On 6 December 1992, a large crowd of
On 6 December 1992 the VHP and the BJP organised a rally at the site
involving 150,000 volunteers, known as kar sevaks. The rally turned
violent, and the crowd overwhelmed security forces and tore down the
mosque. A subsequent inquiry into the incident found 68 people
responsible for the demolition, including several leaders of the BJP
and the VHP. The demolition also resulted in several months of
intercommunal rioting between India's
* 1 Background
* 2 Demolition
* 2.1 Conspiracy allegations
* 3 Aftermath
* 3.1 Communal violence * 3.2 Investigation * 3.3 Supreme Court order of April 2017
* 4 International reactions
* 5 In popular culture * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links
Archaeology of Ayodhya
Demolition of the Babri Masjid
2005 Ram Janmabhoomi attack
Ram Janmabhoomi Nyas
Main article: Ayodhya dispute
In the 1980s, the
Vishva Hindu Parishad
In September 1990, BJP leader
L. K. Advani began a Rath Yatra to
Ayodhya in support of the
On 6 December 1992, the RSS and its affiliates organised a rally involving 150,000 VHP and BJP kar sevaks at the site of the mosque. The ceremonies included speeches by BJP leaders such as Advani, Murli Manohar Joshi and Uma Bharti . During the first few hours of the rally, the crowd grew gradually more restless, and began raising militant slogans. A police cordon had been placed around the mosque in preparation for attack. However, around noon, a young man managed to slip past the cordon and climb the mosque itself, brandishing a saffron flag. This was seen as a signal by the mob, who then stormed the structure. The police cordon, vastly outnumbered and unprepared for the size of the attack, fled. The mob set upon the building with axes, hammers, and grappling hooks, and within a few hours, the entire mosque was leveled. Hindus also destroyed numerous other mosques within the town.
A 2009 report , authored by Justice Manmohan Singh Liberhan , found 68 people to be responsible for the demolition of the Masjid, mostly leaders from the BJP. Among those named were Vajpayee, Advani, Joshi and Vijay Raje Scindia. Kalyan Singh, who was then the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, also faced severe criticism in the report. Liberhan wrote that he posted bureaucrats and police officers to Ayodhya, whose record indicated that they would stay silent during the mosque’s demolition. Anju Gupta, a police officer who had been in charge of Advani's security on that day, stated that Advani and Joshi made speeches that contributed to provoking the behaviour of the mob. The report notes that at this time several BJP leaders made "feeble requests to the kar sevaks to come down... either in earnest or for the media's benefit". No appeal was made to the Kar Sevaks not to enter the sanctum sanctorum or not to demolish the structure. The report notes: "This selected act of the leaders itself speaks of the hidden intentions of one and all being to accomplish demolition of the disputed structure." The report holds that the "icons of the movement present ... could just as easily have... prevented the demolition."
In a 2005 March book, former Intelligence Bureau (IB) Joint Director, Maloy Krishna Dhar claimed that Babri mosque demolition was planned 10 months in advance by top leaders of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh ("RSS"), BJP and VHP and raised questions over the way the then Prime Minister P. V. Narasimha Rao , had handled the issue. Dhar claimed that he was directed to arrange the coverage of a key meeting of the BJP/ Sangh Parivar and that the meeting "proved beyond doubt that they (RSS, BJP, VHP) had drawn up the blueprint of the Hindutva assault in the coming months and choreographed the ‘pralaya nritya’ (dance of destruction) at Ayodhya in December 1992. The RSS, BJP, VHP and the Bajrang Dal leaders present in the meeting amply agreed to work in a well-orchestrated manner." Claiming that the tapes of the meeting were personally handed over by him to his boss, he asserts that he has no doubts that his boss had shared the contents with the Prime Minister (Rao) and the Home Minister (S B Chavan). The author claimed that there was silent agreement that Ayodhya offered "a unique opportunity to take the Hindutva wave to the peak for deriving political benefit."
In April 2014, a sting operation by
Cobrapost claimed that the
demolition was not an act of frenzied mobs but an act of sabotage
planned with so much secrecy that no government agency got wind of it.
It further said that the sabotage was planned several months in
Vishva Hindu Parishad
The destruction of the Babri Mosque, as well as the destruction of numerous others that day, sparked Muslim outrage around the country, provoking several months of inter-communal rioting in which Hindus and Muslims attacked one another, burning and looting homes, shops and places of worship. Several of the BJP leaders were taken into custody, and the VHP was briefly banned by the government. Despite this, the ensuing riots spread to cities like Mumbai, Surat, Ahmedabad, Kanpur, Delhi, Bhopal and several others, eventually resulting in over 2000 deaths, mainly Muslim. The Mumbai Riots alone, which occurred in December 1992 and January 1993 and which the Shiv Sena played a big part in organising, caused the death of around 900 people, and estimated property damage of around ₹ 9,000 crore ($3.6 billion). The demolition and the ensuing riots were among the major factors behind the 1993 Mumbai bombings and many successive riots in the coming decade. Jihadi outfits like the Indian Mujahideen cited the demolition of the Babri Mosque as a reason for their terrorist attacks.
On 16 December 1992, the Union home ministry set up the Liberhan
Commission to investigate the destruction of the Mosque, headed by
retired High Court Judge M. S. Liberhan . Totalling 399 sittings over
the span of sixteen years, the Commission finally submitted its
1,029-page report to
SUPREME COURT ORDER OF APRIL 2017
The governments of several neighbouring countries criticised the
Government of India for failing to stop the demolition and the
subsequent communal violence. There were also reports of retaliatory
In Pakistan, the government closed offices and schools on 7 December
to protest the demolition of the Babri Masjid. The Pakistani Foreign
Ministry summoned the Indian ambassador to lodge a formal complaint,
and promised to appeal to the
Following the demolition in December 1992, Muslim mobs in Bangladesh
attacked and burned down
Hindus temples, shops and houses across the
country. An India-Bangladesh cricket match was disrupted when a mob
of an estimated 5,000 men tried to storm the Bangabandhu National
Stadium in the national capital of
At its summit meeting in
Abu Dhabi , the Gulf Cooperation Council
strongly condemned the
UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
Although its government condemned the events in moderate terms, the
UAE experienced severe public disturbances due to the demolition of
the Babri Mosque. Street protests broke out, and protesters threw
stones at a
IN POPULAR CULTURE
Lajja , a 1993 novel in Bengali by Bangladeshi writer Taslima Nasrin , deals with the oppression of Hindus in Bangladesh in the days after the demolition. After its release, the author received death threats in her country, and has been living in exile ever since.
The Bollywood movie Mausam is based on the events surrounding the
demolition. The events riots that followed the demolition are an
important part of the plot of several films, including Bombay (1995)
set in the
Mumbai riots .
Daivanamathil (2005) explores the
repercussions of the demolition on
Muslims in Kerala . Both Bombay and
Daivanamathi won the Nargis Dutt Award for Best Feature Film on
National Integration at the respective National Film Awards ..The
movie "Black Friday" was based upon the 1993 Mumbai serial blasts
which were considered to be the after effect of the demolition of the
Babri Masjid. The demolition is also mentioned in Naseem (1995),
Striker (2010), and
* ^ A B "Timeline:
Ayodhya holy site crisis". BBC News. 17 October
* ^ Bhagat, Rasheeda (28 September 2010). "The
* ^ Guha, Ramachandra (2007). India After Gandhi. MacMillan. pp.
* ^ Tully, Mark (5 December 2002). "Tearing down the Babri Masjid".
BBC News. Retrieved 29 September 2010.
* ^ A B Guha, Ramachandra (2007). India After Gandhi. MacMillan.
* ^ "Report: Sequence of events on December 6". Ndtv.com. Retrieved
20 June 2012.
* ^ Symbolism in Terrorism: Motivation, Communication, and Behavior
- Jonathan Matusitz - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved
* ^ "Uproar over India mosque report: Inquiry into Babri mosque\'s
demolition in 1992 indicts opposition BJP leaders". Al Jazeera. 24
November 2009. Retrieved 8 July 2014.
* ^ Venkatesan, V. (16 July 2005). "In the dock, again". Frontline
. 22 (15).
* ^ "Report: Sequence of events on December 6".
NDTV . November 23,
2009. Retrieved 2011-12-05.
* ^ "