Democratic Party presidential primaries, 2016
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The 2016 Democratic Party presidential primaries and caucuses were a series of electoral contests organized by the
Democratic Party Democratic Party most often refers to: *Democratic Party (United States) Democratic Party and similar terms may also refer to: Active parties Africa *Botswana Democratic Party *Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea *Gabonese Democratic Party *Demo ...
to select the 4,051 delegates to the
2016 Democratic National Convention The 2016 Democratic National Convention was a presidential nominating convention Convention may refer to: * Convention (norm), a custom or tradition, a standard of presentation or conduct ** Treaty, an agreement in international law * Conv ...
held July 25–28 and determine the nominee for
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President of the United States
in the 58th U.S. presidential election. The elections took place within all fifty
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s, the
District of Columbia ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument The Washington Monument is an obelisk within the National Mall The National Mall is a Landscape architecture, landscape ...
, five
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, and
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and occurred between February 1 and June 14, 2016. A total of six major candidates entered the race starting April 12, 2015, when former Secretary of State and
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Senator A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicameral legislature. The name comes from the Ancient Rome, ancient Roman Senate (Latin: ''Senatus''), so-called as an assembly of the senior (Lat ...
Hillary Clinton Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton ( Rodham; born October 26, 1947) is an American politician, diplomat, lawyer, writer, and public speaker who served as the 67th United States secretary of state The United States secretary of state is an of ...

Hillary Clinton
formally announced her second bid for the presidency. She was followed by
Vermont Vermont () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in ...

Vermont
Senator A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicameral legislature. The name comes from the Ancient Rome, ancient Roman Senate (Latin: ''Senatus''), so-called as an assembly of the senior (Lat ...
Bernie Sanders Bernard Sanders (born September8, 1941) is an American politician who has served as the Seniority in the United States Senate, junior United States Senate, United States senator from Vermont since 2007 and as U.S. Representative for the sta ...

Bernie Sanders
, former
Governor of Maryland The governor of the State of Maryland is the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the Executive (government), executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-gover ...
Martin O'Malley Martin Joseph O'Malley (born January 18, 1963) is an American lawyer and politician who served as the List of governors of Maryland, 61st Governor of Maryland from 2007 to 2015. A member of the Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Party, ...

Martin O'Malley
, former
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Lincoln Chafee Lincoln Davenport Chafee ( ; born March 26, 1953) is an American politician. He was mayor of Warwick, Rhode Island, Warwick from 1993 to 1999, a United States Senate, United States Senator from 1999 to 2007, and the 74th Governor of Rhode Isla ...
, former
Virginia Virginia (), officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), '' ...

Virginia
Senator
Jim Webb James Henry Webb Jr. (born February 9, 1946) is an American politician and author. He has served as a United States Senator from Virginia, Secretary of the Navy, Assistant Secretary of Defense for Reserve Affairs, Counsel for the United States H ...
and
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Professor
Lawrence Lessig Lester Lawrence Lessig III (born June 3, 1961) is an American academic, attorney, and political activist. He is the Roy L. Furman Professor of Law at Harvard Law School and the former director of the Edmond J. Safra Center for Ethics at Harvard ...

Lawrence Lessig
. A draft movement was started to encourage
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Massachusetts
Senator
Elizabeth Warren Elizabeth Ann Warren (née __NOTOC__ A birth name is the name of the person given upon their birth. The term may be applied to the surname In some cultures, a surname, family name, or last name is the portion of one's personal name ...
to seek the presidency, but Warren declined to run, as did incumbent Vice President
Joe Biden Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. ( ; born November 20, 1942) is an American politician who is the 46th and current president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of th ...

Joe Biden
. Webb, Chafee, and Lessig withdrew prior to the February 1, 2016,
Iowa caucuses The Iowa caucuses are biennial electoral events for members of the Democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ...
. Clinton won Iowa by the closest margin in the history of the state's Democratic
caucus A caucus is a meeting of supporters or members of a specific political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections. It is common for the members of a party to hold si ...
to date. O'Malley suspended his campaign after a distant third-place finish, leaving Clinton and Sanders as the only two candidates. The race turned out to be more competitive than expected, with Sanders decisively winning
New Hampshire New Hampshire ( ) is a U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west, Maine and the Gulf of Maine to the east, and the Canadian province of Quebec to the nor ...
, while Clinton subsequently won
Nevada Nevada (, ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...
and won a landslide victory in
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. Clinton then secured numerous important wins in each of the nine most populous states including
California California is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...
,
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...
,
Florida Florida is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States. Florida is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia (U.S. state), Geor ...
, and
Texas Texas (, ; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambigu ...
, while Sanders scored various victories in between. He then laid off a majority of staff after the New York primary and Clinton's multi-state sweep on April 26. On June 6, the
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Associated Press
and
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stated that Clinton had become the
presumptive nominee In United States politics The United States is a federal constitutional A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents A precedent is a principle or rule established in a previous legal case A legal ...
after reaching the required number of delegates, including both pledged and unpledged delegates (
superdelegates In Politics of the United States, American politics, a superdelegate is an unpledged delegate to the Democratic National Convention who is seated automatically and chooses for themselves for whom they vote. These Democratic Party (United States) ...
), to secure the nomination. In doing so, she became the first woman to ever be the presumptive nominee of any major political party in the United States. On June 7, Clinton officially secured a majority of pledged delegates after winning in the California and New Jersey primaries. President
Barack Obama Barack Hussein Obama II ( ; born August 4, 1961) is an American politician and attorney who served as the 44th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government ...

Barack Obama
, Vice President
Joe Biden Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. ( ; born November 20, 1942) is an American politician who is the 46th and current president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of th ...

Joe Biden
and Senator
Elizabeth Warren Elizabeth Ann Warren (née __NOTOC__ A birth name is the name of the person given upon their birth. The term may be applied to the surname In some cultures, a surname, family name, or last name is the portion of one's personal name ...
formally endorsed Clinton on June 9. Sanders confirmed on June 24 that he would vote for Clinton over
Donald Trump Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is an American politician A politician is a person active in party politics A political party is an organization that coordinates candidate A candidate, or nominee, is the prospective reci ...

Donald Trump
in the general election and formally endorsed Clinton on July 12 in
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Portsmouth, New Hampshire
. On July 22,
WikiLeaks WikiLeaks () is an international non-profit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collective, public o ...
published the Democratic National Committee email leak, in which DNC operatives seemed to deride Bernie Sanders' campaign and discuss ways to advance Clinton's nomination, leading to the resignation of DNC chair
Debbie Wasserman Schultz Deborah Wasserman Schultz (née Wasserman; born September 27, 1966) is an American politician serving as the United States House of Representatives, U.S. representative from , first elected to Congress in United States House of Representatives e ...
and other implicated officials. The leak was allegedly part of an operation by the
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to undermine Hillary Clinton. Although the ensuing controversy initially focused on emails that dated from relatively late in the primary, when Clinton was already close to securing the nomination, the emails cast doubt on the DNC's neutrality and, according to Sanders operatives and multiple media commentators, showed that the DNC had favored Clinton since early on. This was evidenced by alleged bias in the scheduling and conduct of the debates, as well as controversial DNC–Clinton agreements regarding financial arrangements and control over policy and hiring decisions. Other media commentators have disputed the significance of the emails, arguing that the DNC's internal preference for Clinton was not historically unusual and did not affect the primary enough to sway the outcome.Heersink, Boris (November 4, 2017)
"No, the DNC didn’t 'rig' the Democratic primary for Hillary Clinton"
''
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The Washington Post
''. Retrieved March 8, 2018.
The controversies ultimately led to the formation of a DNC "unity" commission to recommend reforms in the party's primary process. On July 26, 2016, the
Democratic National Convention The Democratic National Convention (DNC) is a series of U.S. presidential nominating convention, presidential nominating conventions held every four years since 1832 by the United States Democratic Party. They have been administered by the Democr ...
officially nominated Clinton for president and a day later, Virginia Senator
Tim Kaine Timothy Michael Kaine (; born February 26, 1958) is an American lawyer and politician serving as the junior Junior or Juniors may refer to: Sport * Junior athletics, age-based athletic training and completion category * Instances of junior a ...
for vice president. On November 8, 2016, Republican nominee
Donald Trump Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is an American politician A politician is a person active in party politics A political party is an organization that coordinates candidate A candidate, or nominee, is the prospective reci ...

Donald Trump
defeated Clinton in the general election.


Candidates


Nominee


Withdrew at the convention


Withdrew during the primaries


Withdrew before the primaries


Other candidates' results

The following candidates were frequently interviewed by news channels and were invited to forums and candidate debates. For reference, Clinton received 16,849,779 votes in the primaries. Other candidates participated in one or more state primaries without receiving major coverage or substantial vote counts.


Timeline


Background

In the weeks following the re-election of President Obama in the 2012 election, media speculation regarding potential candidates for the Democratic presidential nomination in the 2016 presidential election began to circulate. The speculation centered on the prospects of Clinton, then- Secretary of State, making a second presidential bid in the 2016 election. Clinton had previously served as a
U.S. Senator The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress The United States Congress is the legislature of the federal government of the United States. It is Bicameralism, bicameral, comprising a lower body, the ...
for New York (2001–09) and was the First Lady of the U.S. (1993–2001). A January 2013 ''
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Washington Post
''–
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poll indicated that she had high popularity among the American public. This polling information prompted numerous political pundits and observers to anticipate that Clinton would mount a second presidential bid in 2016, entering the race as the early front-runner for the Democratic nomination. From the party's
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wing came calls for a more Progressivism in the United States, progressive candidate to challenge what was perceived by many within this segment as the party's establishment. Elizabeth Warren quickly became a highly touted figure within this movement as well as the object of a Draft (politics), draft movement to run in the primaries, despite her repeated denials of interest in doing so. The MoveOn.org campaign 'Run Warren Run' announced that it would disband on June 8, 2015, opting to focus its efforts toward progressive issues. The draft campaign's New Hampshire staffer, Kurt Ehrenberg, had joined Sanders' team and most of the remaining staffers were expected to follow suit. Given the historical tendency for sitting Vice President of the United States, vice presidents to seek the presidency in election cycles in which the incumbent president is not a candidate, there was also considerable speculation regarding a potential presidential run by incumbent Vice President
Joe Biden Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. ( ; born November 20, 1942) is an American politician who is the 46th and current president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of th ...

Joe Biden
, who had previously campaigned for the Democratic presidential nomination in the election cycles of Joe Biden presidential campaign, 1988, 1988 and Joe Biden presidential campaign, 2008, 2008. This speculation was further fueled by Biden's own expressions of interest in a possible run in 2016. However, on October 21, 2015, speaking from a podium in the White House Rose Garden, Rose Garden with his wife and President Obama by his side, Biden announced his decision not to enter the race, as he was still dealing with the loss of his son, Beau Biden, Beau, who died weeks earlier at the age of 47. Biden would become the nominee for the Democratic Party 4 years later, when he defeated incumbent President Trump. On May 26, 2015, Sanders officially announced his run as a presidential candidate for the Democratic nomination, after an informal announcement on April 30 and speculation since early 2014. Sanders had previously served as Mayor of Burlington, Vermont (1981–89), Vermont's sole U.S. Representative (1991–2007) and Vermont's junior Senator (2007–present). He emerged as the biggest rival to Hillary Clinton in the Democratic primaries, backed by a strong grassroots campaign and a social media following. In November 2014,
Jim Webb James Henry Webb Jr. (born February 9, 1946) is an American politician and author. He has served as a United States Senator from Virginia, Secretary of the Navy, Assistant Secretary of Defense for Reserve Affairs, Counsel for the United States H ...
, a former U.S. Senator who had once served as the United States Secretary of the Navy, U.S. Secretary of the Navy during the Presidency of Ronald Reagan, Reagan administration, announced the formation of an exploratory committee in preparation for a possible run for the Democratic presidential nomination. This made Webb the first major potential candidate to take a formal action toward seeking the party's 2016 nomination.
Martin O'Malley Martin Joseph O'Malley (born January 18, 1963) is an American lawyer and politician who served as the List of governors of Maryland, 61st Governor of Maryland from 2007 to 2015. A member of the Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Party, ...

Martin O'Malley
, former
Governor of Maryland The governor of the State of Maryland is the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the Executive (government), executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-gover ...
as well as a former Mayor of Baltimore, made formal steps toward a campaign for the party's nomination in January 2015 with the hiring and retaining of personnel who had served the previous year as political operatives in Iowa – the first presidential nominating state in the primary elections cycle – as staff for his political action committee (PAC). O'Malley had started the "O’ Say Can You See" PAC in 2012 which had, prior to 2015, functioned primarily as fundraising vehicles for various Democratic candidates, as well as for two 2014 ballot measures in Maryland. With the 2015 staffing moves, the PAC ostensibly became a vehicle for O'Malley – who had for several months openly contemplated a presidential bid – to lay the groundwork for a potential campaign for the party's presidential nomination. In August 2015,
Lawrence Lessig Lester Lawrence Lessig III (born June 3, 1961) is an American academic, attorney, and political activist. He is the Roy L. Furman Professor of Law at Harvard Law School and the former director of the Edmond J. Safra Center for Ethics at Harvard ...

Lawrence Lessig
unexpectedly announced his intention to enter the race, promising to run if his exploratory committee raised $1 million by Labor Day. After accomplishing this, Lessig formally announced Lawrence Lessig presidential campaign, 2016, his campaign. He described his candidacy as a referendum on electoral reform legislation, prioritizing a single issue: the Citizen Equality Act of 2017, a proposal that couples Campaign finance reform in the United States, campaign finance reform with other laws aimed at curbing Gerrymandering in the United States, gerrymandering and ensuring Voter suppression in the United States, voting access.


Overview


February 2016: early primaries

Despite being heavily favored in polls issued weeks earlier, Clinton was only able to defeat Sanders in the first-in-the-nation Iowa caucuses, Iowa Caucus by the closest margin in the history of the contest: 49.8% to 49.6% (Clinton collected 700.47 state delegate equivalents to Sanders' 696.92, a difference of one-quarter of a percentage point). This led to speculation that she won due to six coin-toss tiebreakers all resulting in her favor. However, the only challenge to the caucus' results was in a single precinct, which gave Clinton a fifth delegate. The victory, which was projected to award her 23 pledged national convention delegates (two more than Sanders), made Clinton the first woman to win the Caucus and marked a clear difference from 2008, where she finished in third place behind Obama and John Edwards. Martin O'Malley suspended his campaign after a disappointing third-place finish with only 0.5% of the state delegate equivalents awarded, leaving Clinton and Sanders the only two major candidates in the race. A week later, Sanders won the New Hampshire Democratic primary, 2016, New Hampshire primary, receiving 60.4% of the popular vote to Clinton's 38%, putting him ahead of Clinton in the overall pledged delegate count by four, and making him the first Jewish candidate of a major party to win a primary. Hillary Clinton's loss in New Hampshire was a regression United States presidential election in New Hampshire, 2008, from 2008, when she defeated Obama, Edwards, and a handful of other candidates including
Joe Biden Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. ( ; born November 20, 1942) is an American politician who is the 46th and current president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of th ...

Joe Biden
with 39% of the popular vote. Sanders' narrow loss in Iowa and victory in New Hampshire generated speculation about a possible loss for Clinton in
Nevada Nevada (, ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...
, the next state to hold its caucuses on February 20. For her part, Clinton, who had won the state eight years prior in the 2008 Nevada Democratic caucuses, hoped that a victory would allay concerns about a possible repetition of 2008 when she ultimately lost to Obama despite entering the primary season as the favorite for the nomination. Ultimately, Clinton emerged victorious with 52.6% of the county delegates, a margin of victory similar to her performance in 2008. Sanders, who attained 47.3% of the vote, was projected to receive five fewer pledged delegates than Clinton and the result was not promising for the following weekend's primary in South Carolina, more demographically favorable to Clinton than the prior contests. On February 27, Clinton won the South Carolina Democratic primary, 2016, South Carolina primary with 73.5% of the vote, receiving a larger percentage of the African American vote than Barack Obama had United States presidential election in South Carolina, 2008, eight years earlier – 90% to Obama's 80%.


March 1, 2016: Super Tuesday

The 2016 primary schedule was significantly different from that of 2008. During Democratic Party presidential primaries, 2008#Super Tuesday, that election cycle, many states moved their primaries or caucuses to earlier in the calendar to have greater influence over the race. In 2008, February 5 was the earliest date allowed by the Democratic National Committee, leading 23 states and territories to move their elections to that date, the biggest Super Tuesday to ever take place. For 2016, the calendar was more disparate than it was in 2008, with several groups of states voting on different dates, the most important being March 1, March 15, April 26 and June 7. The day with the most contests was March 1, 2016, in which primaries or caucuses were held in 11 states (including six in the Southern United States) and American Samoa. A total of 865 pledged delegates were at stake. Clinton secured victories in all of the southern contests except Oklahoma Democratic primary, 2016, Oklahoma. Her biggest victory of the day came in Alabama Democratic primary, 2016, Alabama, where she won 77.8% of the vote against Sanders' 19.2%, although her most significant delegate prize came from Texas, where she received 65.2% of the vote with strong support from non-white as well as white voters. Collectively, the southern states gave Clinton a net gain of 165 pledged delegates. Apart from the South, Clinton also narrowly defeated Sanders in Massachusetts Democratic primary, 2016, Massachusetts, as well as winning in the territory of American Samoa. Sanders scored comfortable wins in the Minnesota Democratic caucuses, 2016, Minnesota and Colorado Democratic caucuses, 2016, Colorado caucuses and Oklahoma Democratic primary, 2016, Oklahoma primary and won an 86.1%–13.6% landslide in his home state of Vermont Democratic primary, 2016, Vermont - one of only two times either of the two main candidates missed the 15% threshold in a state or territory, with the U.S. Virgin Islands, where Clinton received over 87% of the vote, being the other one. Although the results overall were unfavorable for Sanders, his four wins and narrow loss allowed him to remain in the race in anticipation of more favorable territory in New England, the Great Plains, Mountain States and the Pacific Northwest. At the end of the day, Clinton collected 518 pledged delegates to Sanders' 347, taking her lead to 609–412, a difference of 197 pledged delegates.


Mid-March contests

Sanders found more hospitable ground on the weekend of March 5, 2016, winning caucuses in Kansas Democratic caucuses, 2016, Kansas, Maine Democratic caucuses, 2016, Maine and Nebraska Democratic caucuses, 2016, Nebraska by significant margins. Clinton answered with an even larger win in Louisiana Democratic primary, 2016, Louisiana's primary, limiting Sanders' net gain for the weekend to only four delegates. Clinton would also win the Northern Mariana Islands Democratic caucus, 2016, Northern Mariana Islands caucus, held the following weekend on March 12. Two states had held nominating contests on March 8 – Michigan and Mississippi – with Clinton heavily favored to win both. Mississippi Democratic primary, 2016, Mississippi went for Clinton, as expected, by a landslide margin. The Mississippi primary was the highest vote share Clinton won in any state. However, Sanders stunned by scoring a narrow win in Michigan Democratic primary, 2016, Michigan. Analysts floated a number of theories to explain the failure of the Michigan polling, with most centering on pollsters' erroneous assumptions about the composition of the electorate stemming from the Michigan Democratic primary, 2008, 2008 primary in Michigan not having been contested due to an impasse between the Michigan Democratic Party, state party and Democratic National Committee, DNC. Although Clinton expanded her delegate lead, some journalists suggested Sanders' upset might presage her defeat in other delegate-rich Midwestern states, such as Missouri Democratic primary, 2016, Missouri, Ohio Democratic primary, 2016, Ohio and Illinois Democratic primary, 2016, Illinois, who voted a week later on March 15, along with North Carolina Democratic primary, 2016, North Carolina and
Florida Florida is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States. Florida is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia (U.S. state), Geor ...
, where Clinton was more clearly favored. Clinton was able to sweep all five primaries, extending her pledged delegate lead by around 100 delegates, although Sanders was able to hold Clinton to narrow margins in her birth-state of Illinois and especially Missouri, where Clinton won by a mere 0.2 points. Missouri state law allowed for a possible recount had any of the candidates requested it; however, Sanders forwent the opportunity on the basis that it would not significantly affect the delegate allocation. By the end of the evening, Clinton had expanded her pledged delegate lead to more than 320, several times larger than her greatest deficit in the Democratic Party presidential primaries, 2008, 2008 primary.


Late March and early April

Following the March 15 primaries, the race moved to a series of contests more favorable for Sanders. On March 21, the results of the Democrats Abroad primary, 2016, Democrats Abroad primary (held March 1–8) were announced. Sanders was victorious and picked up nine delegates to Clinton's four, closing his delegate deficit by five. Arizona, Idaho and Utah held primaries on March 22, dubbed "Western Tuesday" by media. Despite continued efforts by Sanders to close the gap in Arizona after his surprise win in Michigan, Clinton won the primary with 56.3% of the vote. However, Clinton lost both Idaho and Utah by roughly 60 points, allowing Sanders to close his delegate deficit by 25. The next states to vote were Alaska Democratic caucuses, 2016, Alaska, Hawaii Democratic caucuses, 2016, Hawaii and Washington (state) Democratic caucuses, 2016, Washington on March 26, 2016. All three states were considered as favorable for Sanders, and most political analysts expected him to win them all, given the demographics and Sanders' strong performance in previous caucuses. Sanders finished the day with a net gain of roughly 66 delegates over Clinton. His largest win was in Alaska, where he defeated Clinton with 82% of the vote, although the majority of his delegate gain came from the considerably more populous state of Washington (state), Washington, which he won by a 46% margin, outperforming then-Senator Obama's 2008 results, when he defeated Clinton 68%–31%. The Clinton and Sanders campaigns reached an agreement on April 4 for a ninth debate to take place on April 14 (five days before the New York Democratic primary, 2016, New York primary) in Brooklyn, New York, which would air on CNN and NY1. On April 5, Sanders won the Wisconsin Democratic primary, 2016, Wisconsin primary by 13 and 1/2 percentage points, closing his delegate deficit by 10 more. The Wyoming Democratic caucuses, 2016, Wyoming caucuses were held on April 9, which Sanders won with 55.7% of the state convention delegates choosing him; however, Clinton had a stronger showing than expected, given her demographic disadvantage and that she did not campaign personally in the state. Each candidate was estimated to have earned 7 of Wyoming's 14 pledged delegates.


Late April and May

On April 19, Clinton won
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by 16 points. While Sanders performed well in Upstate New York and with younger voters, Clinton performed well among all other age groups and non-whites, and she won a majority in all boroughs of New York City. Five Northeastern United States, Northeastern states held primaries a week later on April 26. The day was dubbed the "Super Tuesday III" or the "Acela Primary" after Amtrak's ''Acela Express'' train service that connects these states. Clinton won in Delaware Democratic primary, 2016, Delaware, Maryland Democratic primary, 2016, Maryland, Pennsylvania Democratic primary, 2016, Pennsylvania and Connecticut Democratic primary, 2016, Connecticut while Sanders won the Rhode Island Democratic primary, 2016, Rhode Island primary. On May 3, Sanders pulled off a surprise victory in the Indiana Democratic primary, 2016, Indiana primary, winning over Clinton by a five-point margin despite trailing in all the state's polls. Clinton then won the Guam Democratic caucus, 2016, Guam caucus on May 7 and, on May 10, she won the 2016 Nebraska Democratic caucuses, non-binding Nebraska primary while Sanders won in West Virginia Democratic primary, 2016, West Virginia. Clinton narrowly won Kentucky Democratic primary, 2016, Kentucky on May 17 by half a percentage point and gained one delegate, after heavily campaigning in the state. On the same day, Sanders won his second closed primary in Oregon Democratic primary, 2016, Oregon where he gained nine delegates, a net gain of eight on the day. Clinton then went on to win the United States presidential election in Washington (state), 2016, non-binding Washington primary on May 24.


June contests

June contained the final contests of the Democratic primaries, and both Sanders and Clinton invested heavily into winning the California Democratic primary, 2016, California primary. Clinton led the polls in California but some predicted a narrow race. On June 4 and 5, Clinton won two decisive victories in the United States Virgin Islands Democratic caucuses, 2016, Virgin Islands caucus and Puerto Rico Democratic caucuses, 2016, Puerto Rico primary. On June 6, both the Associated Press and NBC News reported that Clinton had sufficient support from pledged and unpledged delegates to become the presumptive Democratic nominee. Clinton's campaign seemed reluctant to accept the mantle of "presumptive nominee" before all the voting was concluded, while Sanders' campaign stated it would continue to run and accused the media of a "rush to judgement." Six states held their primaries on June 7. Clinton won in
California California is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...
, New Jersey Democratic primary, 2016, New Jersey, New Mexico Democratic primary, 2016, New Mexico and South Dakota Democratic primary, 2016, South Dakota. Sanders won Montana Democratic primary, 2016, Montana and North Dakota Democratic caucuses, 2016, North Dakota, the latter being the only caucus contest held on that day. Clinton finally declared victory on the evening of June 7, as the results ensured that she had won a majority of the pledged delegates and the popular vote. Sanders stated he would continue to run for the Democratic Party's nomination in the final primary in the United States presidential election in the District of Columbia, 2016, District of Columbia on June 14, which Clinton won. Both campaigns met at a downtown Washington D.C. hotel after the primary. The Sanders campaign said that they would release a video statement on June 16 to clarify the future of Sanders' campaign; the video announced that Sanders looked forward to help Clinton defeat Trump. On July 12, 2016, Sanders endorsed Clinton in
Portsmouth, New Hampshire Portsmouth is a city in Rockingham County, New Hampshire, Rockingham County, New Hampshire, United States. As of the 2020 United States census, 2020 census it had a population of 21,956. A historic seaport and popular summer tourist destin ...

Portsmouth, New Hampshire
.


July 2016: National Convention and email leaks


Email leaks

On July 22, 2016,
WikiLeaks WikiLeaks () is an international non-profit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collective, public o ...
released online tens of thousands of messages leaked from the e-mail accounts of seven key DNC staff. Some e-mails showed two DNC staffers discussing the possibility that Sanders' possible atheism might harm him in a general election with religious voters. Others showed a few staffers had expressed personal preferences that Clinton should become the nominee, suggesting that the party's leadership had worked to undermine Bernie Sanders' presidential campaign. Then-DNC chair
Debbie Wasserman Schultz Deborah Wasserman Schultz (née Wasserman; born September 27, 1966) is an American politician serving as the United States House of Representatives, U.S. representative from , first elected to Congress in United States House of Representatives e ...
called the accusations lies. The furor raised over this matter escalated to Wasserman Schultz's resignation ahead of the convention, and that of Marshals, Dacey, and Communications Director Luis Miranda afterwards. Following Wasserman Schultz's resignation, then-DNC Vice Chair Donna Brazile took over as interim DNC chairwoman for the convention and remained so until February 2017. In November 2017, Brazile said in her book and related interviews that the Clinton campaign and the DNC had colluded 'unethically' by giving the Clinton campaign control over the DNC's personnel and press releases before the primary in return for funding to eliminate the DNC's remaining debt from 2012 campaign, in addition to using the DNC and state committees to funnel campaign-limitation-exceeding donations to her campaign. Internal memos later surfaced, claiming that these measures were not meant to affect the nominating process despite their timing. At the end of June 2016, it was claimed that "more money [from the Hillary Victory Fund] will be moved to the state parties in the coming months." Brazile later clarified that she claimed the process was 'unethical', but 'not a criminal act'. DNC officials including chairman Tom Perez pointed out that the same joint-fundraising agreement had been offered to Sanders and applied only to the general election; however, the Clinton campaign also had a second agreement that granted it additional, unusual oversight over hiring and policy, even though the text of the agreement insisted on the DNC's impartiality and focus on the general election. Brazile later denied that the primary was rigged, because "no votes were overturned," but described herself as "very upset" about a DNC–Clinton fundraising agreement. ''
The Washington Post ''The Washington Post'' (also known as the ''Post'' and, informally, ''WaPo'') is an American daily newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical publication containing written News, information about current events and is ...

The Washington Post
'' characterized Brazile's eventual argument as: "Clinton exerted too much power but did win the nomination fairly."


=Russian involvement

= After the general election, the U.S. intelligence community and the Special Counsel investigation (2017–2019), Special Counsel investigation assessed that the leaks were part of a larger Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections, interference campaign by the Russian government to cause political instability in the United States and to damage the Hillary Clinton campaign by bolstering the candidacies of Donald Trump, Bernie Sanders, and Jill Stein. The Russian government is alleged to have promoted Sanders beginning in 2015 as a way to weaken or defeat Clinton, who Russian President Vladimir Putin opposed. The influence campaign by the Internet Research Agency targeted Sanders voters through social media and encouraged them to vote for a third party candidate or abstain from voting. Sanders denounced these efforts and urged his supporters to support Clinton in the general election. When news of the DNC leak first surfaced in June 2016, the Russian government denied allegations of hacking. WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange also stated that the Russian government was not source of the leak. In July 2018, the special counsel indicted 12 Russian intelligence officers for hacking and leaking the emails.


National Convention

The
2016 Democratic National Convention The 2016 Democratic National Convention was a presidential nominating convention Convention may refer to: * Convention (norm), a custom or tradition, a standard of presentation or conduct ** Treaty, an agreement in international law * Conv ...
was held from July 25–28 at the Wells Fargo Center (Philadelphia), Wells Fargo Center in Philadelphia, with some events at the Pennsylvania Convention Center. The delegates selected the Democratic presidential and vice-presidential nominees and wrote the party platform. A simple majority of 2,383 delegates was needed to win the presidential nomination. (official source tracking active campaigns + adding delegates won on April 26, pending source update) While most of the delegates were bound on the first ballot according to the results of the primaries, a progressively larger number of pledged delegates would have become unbound if the nomination required more than one ballot. Clinton was nominated on the first ballot by acclamation, although all states were allowed to announce how they would have voted under a typical roll call vote. On July 12, 2016, the Vermont delegates had supported Clinton in Sanders' request; asking for party unity, he dropped out on July 26, 2016, and announced he would return to the Senate as an Independent politician, independent.


Graphical summary of polling


Campaign finance

This is an overview of the money used in the campaign as it is reported to Federal Election Commission (FEC) and released on April 27, 2016. Outside groups are independent expenditure only committees—also called Political action committee, PACs and SuperPACs. Several such groups normally support each candidate, but the numbers in the table are a total of all of them. This means that a group of committees can be shown as Insolvency, technically insolvent (shown in red) even though it is not the case of all of them. The Campaign Committee's debt is shown in red if the campaign is technically insolvent. The source of all the numbers is Center for Responsive Politics. Some spending totals are not available, due to withdrawals before the FEC deadline.


Process

The Democratic Party presidential primaries and caucuses are indirect elections in which voters elect delegates to the
2016 Democratic National Convention The 2016 Democratic National Convention was a presidential nominating convention Convention may refer to: * Convention (norm), a custom or tradition, a standard of presentation or conduct ** Treaty, an agreement in international law * Conv ...
; these delegates in turn directly elect the Democratic Party's presidential nominee. In some states, the party may disregard voters' selection of delegates or selected delegates may vote for any candidate at the state or national convention (''non-binding'' primary or caucus). In other states, state laws and party rules require the party to select delegates according to votes, and delegates must vote for a particular candidate (''binding'' primary or caucus). There are 4,051 pledged delegates and 714 superdelegates in the 2016 cycle. Under the party's delegate selection rules, the number of pledged delegates allocated to each of the 50 U.S. states and Washington, D.C. is determined using a formula based on three main factors: # The proportion of votes each state gave to the Democratic candidate in the last three presidential elections (2004, 2008, and 2012) # The number of electoral votes each state has in the United States Electoral College. # The stage of the primary season when they held their contest. States and territories that held their contests later are given bonus seats. A candidate must win 2,383 delegates at the national convention, in order to win the 2016 Democratic presidential nomination. For the U.S. territories of Puerto Rico Democratic caucus, 2016, Puerto Rico, American Samoa Democratic caucus, 2016, American Samoa, Guam Democratic caucus, 2016, Guam, the United States Virgin Islands Democratic caucuses, 2016, U.S. Virgin Islands and for Democrats Abroad primary, 2016, Democrats Abroad, fixed numbers of pledged delegates are allocated. All states and territories then must have used a proportional representation system, where their pledged delegates were awarded proportionally to the election results. A candidate must receive at least 15% of the popular vote to win pledged delegates in a state. The current 714 unpledged superdelegates (or "soft" delegates) included members of the United States House of Representatives and United States Senate, Senate, state and territorial List of current United States Governors, governors, members of the Democratic National Committee, and other party leaders. Because of possible deaths, resignations, or the results of intervening or special elections, the final number of these superdelegates may be reduced before the convention. The Democratic National Committee also imposed rules for states that wished to hold early contests in 2016. No state was be permitted to hold a primary or caucus in January and only Iowa, New Hampshire, South Carolina, and Nevada were entitled to February contests. Any state that violated these rules were penalized half its pledged delegates and all its superdelegates to the 2016 convention.


Schedule and results

The following are the results of candidates that won at least one state. These candidates were on the ballots for every state, territory and federal district contest. The results of caucuses did not always have attached preference polls and attendance was extremely limited. The unpledged delegate count did not always reflect the latest declared preferences.


Superdelegate endorsements

Superdelegates are elected officials and members of the Democratic National Committee who vote at the
Democratic National Convention The Democratic National Convention (DNC) is a series of U.S. presidential nominating convention, presidential nominating conventions held every four years since 1832 by the United States Democratic Party. They have been administered by the Democr ...
for their preferred candidate. Also known as ''unpledged delegates,'' they comprise 15% of the convention (712 votes out of 4,763) and they may change their preference at any time. The table below reflects current public endorsements of candidates by superdelegates, as detailed and sourced in the #Schedule and results, full list above. Because commonly referenced estimates of superdelegate support, including those by CNN and the Associated Press, AP, do not identify individual delegates as supporting a given candidate, their published tallies may differ from the totals computed here.


Maps

File:U.S. States by Vote Distribution, 2016 (Democratic Party).svg, Breakdown of the results in vote distribution, by state File:Democratic Party presidential primaries results by county, 2016.svg, Results in pledged delegates, by county File:Democratic Party presidential primaries results, 2016 by margin of victory.svg, Results in popular vote margin, by state File:Democratic Party presidential primary results by county by popular vote margin 2.svg, Results in popular vote margin, by county File:Delegation Vote, 2016 (Democratic Party, only pledged delegates).svg, Breakdown of the results in pledged delegates, by state File:Delegation Vote ,2016 (Democratic Party, total delegates).svg, Breakdown of the results in total delegate count, by state File:Democratic Party presidential primaries pledged delegates results, 2016.svg, Results in pledged delegates, by state


See also

Related Democratic Party articles * Results of the 2016 Democratic Party presidential primaries * Nationwide opinion polling for the Democratic Party 2016 presidential primaries * Statewide opinion polling for the 2016 Democratic Party presidential primaries * 2016 Democratic Party presidential candidates * 2016 Democratic Party presidential debates and forums * List of Democratic Party presidential primaries Presidential primaries * 2016 Constitution Party presidential primaries * 2016 Green Party presidential primaries * 2016 Libertarian Party presidential primaries * 2016 Republican Party presidential primaries National conventions * Constitution Party National Convention#2016 Convention, 2016 Constitution Party National Convention *
2016 Democratic National Convention The 2016 Democratic National Convention was a presidential nominating convention Convention may refer to: * Convention (norm), a custom or tradition, a standard of presentation or conduct ** Treaty, an agreement in international law * Conv ...
* 2016 Green National Convention * 2016 Libertarian National Convention * 2016 Republican National Convention


Notes


References


External links


Democratic Convention Watch

Green papers for 2016 primaries, caucuses, and conventions


* [http://www.dailykos.com/story/2016/3/4/1496004/-Updated-Snapshot-Hillary-Bernie One-page summary on Daily Kos of candidate differences only (many links to sources)] {{DEFAULTSORT:Democratic Party presidential primaries, 2016 2016 Democratic Party (United States) presidential campaigns, 2016 United States Democratic presidential primaries, 2016 in women's history