Ethnic groupsAccording to ''The Economist'', at independence Somalia was "arguably in ethnic terms the most homogeneous country in sub-Saharan Africa", ahead of , which is four-fifths Tswana. However, the publication also notes that "its ethnic homogeneity is misleading. Despite also sharing a single language and religion, it is divided into more than 500 clans and sub-clans".
Somalisconstitute the largest in Somalia, at approximately 85% of the nation's inhabitants. They are organized into groupings, which are important social units; clan membership plays a central part in Somali and . Clans are patrilineal and are typically divided into sub-clans, sometimes with many sub-divisions. Through the '' xeer'' system (customary law), the advanced clan structure has served governmental roles in many rural Somali communities. Somali society is traditionally ethnically endogamy, endogamous. So to extend ties of alliance, marriage is often to another ethnic Somali from a different clan. Thus, for example, a recent study observed that in 89 marriages contracted by men of the Dhulbahante clan, 55 (62%) were with women of Dhulbahante sub-clans other than those of their husbands; 30 (33.7%) were with women of surrounding clans of other clan families (Isaaq, 28; Gadabuursi, 3); and 3 (4.3%) were with women of other clans of the Darod clan family (Marehan 2, Ogaden (clan), Ogaden 1).
Clan structureCertain clans are traditionally classed as noble clans, referring to their nomadic lifestyle in contrast to the sedentary Sab who are either agropastoralists or artisanal castes. The five noble clans are Hawiye, Dir (clan), Dir, Darod, Isaaq and Rahanweyn . Of these, the Dir and Hawiye are regarded as descended from Irir Samaale, the likely source of the ethnonym ''Somali (soomaali)''. The Isaaq and Darod have separate agnatic (paternal) traditions of descent through Ishaaq ibn Ahmed, Ishaak ibn Ahmed (Sheikh Ishak) and Abdirahman bin Isma'il al-Jabarti (Sheikh Darod) respectively.I.M. Lewis, ''A Modern History of the Somali'', fourth edition (Oxford: James Currey, 2002), p. 23 Both Sheikh Ishak and Sheikh Darod are asserted to have married women from the Dir clan, thus establishing matrilateral ties with the Samaale main stem. "Sab" is the term used to refer to minor Somali clans in contrast to "Samaale".Laitin, David D. & Said Sheikh Samatar, Samatar, Said S. (1987). ''Somalia: Nation in Search of a State'', Colorado: Westview Press. Both Samaale and Sab are the children of their father "Hiil" whose is the common ancestor all Somali clans. A few clans in the southern part of Greater Somalia do not belong to the major clans, but came to be associated with them and were eventually adopted into one of their confederations: Gaalje'el in Hiran, Somalia, Hiran and elsewhere in central Somalia traces its paternal descent to Gardheere Samaale; Garre in the Somali Region and North Eastern Province (Kenya), North Eastern Province is divided into two branches: Tuuf claiming itself to be Garre Gardheere Samaale,The Quranyo section of the Garre claim descent from Dirr, who are born of the Irrir Samal. UNDP Paper in Keyna http://www.undp.org/content/dam/kenya/docs/Amani%20Papers/AP_Volume1_n2_May2010.pdf and Quranyow, who married Tuuf's daughter, is of Mahamed Hiniftir Mahe Dir lineage; Degoodi in the Somali Region and North Eastern Province is related to Gaaje'el as Saransoor and traces its patrilineage to Gardheere Samaale; Hawaadle in Hiran belongs to the Meyle Samaale; Ajuraan in the North Eastern Province claim descent from Maqaarre Samaale and Sheekhaal acknowledges descent from Sheikh Abadir Umar Ar-Rida, also known as ''Fiqi Umar''. Thus, the Gaalje'el, Garre, Degoodi Ajuraan and Hawaadle are said to have patrilateral ties with the Dir and Hawiye through Samaale to Aqeel ibn Abi Talib, Aqeel Abu Talib, whereas the Sheekhaal traces descent to a different forefather than the Samaale progeny, but also ultimately to Aqeel Abu Talib. The Sheekhaal (var. Sheikhaal (Arabic: شيخال), also known as Fiqi Omar, is a Somali clan. A Group members of hawiye major clan (Martiile hiraab) inhabit Somalia, Ethiopia Djibouti and with considerable numbers also found in the Northern Frontier District (NFD) in Kenya. The Digil and Mirifle (Rahanweyn) are Agriculture, agro-pastoral clans in the area between the Jubba River, Jubba and Shebelle River, Shebelle rivers. Many do not follow a nomadic lifestyle, live further south, and speak Af-Maay, Maay. Although in the past frequently classified as a Somali language, Somali dialect, more recent research by the linguist Mohamed Diriye Abdullahi suggests that Maay constitutes a separate but closely related Afroasiatic language, Afro-Asiatic language of the Cushitic languages, Cushitic branch. A third group, the occupational clans, are treated as outcasts. They can only marry among themselves and other Somalis considered them to be ritually unclean. They lived in their own settlements among the nomadic populations in the north and performed specialised occupations such as metalworking, Tanning (leather), tanning and hunting. These Minority Somali clans are the Gaboye, Tumaal, Yibir, Jaji and Yahar.
Clans and sub-clansThere is no clear agreement on the clan and sub-clan structures. The divisions and subdivisions as given here are partial and simplified. Many lineages are omitted. Note that some sources state that the Rahanweyn group is made up of the Digil and Mirifle clans, whereas others list the Digil as a separate group from the Rahanweyn. ;Major clans *Isaaq ** Arab, Ayuub, Garhajis, Habar Awal, Habar Jeclo, Tol Jecle, Sanbuur and Cibraan * Darod ** Awrtable, Dhulbahante, Dishiishe, Jidwaq, Leelkase, Majeerteen, Marehan, Mora'ase, Ogaden (clan), Ogaden, Moorsaante Geri Koombe * Dir (clan), Dir (Irir son of Samaale), **Issa (clan), Issa, Gadabuursi, Gadabuursi/Samaroon, Madahweyn or Madawini, Quranyow-Garre, Surre (clan), Surre, Dabruube, Barsug, Madigan, Biimaal, Bajimal * Hawiye (Irir son of Samaale) **Abgaal, Abgal, Mudulood clan (s), Gugundhabe, Xawaadle, Sheekhaal loobage, Baadi Cade, Jajeele, Geel-Jecel, Duduble, Habar Gedir (s), Murusade, Gorgate * Rahanweyn ** Digil *** Dabarre, Jiddu, Garre, Tunni, Geledi ** Mirifle ***Sagaal: Geeladle, Jilible, Gasaargude, Gawaweeyn, Baroosile, Luwaay, Hadame, Yantaar, Hubeer ***Sideed: Elaay. Leysaan, Eemid, Diisow, Maallan Wiin, Harin , Jiron, Naasiye * Saransor ** Issa (clan), Issa, Masare, Gaalje'el, Gaaljecel, Degoodi, Degodia * Mayle **Hawadle ;Minor clans * Ashraaf, Bravanese people, Bravanese, Benadiri people, Benadiri, Eyle people, Eyle, Mehri people, Carab Salaax, Gaboye (Madhiban), Muse clan (s), Tumaal, Yibir
Other ethnic groupsNon-Somali ethnic minority groups make up about 15% of the nation's population. They include Bantus (Somalia), Bantus, Bajuni people, Bajunis, Ethiopians, Indians, Pakistanis, Persian people, Persians, Arabs, Italy, Italians, Sweden, Swedes, and British people, Britons.Gale Research Inc, ''Worldmark encyclopedia of the nations'', Volume 2, (Gale Research: 1984), p.278.Anthony Appiah, Henry Louis Gates, ''Encyclopedia of Africa'', Volume 1, (Oxford University Press: 2010), p.402
LanguagesSomali language, Somali and Arabic language, Arabic are the official languages of Somalia. The Somali language is the first language, mother tongue of the Somalis, the nation's most populous ethnic group. It is a member of the Cushitic languages, Cushitic branch of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic family. In addition to Somali, Arabic, which is also an Afroasiatic tongue,Helena Dubnov, ''A grammatical sketch of Somali'', (Kِppe: 2003), pp. 70–71. is an official national language in Somalia. Many Somalis speak it due to centuries-old ties with the Arab world, the far-reaching influence of the Arabic media, and religious education.Diana Briton Putman, Mohamood Cabdi Noor, ''The Somalis: their history and culture'', (Center for Applied Linguistics: 1993), p. 15.: "Somalis speak Somali. Many people also speak Arabic, and educated Somalis usually speak either English or Italian as well. Swahili may also be spoken in coastal areas near Kenya."Fiona MacDonald et al., ''Peoples of Africa'', Volume 10, (Marshall Cavendish: 2000), p. 178. English language, English is widely used and taught. Italian language, Italian used to be a major language, but its influence significantly diminished following Independence Day (Somalia), independence. It is now most frequently heard among older generations, government officials, and in educated circles. Other minority languages include Bravanese dialect, Bravanese, a variant of the Bantu languages, Bantu Swahili language that is spoken along the coast by the Bravanese people, as well as Bajuni dialect, Bajuni, another Swahili dialect that is the mother tongue of the Bajuni people, Bajuni ethnic minority group.
PopulationAccording to , the total population was in , compared to 2,264,000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 44.9%, 52.3% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 2.7% was 65 years or older.Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision
Vital statisticsRegistration of vital events in Somalia is incomplete. The Population Department of the United Nations prepared the following estimates:
Demographic statisticsDemographic statistics according to the World Population Review. *One birth every 48 seconds *One death every 3 minutes *One net migrant every 14 minutes *Net gain of one person every 1 minutes The following demographic are from the CIA World Factbook unless otherwise indicated.
Population:11,259,029 (July 2018 est.) :10,428,043 (2014 est.)
Age structure:''0-14 years:'' 42.87% (male 2,410,215 /female 2,416,629) :''15-24 years:'' 19.35% (male 1,097,358 /female 1,081,762) :''25-54 years:'' 31.23% (male 1,821,823 /female 1,694,873) :''55-64 years:'' 4.35% (male 245,744 /female 243,893) :''65 years and over:'' 2.19% (male 95,845 /female 150,887) (2018 est.)
Median age:Total: 18.2 years. Country comparison to the world: 211st :Male: 18.4 years :Female: 18 years (2018 est.)
Birth rate:39.3 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 9th :40.87 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Death rate:12.8 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.) :13.91 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Total fertility rate:5.7 children born/woman (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 6th
Population growth rate:2.08% (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 45th :1.75% (2014 est.)
Net migration rate:-5.6 migrants/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 199th :-9.51 migrants/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Dependency ratios:Total dependency ratio: 97.4 (2015 est.) :Youth dependency ratio: 92.1 (2015 est.) :Elderly dependency ratio: 5.3 (2015 est.) :Potential support ratio: 18.8 (2015 est.)
Urbanization:Urban population: 45% of total population (2018) :Rate of urbanization: 4.23% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.) :''Urban population:'' 37.7% of total population (2011) :''Rate of urbanization:'' 3.79 annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Sex ratio''At birth:'' 1.03 males/female
Infant mortality rate:Total: 93 deaths/1,000 live births :Male: 101.4 deaths/1,000 live births :Female: 84.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:Total population: 53.2 years :Male: 51 years :Female: 55.4 years (2018 est.) :''Total population:'' 51.58 years :''Male:'' 49.58 years :''Female:'' 53.65 years (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS;HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 0.1% (2017 est.) ;HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 11,000 (2017 est.) ;HIV/AIDS - deaths <1000 (2017 est.)
Major infectious diseases''Degree of risk'': high
Nationality''Noun:'' Somali (singular) or Somali (plural)
Ethnic groups*Somalis, Somali 85% *Bantu Somali, Bantu and other non-Somali 15%.
Religions*Islam (Sunni Islam, Sunni) (official)
Languages*Somali language, Somali (official) *Arabic language, Arabic *English language, English
Literacy''Definition:'' age 15 and over can read and write
See also* * Demographics of Djibouti * Demographics of Eritrea * Demographics of Ethiopia