armenia
→ Armenian * Assyria
Assyria
→ Assyrian * Australia
Australia
→ Australian (also "Aboriginal ", or "Aussie") * Austria
Austria
→ Austrian * Barbuda → Barbudan * Belize
Belize
→ Belizean * Bolivia
Bolivia
→ Bolivian * Bosnia
Bosnia
→ Bosnian * Brunei → Bruneian * Bulgaria
Bulgaria
→ Bulgarian * Canada
Canada
→ Canadian * Cayman Islands → Caymanian * Chile
Chile
→ Chilean * Colombia
Colombia
→ Colombian * Costa Rica → Costa Rican * Croatia
Croatia
→ Croatian (also "Croat") * Cuba
Cuba
→ Cuban * Czech Republic
Czech Republic
→ Czech * Cyprus
Cyprus
→ Cypriot * Denmark
Denmark
→ Dane * Dominica → Dominican * Dominican Republic → Dominican * El Salvador → Salvadoran * Eritrea
Eritrea
→ Eritrean * Estonia
Estonia
→ Estonian * Ethiopia
Ethiopia
→ Ethiopian * Fiji → Fijian * Gambia → Gambian * Gaza → Gazan * Georgia → Georgian * Germany
Germany
→ German * Guatemala
Guatemala
→ Guatemalan * Guinea
Guinea
→ Guinean * Guyana → Guyanese * Haiti
Haiti
→ Haitian * Honduras
Honduras
→ Honduran * India
India
→ Indian * Indonesia
Indonesia
→ Indonesian * Israel
Israel
→ Israeli * Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
→ Ivorian * Jamaica
Jamaica
→ Jamaican * Kenya
Kenya
→ Kenyan * Korea (North) → North Korean * Korea (South) → South Korean * Latvia → Latvian * Liberia
Liberia
→ Liberian * Libya
Libya
→ Libyan * Lithuania
Lithuania
→ Lithuanian * Macedonia → Macedonian * Malawi
Malawi
→ Malawian * Malaysia
Malaysia
→ Malaysian * Mali
Mali
→ Malian * Man, Isle of → ManxMan * Mauritania
Mauritania
→ Mauritanian * Mauritius
Mauritius
→ Mauritian * Mexico
Mexico
→ Mexican * Micronesia → Micronesian * Moldova
Moldova
→ Moldovan * Mongolia
Mongolia
→ Mongolian (also "Mongol") * Morocco
Morocco
→ Moroccan * Mozambique
Mozambique
→ Mozambican * Namibia
Namibia
→ Namibian * Nauru
Nauru
→ Nauruan * Nicaragua → Nicaraguan * Nigeria
Nigeria
→ Nigerian * Palau
Palau
→ Palauan * Palestine → Palestinian * Papua New Guinea
Guinea
→ Papua New Guinean * Paraguay
Paraguay
→ Paraguayan * Persia
Persia
→ Persian * Peru
Peru
→ Peruvian * Poland
Poland
→ Pole * Romania
Romania
→ Romanian * Russia
Russia
→ Russian * Rwanda
Rwanda
→ Rwandan (also "Rwandese") * Saint Lucia → Saint Lucian * Saint Vincent and the Grenadines → Vincentian * Samoa
Samoa
→ Samoan * Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
→ Saudi Arabian (also "Saudi") * Serbia
Serbia
→ Serbian (also "Serb") * Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
→ Sierra Leonean * Singapore
Singapore
→ Singaporean * Slovakia
Slovakia
→ Slovakian (also "Slovak") * Slovenia
Slovenia
→ Slovenian (also "Slovene") * South Africa
Africa
→ South African * Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
→ Sri Lankan * St. Kitts and Nevis → Kittitian or Nevisian * Sweden
Sweden
→ Swede * Syria
Syria
→ Syrian * Lebanon
Lebanon
→ Lebanese * Tanzania
Tanzania
→ Tanzanian * Tonga → Tongan * Tunisia
Tunisia
→ Tunisian * Tuvalu
Tuvalu
→ Tuvaluan * Uganda
Uganda
→ Ugandan * United States of America → American * Uruguay
Uruguay
→ Uruguayan * Venezuela
Venezuela
→ Venezuelan * Yemen
Yemen
→ Yemeni * Zambia
Zambia
→ Zambian * Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
→ Zimbabwean

States And Provinces

* Alaska
Alaska
→ Alaskan * Alberta
Alberta
→ Albertan * Andalusia → Andalusian * Arizona
Arizona
→ Arizonan * Arkansas
Arkansas
→ Arkansan * Asturias → Asturian * Bavaria → Bavarian * Bohemia → Bohemian * Borneo
Borneo
→ Bornean * British Columbia → British Columbian * California
California
→ Californian * Cantabria → Cantabrian * Carinthia → Carinthian * Colorado
Colorado
→ Coloradan * Corsica
Corsica
→ Corsican * Crete
Crete
→ Cretan * Crimea
Crimea
→ Crimean * Dalmatia
Dalmatia
→ Dalmatian * Delaware
Delaware
→ Delawarean * Extremadura
Extremadura
→ Extremaduran * Florida
Florida
→ Floridan (more commonly "Floridian" below) * Galicia → Galician * Galilee
Galilee
→ Galilean * Hawaiʻi
Hawaiʻi
→ Hawaiian * Hebrides → Hebridean * Idaho
Idaho
→ Idahoan * Illinois
Illinois
→ Illinoisan * Indiana
Indiana
→ Hoosier * Iowa
Iowa
→ Iowan * Java
Java
→ Javan (also "Javanese") * Johor
Johor
→ Johorean * Judea → Judean * Kansas
Kansas
→ Kansan * Karelia → Karelian * Kedah → Kedahan * Kelantan → Kelantanese * Liguria → Ligurian * Louisiana
Louisiana
→ Louisianan (also "Louisianian") * Madeira
Madeira
→ Madeiran * Malacca → Malaccan * Majorca
Majorca
→ Majorcan * Manitoba
Manitoba
→ Manitoban * Masuria → Masurian * Michigan
Michigan
→ Michigander * Minnesota → Minnesotan * Minorca → Minorcan * Mississippi
Mississippi
→ Mississippian * Missouri
Missouri
→ Missourian * Moluccas → Moluccan * Montana
Montana
→ Montanan * Moravia
Moravia
→ Moravian * Nebraska
Nebraska
→ Nebraskan * Negeri Sembilan → Negeri Sembilanese * Nevada
Nevada
→ Nevadan * New Brunswick → New Brunswicker * New Hampshire → New Hampshirite * New Jersey → New Jerseyan * New Mexico
Mexico
→ New Mexican * North Carolina → North Carolinian (also "Carolinian", see also South Carolina
South Carolina
below) * North Dakota → North Dakotan * Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
→ Nova Scotian * Ohio
Ohio
→ Ohioan * Oklahoma
Oklahoma
→ Oklahoman * Ontario
Ontario
→ Ontarian * Oregon
Oregon
→ Oregonian * Papua → Papuan * Pahang → Pahangese, Pahangite * Patagonia
Patagonia
→ Patagonian * Perlis
Perlis
→ Perlisian * Perak → Perakian * Penang
Penang
→ Penangite * Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
→ Pennsylvanian * Pomerania → Pomeranian * Puerto Rico → Puerto Rican * Samogitia → Samogitian * Sabah
Sabah
→ Sabahan * Sardinia → Sardinian * Sarawak → Sarawakian * Silesia
Silesia
→ Silesian * South Australia
Australia
→ South Australian * South Dakota → South Dakotan * South Carolina
South Carolina
→ South Carolinian (also "Carolinian") * Styria → Styrian * Sumatra
Sumatra
→ Sumatran * Tahiti
Tahiti
→ Tahitian * Tasmania
Tasmania
→ Tasmanian * Tennessee
Tennessee
→ Tennesseean * Terengganu → Terengganuan, Terengganurian * Texas
Texas
→ Texan * Thuringia → Thuringian * Transylvania → Transylvanian * Umbria → Umbrian * Utah
Utah
→ Utahn * Vermont
Vermont
→ Vermonter * Victoria → Victorian * Virginia
Virginia
→ Virginian * Wake Island → Wakean * Wallachia → Wallachian * Western Australia
Australia
→ Western Australian (informally, Westralian) * West Papua → West Papuan * Westphalia → Westphalian

* Yukon → Yukonian

Cities

* Alexandria
Alexandria
→ Alexandrian * Annapolis
Annapolis
→ Annapolitan * Atlanta
Atlanta
→ Atlantan * Austin
Austin
→ Austinite * Baltimore
Baltimore
→ Baltimorean * Bogotá
Bogotá
→ Bogotan * Canberra
Canberra
→ Canberran * Cape Town - Capetonian * Charlotte
Charlotte
→ Charlottean * Chicago
Chicago
→ Chicagoan * Cincinnati
Cincinnati
→ Cincinnatian * El Paso → El Pasoan, El Paseño * Hanoi
Hanoi
→ Hanoian * Houston
Houston
→ Houstonian * Indianapolis
Indianapolis
→ Indianapolitan * Jakarta
Jakarta
→ Jakartan * Kalamazoo
Kalamazoo
→ Kalamazooan * Kiev
Kiev
→ Kievan * Kolkata
Kolkata
→ Calcuttan * Las Vegas
Las Vegas
→ Las Vegan * Los Angeles
Los Angeles
→ Los Angelan * Lancaster → Lancastrian * Liverpool
Liverpool
→ Liverpudlian * London
London
→ Londoner * Manchester
Manchester
→ Mancunian * Miami
Miami
→ Miamian * Minneapolis
Minneapolis
→ Minneapolitan * New York City
New York City
→ New Yorker * Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City → Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Cityan * Ottawa
Ottawa
→ Ottawan * Philadelphia
Philadelphia
→ Philadelphian * Phoenix → Phoenician * Paris
Paris
→ Parisian * Pisa
Pisa
→ Pisan * Regina → Reginan * Riga
Riga
→ Rigan * Rome
Rome
→ Roman * San Antonio → San Antonian * San Diego
San Diego
→ San Diegan * San Francisco
San Francisco
→ San Franciscan * San Jose → San Josean * Sarasota
Sarasota
→ Sarasotan * Sioux City
Sioux City
→ Sioux Cityan * Springville → Springvillian * Sofia
Sofia
→ Sofian * St. Louis → St. Louisan * Thebes → Theban * Toledo, Ohio
Ohio
→ Toledoan * Toronto
Toronto
→ Torontonian * Tucson → Tucsonan * Tulsa → Tulsan * Valencia
Valencia
→ Valencian * Vilnius
Vilnius
→ Vilnian * Yuma → Yuman

-IAN

Countries

* Argentina
Argentina
→ Argentinian (more commonly "Argentine", also "Argentinean") * Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
→ Azerbaijanian (more accurately "Azeri") * Bahamas
Bahamas
→ Bahamian * Barbados
Barbados
→ Barbadian (also "Bajan") * Belarus
Belarus
→ Belarusian * Belgium
Belgium
→ Belgian * Bermuda
Bermuda
→ Bermudian * Brazil
Brazil
→ Brazilian * Cameroon
Cameroon
→ Cameroonian * Canada
Canada
→ Canadian (or Canadien in French) * Cayman Islands → Caymanian * Chad → Chadian * Comoros → Comorian * Croatia
Croatia
→ Croatian * Ecuador
Ecuador
→ Ecuadorian * Egypt
Egypt
→ Egyptian * Ghana
Ghana
→ Ghanaian * Grenada → Grenadian * Hungary
Hungary
→ Hungarian * India
India
→ Indian * Iran
Iran
→ Iranian (also "Irani" or "Persian ") * Italy
Italy
→ Italian * Jordan
Jordan
→ Jordanian * Laos
Laos
→ Laotian * Maldives
Maldives
→ Maldivian * Mongolia
Mongolia
→ Mongolian (ethnic demonym "Mongol") * Palestine → Palestinian * Saint Vincent → Vincentian * Serbia
Serbia
→ Serbian (ethnic demonym "Serb") * Slovakia
Slovakia
→ Slovakian (ethnic demonym "Slovak") * Slovenia
Slovenia
→ Slovenian (ethnic demonym "Slovene") * Trinidad
Trinidad
→ Trinidadian * Ukraine
Ukraine
→ Ukrainian

States, Provinces, Counties, And Cities

* Adelaide
Adelaide
→ Adelaidian * Alabama
Alabama
→ Alabamian (also "Alabaman") * Athens
Athens
→ Athenian * Ballarat
Ballarat
→ Ballaratian * Birmingham, Alabama
Alabama
→ Birminghamian * Blackburn
Blackburn
→ Blackburnian * Blackpool
Blackpool
→ Blackpudlian * Bangkok
Bangkok
→ Bangkokian * Boston
Boston
→ Bostonian * Brisbane
Brisbane
→ Brisbanian (also "Brisbanite") * Bristol
Bristol
→ Bristolian * Burgundy
Burgundy
→ Burgundian * Calgary
Calgary
→ Calgarian * Canary Islands → Canarian * Canterbury, New Zealand
New Zealand
→ Cantabrian * Cardiff
Cardiff
→ Cardiffian * Castile → Castilian * Chelmsford → Chelmsfordian * Chittagong → Chittagonian * Christchurch
Christchurch
→ Christchurchian (also "Christchurcher") * Corinth
Corinth
→ Corinthian * Coventry → Coventrian * Cumbria → Cumbrian * Dayton
Dayton
→ Daytonian * Devon
Devon
→ Devonian * Duluth
Duluth
→ Duluthian * Edmonton
Edmonton
→ Edmontonian * Florida
Florida
→ Floridian * Fort Worth → Fort Worthian * Fredericton
Fredericton
→ Frederictonian * Gibraltar
Gibraltar
→ Gibraltarian * Greenville → Greenvillian * Hamilton → Hamiltonian * Harrow → Harrovian * Hartlepool → Hartlepudlian * Hereford
Hereford
→ Herefordian * Hesse
Hesse
→ Hessian * Hobart
Hobart
→ Hobartian * Houston
Houston
→ Houstonian * Isles of Scilly → Scillonian * Iowa
Iowa
City → Iowa
Iowa
Citian * Jessup → Jessupian * Kansas
Kansas
City → Kansas
Kansas
Citian * Kentucky
Kentucky
→ Kentuckian * Kingston →Kingstonian * Lancashire
Lancashire
→ Lancastrian * Lancaster → Lancastrian * Lethbridge
Lethbridge
→ Lethbridgian * Liverpool
Liverpool
→ Liverpudlian (also, though insulting and a negative term "Scouser") * Louisiana
Louisiana
→ Louisianian (also "Louisianan") * Louisville → Louisvillian * Madrid
Madrid
→ Madrilenian * Maharashtra → Maharashtrian * McKinney → McKinnian * Melbourne
Melbourne
→ Melburnian * Memphis → Memphian * Michigan
Michigan
→ Michiganian or Michigander * Nelson → Nelsonian * New Guinea
Guinea
→ New Guinian * New Orleans → New Orleanian * North Carolina → North Carolinian * Northern Territory → Territorian * Oregon
Oregon
→ Oregonian * Paris
Paris
→ Parisian * Peterborough
Peterborough
→ Peterborian * Phoenix → Phoenician * Plymouth
Plymouth
→ Plymothian * Port Harcourt → Harcourtian * Preston, Lancashire
Lancashire
→Prestonian * Prince George\'s County → Prince Georgian * Rivers State
Rivers State
→ Riverian * Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
→ Saskatchewanian * Saskatoon → Saskatonian * Sicily → Sicilian * Solihull → Silhillian * South Carolina
South Carolina
→ South Carolinian * Swindon
Swindon
→ Swindonian * Tel Aviv, Israel
Israel
→ Tel Avivian * Thrace
Thrace
→ Thracian * Towcester → Towcestrian * Washington → Washingtonian * Wellington
Wellington
→ Wellingtonian

* Wilmington → Wilmingtonian

-ANIAN

* Guam → Guamanian * Panama
Panama
→ Panamanian

-NIAN

* Bendigo
Bendigo
→ Bendigonian * Buffalo → Buffalonian * Manchester
Manchester
(UK) → Mancunian * Panama
Panama
→ Panamanian * Sligo
Sligo
→ Sligonian * Tampa → Tampanian * Tobago
Tobago
→ Tobagonian * Toronto
Toronto
→ Torontonian * Torquay
Torquay
→ Torquinian * Trinidad
Trinidad
-webkit-column-count: 2; column-count: 2;">

* Akron → Akronite * Ann Arbor → Ann Arborite * Austin
Austin
→ Austinite * Bergen County, New Jersey → Bergenite * Boulder → Boulderite * Brisbane
Brisbane
→ Brisbanite (also "Brisbanian") * Bronx
Bronx
→ Bronxite * Brooklyn
Brooklyn
→ Brooklynite * Carson City, Nevada
Nevada
→ Carsonite * Chennai
Chennai
→ Chennaiite * Dallas
Dallas
→ Dallasite * Decatur → Decaturite * Delhi
Delhi
→ Delhite * Denton, Texas
Texas
→ Dentonite * Denver
Denver
→ Denverite * Dhaka
Dhaka
→ Dhakaite (also "Dhakai" or "Dhakaiya") * Dubai
Dubai
→ Dubaiite * Dunedin
Dunedin
→ Dunedinite * Durban
Durban
→ Durbanite * Erie, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
→ Erieite * Gaya → Gayaite * Irmo, South Carolina
South Carolina
→ Irmite * Israel
Israel
→ Israelite (also "Israeli", depending on the usage; see below) * Istanbul
Istanbul
→ Istanbulite * Jerusalem
Jerusalem
→ Jerusalemite * Karachi
Karachi
→ Karachiite * Kerala
Kerala
→ Keralite (also Malayali or Malayalee) * Manhattan
Manhattan
→ Manhattanite * Moscow
Moscow
→ Muscovite (also Latin "Muscovia") * Montpelier, Vermont
Vermont
→ Montpelierite * Mumbai
Mumbai
→ Mumbaiite * New Hampshire → New Hampshirite * Oban
Oban
→ Obanite * Odessa → Odessite * Patna
Patna
→ Patnaite * Perth → Perthite (also "Perthian" and "Perthling") * Putney → Putneyite * Queens
Queens
→ Queensite * Reading → Readingite * Reno, Nevada
Nevada
→ Renoite * Ruskin, Florida
Florida
→ Ruskinite * Seattle
Seattle
→ Seattleite * Seoul
Seoul
→ Seoulite * Shiloh → Shilonite (as in: " Ahijah the Shilonite ") * Springfield (The Simpsons) → Springfieldianite * Spokane
Spokane
→ Spokanite * Sydney
Sydney
→ Sydneyite (also "Sydneysider") * Telangana
Telangana
→ Telanganite * Tokyo
Tokyo
→ Tokyoite * Vancouver
Vancouver
→ Vancouverite * Vizag
Vizag
→ Vizagite * Wenham, Massachusetts → Wenhamite * Westchester County, New York
Westchester County, New York
→ Westchesterite * Whittier, California
California
→ Whittierite * Winston-Salem → Winston-Salemite * Wisconsin
Wisconsin
→ Wisconsinite * Wyoming → Wyomingite

-(E)R

* Amsterdam
Amsterdam
→ Amsterdammer * Auckland
Auckland
→ Aucklander * Beijing
Beijing
→ Beijinger * Belgrade
Belgrade
→ Belgrader * Berlin
Berlin
→ Berliner * Bucharest
Bucharest
→ Bucharester * Budapest
Budapest
→ Budapester * Cleveland
Cleveland
→ Clevelander * Cook Islands →Cook Islander * Copenhagen
Copenhagen
→ Copenhagener * Detroit
Detroit
→ Detroiter * Dublin
Dublin
→ Dubliner * Dresden
Dresden
→ Dresdener * Fife → Fifer * Frankfurt
Frankfurt
→ Frankfurter * Greenland
Greenland
→Greenlander (also "Greenlandic") * Hamburg
Hamburg
→ Hamburger * Hannover
Hannover
→ Hannoveraner * Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Hongkonger /Hong Konger (also "Hong Kongese"/"Hongkongese") * Iceland
Iceland
→ Icelander (also "Icelandic") * Leeds
Leeds
→ Loiner * Leipzig
Leipzig
→ Leipziger * Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
→ Liechtensteiner * Little Rock, AR
Little Rock, AR
→ Little Rocker * London
London
→ Londoner * Lorraine → Lorrainer * Luxembourg
Luxembourg
→ Luxembourger * Maine
Maine
→ Mainer * Maryland
Maryland
→ Marylander * Michigan
Michigan
→ Michigander * Montreal
Montreal
→ Montrealer * Netherlands
Netherlands
→ Netherlander (also "Dutchman" and "Hollander") * New England
New England
→ New Englander * New York → New Yorker * New Zealand
New Zealand
→ New Zealander * Newfoundland → Newfoundlander * Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
→ Pittsburgher * Prague
Prague
→ Praguer * Puntland → Puntlander * Quebec
Quebec
→ Quebecker or Quebecer (though see below; irregular forms) * Queensland
Queensland
→ Queenslander * Rhineland
Rhineland
→ Rhinelander * Rhode Island → Rhode Islander * Rotterdam
Rotterdam
→ Rotterdammer * Saigon → Saigoner * Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
→ Solomon Islander * Somaliland → Somalilander * Stockholm
Stockholm
→ Stockholmer * Stuttgart
Stuttgart
→ Stuttgarter * Tallinn
Tallinn
→ Tallinner * Vermont
Vermont
→ Vermonter * Winnipeg → Winnipegger * Yellowknife
Yellowknife
→ Yellowknifer * Yukon → Yukoner * Zurich
Zurich
→ Zuricher

Often used for European locations and Canadian locations

-ISH

(Usually suffixed to a truncated form of the toponym , or place-name.)

"-ish" is usually proper only as an adjective. See note below list.

* Åland
Åland
→ Ålandish * Britain , Great Britain
Great Britain
and United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Northern Ireland
Ireland
→ British (demonym "Briton") * Cornwall
Cornwall
→ Cornish (demonym "Cornishman, Cornishwoman") * Denmark
Denmark
→ Danish (demonym "Dane") * England
England
→ English (demonym "Englishman, Englishwoman") * Finland
Finland
→ Finnish (demonym "Finn" or "Finnic") * Flanders
Flanders
→ Flemish (demonym "Fleming") * Ireland
Ireland
→ Irish (demonym "Irishman, Irishwoman") * Kurdistan → Kurdish (demonym "Kurd") * Luxembourg
Luxembourg
→ Luxembourgish (demonym "Luxembourger") * Northern Ireland
Ireland
→ Northern Irish * Poland
Poland
→ Polish (demonym "Pole") * Scotland
Scotland
→ Scottish (demonym "Scot" or "Scotsman, Scotswoman") * Spain
Spain
→ Spanish (demonym "Spaniard") * Sweden
Sweden
→ Swedish (demonym "Swede") * Turkey
Turkey
→ Turkish (demonym "Turk")

-ENE OR EEK

* Cairo
Cairo
→ Cairene * Cyrenaica → Cyrene * Damascus
Damascus
→ Damascene * Greece
Greece
→ Greek * Nazareth
Nazareth
→ Nazarene * Slovenia
Slovenia
→ Slovene (also "Slovenian")

Often used for Middle Eastern locations and European locations.

-ENSIAN

* Kingston-upon-Hull (UK) → Hullensian * Leeds
Leeds
(UK) → Leodensian

-ARD

* Spain
Spain
→ Spaniard (also "Spanish") * Savoy
Savoy
→ Savoyard * Montagne → Montagnard

-ESE, -LESE, -VESE, OR -NESE

* Abruzzo → Abruzzese * Aragon
Aragon
→ Aragonese * Aceh → Acehnese * Assam
Assam
→ Assamese * Bali
Bali
→ Balinese * Benin
Benin
→ Beninese (also "Beninois") * Bern
Bern
→ Bernese * Bhutan
Bhutan
→ Bhutanese * Bologna
Bologna
→ Bolognese * Calabria
Calabria
→ Calabrese * China
China
→ Chinese * Congo → Congolese * Da Lat → Dalatese * East Timor → East Timorese * Faroe Islands → Faroese * Gabon → Gabonese (also Gabonais/e) * Genoa
Genoa
→ Genovese * Guangdong
Guangdong
("Canton") → Cantonese * Guyana → Guyanese * Hainan
Hainan
Hainanese * Hong Kong
Hong Kong
→ Hongkongese * Hunan → Hunanese * Japan
Japan
→ Japanese * Java
Java
→ Javanese (also "Javan") * Lebanon
Lebanon
→ Lebanese * Macao
Macao
→ Macanese/Chinese * Malta
Malta
→ Maltese * Manila
Manila
→ Manilese * Marshall Islands → Marshallese * Milan
Milan
→ Milanese * Myanmar/Burma → Burmese (though see below; irregular forms) * Nepal
Nepal
→ Nepalese (also "Nepali") * Piedmont
Piedmont
→ Piedmontese * Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
→ Pittsburghese (as used routinely by residents of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
referring only to the accent/dialect) * Portugal
Portugal
→ Portuguese * Rwanda
Rwanda
→ Rwandese (also "Rwandan") * San Marino → Sammarinese * Sark
Sark
→ Sarkese * Senegal
Senegal
→ Senegalese * Shanghai
Shanghai
→ Shanghaiese * Siam → Siamese * Sikkim → Sikkimese * (South ) Sudan
Sudan
→ (South) Sudanese * Suriname → Surinamese * Taiwan
Taiwan
→ Taiwanese * Togo
Togo
→ Togolese * Turin → Torinese * Tyrol → Tyrolese * Vienna
Vienna
→ Viennese * Vietnam
Vietnam
→ Vietnamese

"-ese" is usually considered proper only as an adjective, or to refer to the entirety. Thus, "a Chinese person" is used rather than "a Chinese". Often used for East Asian and Francophone
Francophone
locations, from the similar-sounding French suffix -ais(e), which is originally from the Latin adjectival ending -ensis, designating origin from a place: thus Hispaniensis (Spanish), Danensis (Danish), etc.

-I(E)

* Allahabad → Allahabadi * Azawad → Azawadi * Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
→ Azeri (also "Azerbaijanian or Azerbaijani") * Azra → Azragi * Balochistan → Balochistani (also "Baloch" or "Baluch" or "Baluchi") * Bahrain
Bahrain
→ Bahraini * Bangladesh → Bangladeshi * Barisal → Barisali (also "Borishali") * Bengal
Bengal
→ Bengali * Bharat → Bharati * Bihar → Bihari * Birmingham
Birmingham
(UK) → Brummie * Dagestan → Dagestani * Dhaka
Dhaka
→ Dhakai (also "Dhakaiya" or "Dhakaite") * Faridabad
Faridabad
→ Faridabadi * Gujarat
Gujarat
→ Gujarati * Hayastan
Hayastan
→ Hayastani (also "Armenian") * Hazara → Hazaragi (also "Azragi") * Hyderabad → Hyderabadi * Iran
Iran
→ Irani (also "Iranian" or "Persian") * Iraq
Iraq
→ Iraqi * Israel
Israel
→ Israeli (in the modern State of Israel) * Kerala
Kerala
Malayali or Malayalee (also Keralite) * Kashmir
Kashmir
→ Kashmiri * Kazakhstan → Kazakhstani (also "Kazakh") * Kurdistan → Kurdistani (also "Kurdish", "Kurd") * Kuwait
Kuwait
→ Kuwaiti * Kyrgyzstan → Kyrgyzstani (also "Kyrgyz") * Lahore
Lahore
→ Lahori * Nepal
Nepal
→ Nepali (also "Nepalese") * Oman
Oman
→ Omani * Pakistan
Pakistan
→ Pakistani * Punjab → Punjabi * Qatar → Qatari * Rajasthan
Rajasthan
→ Rajasthani * Rangpur → Rangpuri * Sindh → Sindhi * Somalia
Somalia
→ Somali * Sylhet → Sylheti (also "Siloti") * Tajikistan → Tajikistani (also "Tajik") * Tel Aviv → Tel Avivi (also "Tel Avivim" (plural)) * Turkmenistan → Turkmenistani (also "Turkmen") * United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
→ Emirati * Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
→ Uzbekistani (also "Uzbek") * Yemen
Yemen
→ Yemeni * Yorkshire
Yorkshire
→ Yorkie (also "Yorkshireman" or "Tyke")

Mostly for Middle Eastern and South Asian locales and in Latinate names for the various people that ancient Romans encountered (e.g. Allemanni , Helvetii )

-IC

* Finland
Finland
→ Finnic (also "Finnish" or "Finn") * Antarctica
Antarctica
→ Antarctic * Greenland
Greenland
→ Greenlandic (also "Greenlander") * Iceland
Iceland
→ Icelandic (also "Icelander") * Slavic countries → Slavs/Slavic

-IOT(E)

* Chios
Chios
→Chiot * Corfu → Corfiot * Cyprus
Cyprus
→ Cypriot ("Cyprian" before 1960 independence of Cyprus) * Phanar → Phanariote

Used especially for Greek locations.

-ASQUE

* Monaco
Monaco
→ Monégasque (native citizen of Monaco) * Menton
Menton
→ Mentonasque * Basque Country → Basque

Often used for French locations.

-(WE)GIAN

* Galloway → Galwegian * Galway
Galway
→ Galwegian * Glasgow
Glasgow
→ Glaswegian * Norway
Norway
→ Norwegian

-ONIAN

* Aberdeen
Aberdeen
→ Aberdonian * Bath → Bathonian * Boston
Boston
→ Bostonian * Connacht → Connachtonian * Cork → Corkonian * Dundee
Dundee
→ Dundonian * Halifax → Haligonian * Newport → Newportonian * Oxford
Oxford
→ Oxonian * Edmonton
Edmonton
→Edmontonian

Often used for British and Irish locations.

-VIAN

* Barrow-in-Furness → Barrovian * Oamaru → Oamaruvian * Oslo
Oslo
→ Oslovian * Peru
Peru
→ Peruvian * Warsaw
Warsaw
→ Warsovian * Waterloo → Waterluvian * Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
- Wythenshavian

-SAN

* Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
→ Burkina Fasan

-OIS(E), -AIS(E)

* Benin
Benin
→ Beninois(e) (also Beninese) * Gabon → Gabonais(e) (also Gabonese) * Seychelles → Seychellois(e) * Quebec
Quebec
→ Quebecois(e) (also Quebecker, most common within Canada )

While derived from French, these are also official demonyms in English.

FROM LATIN OR LATINIZATION

* Alsace
Alsace
→ Alsatian (Alsatia) * Ashbourne → Ashburnian (Essiburn) * Cambridge
Cambridge
Cantabrigian * Colchester → Colcestrian * Courland → Couronian (Curonia) * Exeter
Exeter
→ Exonian * Germany
Germany
→ German (Germani) * Guernsey
Guernsey
→ Sarnian (Sarnia) * Halifax → Haligonian * Hispanic America Hispanic (Hispania) * Leeds
Leeds
Leodensian (Ledesia) * Lviv
Lviv
→ Leopolitan (Leopolis) * Manchester
Manchester
→ Mancunian (Mancunia) * Melbourne
Melbourne
Melburnian (Melburnia) * Minneapolis
Minneapolis
→ Minneapolitan * Naples
Naples
→ Neapolitan (Neapolis) * Newcastle → Novocastrian (Novum Castrum) * Orkney Islands Orcadian (Orcadia) * Oswestry → Oswestrian (Oswestria) * Shropshire → Salopian (Salopia) * Tripoli
Tripoli
→ Tripolitan (Tripolis) * Venice
Venice
→ Venetian * Wolverhampton → Wulfrunian

PREFIXATION

It is much rarer to find Demonyms created with a prefix. Mostly they are from Africa
Africa
and the Pacific, and are not generally known or used outside the country concerned. In much of East Africa, a person of a particular ethnic group will be denoted by a prefix. For example, a person of the Luba people would be a Muluba, the plural form Baluba, and the language, Kiluba or Tshiluba . Similar patterns with minor variations in the prefixes exist throughout on a tribal level. And Fijians who are indigenous Fijians are known as Kaiviti (Viti being the Fijian name for Fiji ). On a country level:

* Botswana
Botswana
→ Motswana (singlular), Batswana (plural) * Burundi → Umurundi (singular), Abarundi (plural) * Lesotho
Lesotho
→ Mosotho (singular), Basotho (plural)

In the Pacific, at least two countries use prefixation:

* Kiribati → i-Kiribati * Vanuatu
Vanuatu
→ Ni-Vanuatu

CITIES

* Shillong
Shillong
→ nong Shillong

NOT DERIVED FROM THE NAME

Demonyms may also not conform to the underlying naming of a particular place, but instead arise out of historical or cultural particularities that become associated with its denizens. These demonyms are usually more informal and colloquial. In the United States such informal demonyms frequently become associated with mascots of the intercollegiate sports teams of the state university system . In other countries the origins are often disputed.

FORMAL

* Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
Porteño * Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
Carioca * Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay Stater * Valparaíso
Valparaíso
Porteño

INFORMAL

* Arizona
Arizona
→ Sand Cutter * Birmingham, England
England
→ Brummie * Canada
Canada
Canuck * Connecticut
Connecticut
Nutmegger * Indiana
Indiana
Hoosier * Jersey
Jersey
Jèrriais (adjectival), Jerseyman (demonym) * Kansas
Kansas
Jayhawker * Liverpool
Liverpool
→ Scouser or Liverpudlian * London, England
England
→ Cockney (Specifically: One hailing from East London, England) * Newcastle upon Tyne, England
England
Geordie * Newfoundland, Canada
Canada
Newfie * New Zealand
New Zealand
→ Kiwi * North Carolina Tar Heel
Tar Heel
* Scotland
Scotland
→ Jock * Sydney
Sydney
→ Sydneysider * Ohio
Ohio
→ Buckeye * Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Okie , Sooner
Sooner

ETHNIC DEMONYMS

* Abkhazia → Abkhaz * Afghanistan
Afghanistan
→ Afghan * Arabia
Arabia
→ Arab * Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
→ Azerbaijani, Azeri * Catalonia
Catalonia
→ Catalan * Chechnya → Chechen * Cornwall
Cornwall
→ Cornishman, Cornishwoman * Croatia
Croatia
→ Croat * Czech Republic
Czech Republic
→ Czech * Denmark
Denmark
→ Dane * England
England
→ Englishman, Englishwoman * Finland
Finland
→ Finn * Flanders
Flanders
→ Fleming * France
France
→ French * Ingushetia → Ingush * Ireland
Ireland
→ Irishman, Irishwoman * Jersey
Jersey
→ Jerseyman, Jerseywoman * Kalmykia
Kalmykia
→ Kalmyk * Kazakhstan → Kazakh * Kerry → Kerryman * KwaZulu → Zulu * Kurdistan → Kurd * Kyrgyzstan → Kyrgyz * Lapland → Lapp (note: considered offensive in Norwegian) * Luxembourg
Luxembourg
→ Luxembourger * Mongolia
Mongolia
→ Mongol * Netherlands
Netherlands
→ Dutch * New South Wales → New South Welshman * Philippines - Filipino * Poland
Poland
→ Pole * Scotland
Scotland
→ Scot, Scotsman, Scotswoman * Serbia
Serbia
→ Serb * Slovakia
Slovakia
→ Slovak * Slovenia
Slovenia
→ Slovene * Somalia
Somalia
→ Somali * Spain
Spain
→ Spaniard * Swaziland
Swaziland
→ Swazi * Sweden
Sweden
→ Swede * Tajikistan → Tajik * Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
→ Tamil * Tatarstan →Tatar * Thailand
Thailand
→ Thai * Turkey
Turkey
→ Turk * Turkmenistan → Turkmen * Ulster
Ulster
→ Ulsterman * Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
→ Uzbek * Wales
Wales
→ Welsh * Yorkshire
Yorkshire
→ Yorkshireman, Yorkshirewoman

FICTION

Literature and science fiction have created a wealth of gentilics that are not directly associated with a cultural group. These will typically be formed using the standard models above. Examples include Martian
Martian
for hypothetical people of Mars
Mars
(credited to scientist Percival Lowell
Percival Lowell
) or Gondorian for the people of Tolkien
Tolkien
's fictional land of Gondor
Gondor
.

Other science fiction examples include Jovian for those of Jupiter
Jupiter
or its moons, and Venusian for those of Venus
Venus
. Fictional aliens refer to the inhabitants of Earth as Earthling (from the diminutive -ling, ultimately from Old English -ing meaning "descendant"), as well as "Terran", "Terrene", "Tellurian", "Earther", "Earthican", "Terrestrial", and "Solarian" (from Sol, the sun).

Fantasy literature which involves other worlds or other lands also has a rich supply of gentilics. Examples include Lilliputians and Brobdingnagians, from the islands of Lilliput and Brobdingnag in the satire Gulliver\'s Travels .

In a few cases, where a linguistic background has been created, non-standard gentilics are formed (or the eponyms back-formed). Examples include Tolkien's Rohirrim (from Rohan ) and the Star Trek world's Klingon
Klingon
people (with various version of homeworld name).

SEE ALSO

* Geography portal

* List of adjectival and demonymic forms of place names

* List of adjectivals and demonyms for astronomical bodies

* List of adjectivals and demonyms for continental regions

* List of adjectivals and demonyms for subcontinental regions

* List of adjectival and demonymic forms for countries and nations

* List of adjectivals and demonyms for Australia
Australia
* List of adjectivals and demonyms for Canada
Canada
* List of adjectivals and demonyms for India
India
* List of adjectivals and demonyms for Malaysia
Malaysia
* List of adjectivals and demonyms for Mexico
Mexico
* List of adjectivals and demonyms for New Zealand
New Zealand
* List of adjectivals and demonyms for the Philippines * List of adjectivals and demonyms for the United States

* List of adjectivals and demonyms for cities

* List of adjectivals and demonyms for former regions

* List of adjectivals and demonyms for Greco-Roman antiquity

* List of adjectivals and demonyms for fictional regions

* List of regional nicknames * Macedonia naming dispute
Macedonia naming dispute
* Nationality

-onym , especially ethnonym and Exonym and endonym

REFERENCES

* ^ A B George H. Scheetz (1988). Names' Names: A Descriptive and Pervasive Onymicon. Schütz Verlag. * ^ "gentile, adj. and n.". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford
Oxford
University Press . September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) * ^ "gentile -- adj. of or belonging to a gens or clan; belonging to any nation but the Jews; (gram.) denoting a race or country"--Davidson, Thomas, ed. (1901) Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary of the English Language. London: W. p. 382 * ^ "gentile -- adj. of or belonging to a gens or clan; belonging to the Gentiles; (gram.) denoting a race or country"--Macdonald, A. M., ed. (1972) Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary; new ed. Edinburgh: W. p. 544 * ^ "Gramática Inglesa. Adjetivos Gentilicios". mansioningles.com.

* ^ "Google Ngram Viewer". google.com. * ^ "Google Ngram Viewer". google.com. * ^ "Google Ngram Viewer". google.com. * ^ "Dictionary". Merriam Webster. Retrieved 25 July 2015. * ^ "Gentilés, Demonyms: What\'s in a Name?". National Geographic Magazine . National Geographic Society (U.S.). 177: 170. February 1990. * ^ William Safire
William Safire
(1997-12-14). "On Language; Gifts of Gab for 1998". New York Times . * ^ What Do You Call a Person From...? A Dictionary of Resident Names by Paul Dickson (Facts on File, February 1990). ISBN 978-0-8160-1983-0 . * ^ " Oxford
Oxford
English Dictionary". Oxford
Oxford
University Press. * ^ "Aristotle\'s Constitution of Athens, edited by J.E. Sandy, at the Internet Archive". p. 116. * ^ Press, AIP, Associated (2007). Stylebook and briefing on media law (42nd ed.). New York: Basic Books. p. 112. ISBN 9780465004898 . * ^ "Investing in Future, Quiet Manhattan
Manhattan
Apartments Next to Construction Sites" http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/12/realestate/manhattan-apartments-next-to-construction-sites.html * ^ "Copquin explains "Queensites" for New York Times - Yale Press Log". Yale Press Log. * ^ "Corkonian". merriam-webster.com. * ^ "North West Evening Mail". nwemail.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2014-05-31. * ^ "City of Waterloo on Twitter". * ^ "Massachusetts: General Laws, Section 35". malegislature.gov. * ^ Prior to the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
State Legislature designating "Bay Stater" as the state's official demonym, other terms used included Massachusett, borrowed from the native Massachusett tribe, Massachusite, championed by the early English Brahmins , Massachusettsian, by analogy with other state demonyms, and Masshole, originally derogatory. * ^ "The State of Arizona
Arizona
- An Introduction to the Grand Canyon State". netstate.com. * ^ "Is it a slur to call someone a Jock?". BBC.

NOTES

* ^ Local usage generally reserves Hawaiian as an ethnonym referring to Native Hawaiians . Hawaii resident is the preferred local form to refer to state residents in general regardless of ethnicity.

EXTERNAL LINKS

Look up DEMONYM or GENTILIC in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikidata
Wikidata
has the property: DEMONYM (P1549) (see uses)

* www.geography-site.co.uk Alphabetical list of world demonyms. * www.everything2.com Demonyms of the World. * CIA World Factbook – NATIONALITY * www.peoplefrom.co.uk Demonyms of the United Kingdom.

* v * t * e

Ethnicity

Related concepts

* Clan

* Ethnic group

* Ethnolinguistic group * Ethnoreligious group

* Indigenous peoples * Ingroups and outgroups * Meta-ethnicity * Metroethnicity * Minority group
Minority group
* Monoethnicity * Nation * Nationality * Panethnicity * Polyethnicity * Population
Population
* Race * Symbolic ethnicity * Tribe

ETHNOLOGY

* Anthropology
Anthropology
* Ethnic studies * Ethnoarchaeology

* Ethnobiology

* Ethnobotany
Ethnobotany
* Ethnozoology * Ethnoecology
Ethnoecology

* Ethnocinema * Ethnogeology

* Ethnography

* Autoethnography * Clinical * Critical * Cyber- * Netnography * Online * Person-centered * Salvage * Transidioethnography * Video

* Ethnohistory * Ethnolinguistics * Ethnology * Ethnomathematics * Ethnomethodology
Ethnomethodology
* Ethnomuseology * Ethnomusicology
Ethnomusicology
* Ethnophilosophy * Ethnopoetics * Ethnoscience * Ethnosemiotics * Ethnotaxonomy

Groups by region

* Africa
Africa
* Europe
Europe
* Oceania

* Arab League * Europe
Europe

* Australian

* indigenous

* Indigenous Oceanian * Europeans in Oceania

AMERICAS

* Indigenous *

.