The DEMOCRATIC-REPUBLICAN PARTY was an American political party
The term "Democratic-Republican" is used especially by modern political scientists for the first "REPUBLICAN PARTY" (as opposed to the modern Republican Party founded in 1854). It is also known as the JEFFERSONIAN REPUBLICANS. Historians typically use the title "Republican Party".
An "Anti-Administration " faction met secretly in the national
The party was strongest in the South and weakest in the Northeast. It demanded states\' rights as expressed by the "Principles of 1798" articulated in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions that would allow states to nullify a federal law. Above all, the party stood for the primacy of the yeoman farmers . Republicans were deeply committed to the principles of republicanism , which they feared were threatened by the supposed monarchical tendencies of the Hamiltonian Federalists. The party came to power in 1801 with the election of Jefferson in the 1800 presidential election . The Federalists—too elitist to appeal to most people—faded away, and totally collapsed after 1815. The Republicans dominated the First Party System, despite internal divisions, until partisanship itself withered away during the Era of Good Feelings after 1816.
The party selected its presidential candidates in a caucus of members
of Congress. They included
* 1 Founding * 2 Presidential elections of 1792 and 1796 * 3 Strength in Congress over time * 4 Organizational strategy
* 5 Revolution of 1800
* 5.1 National debt
* 6 Monroe and Adams, 1816–1828 * 7 Republican Party name * 8 Legacy * 9 Presidents * 10 Candidates * 11 See also * 12 References
* 13 Bibliography
* 13.1 Biographies * 13.2 State studies * 13.3 Newspapers * 13.4 Primary sources
* 14 External links
PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS OF 1792 AND 1796
The elections of 1792 were the first ones to be contested on anything
resembling a partisan basis. In most states the congressional
elections were recognized, as Jefferson strategist
John Beckley put
it, as a "struggle between the Treasury department and the republican
interest". In New York, the candidates for governor were
In the 1796 election , the party made its first bid for the presidency with Jefferson as its presidential candidate and Aaron Burr as its vice presidential candidate. Jefferson came in second in the electoral college (at the time, its balloting could not distinguish between president and vice president) and became vice president. He would become a consistent and strong opponent of the policies of the John Adams administration. Jefferson and Madison were deeply upset by the unconstitutionality of the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798; they secretly wrote the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions , which called on state legislatures to nullify unconstitutional laws. The other states, however, did not follow suit and several rejected the notion that states could nullify federal law. The Republican critique of federalism became wrapped in the slogan of "Principles of 1798", which became the hallmark of the party. The most important of these principles were states\' rights , opposition to a strong national government, distrust of the federal courts, and opposition to the navy and the national bank. The party saw itself as a champion of republicanism and denounced the Federalists as supporters of monarchy and aristocracy.
The party coalesced around Jefferson, who diligently maintained extensive correspondence with like-minded Republican leaders throughout the country. Washington frequently decried the growing sense of "party" emerging from the internal battles among Jefferson, Madison, Hamilton, Adams and others in his administration. As warfare in Europe increased, the two factions increasingly made foreign policy the central political issue of the day. The Republicans wanted to maintain the 1777 alliance with France, which had overthrown the monarchy and aristocracy and become a republic. Even though Britain was by far America's leading trading partner, Republicans feared that increased trade would undermine republicanism. The Republicans distrusted Hamilton's national bank and rejected his premise that a national debt was good for the country; Republicans said they were both forms of corruption. They strongly distrusted the elitism of Hamilton's circle, denouncing it as "aristocratic"; and they called for states' rights lest the Federalists centralize ever more power in the national governments.
The intense debate over the
STRENGTH IN CONGRESS OVER TIME
Historians have used statistical techniques to estimate the party breakdown in Congress. Many Congressmen were hard to classify in the first few years, but after 1796 there was less uncertainty.
Federalist and Democratic-Republican strength in Congress by election year
HOUSE 1788 1790 1792 1794 1796 1798 1800 1802 1804 1806
FEDERALIST 37 39 51 47 57 60 38 39 25 24
REPUBLICAN 28 30 54 59 49 46 65 103 116 118
Percentage Republican 43% 43% 51% 56% 46% 43% 63% 73% 82% 83%
SENATE 1788 1790 1792 1794 1796 1798 1800 1802 1804 1806
FEDERALIST 18 16 16 21 22 22 15 9 7 6
REPUBLICAN 8 13 14 11 10 10 17 25 17 28
Percentage Republican 31% 45% 47% 34% 31% 31% 53% 74% 71% 82%
The affiliation of many Congressmen in the earliest years is an
assignment by later historians; these were slowly coalescing groups
with initially considerable independent thinking and voting;
Cunningham noted that only about a quarter of the House of
Representatives, up till 1794, voted with Madison as much as
two-thirds of the time, and another quarter against him two-thirds of
the time, leaving almost half as fairly independent. Albert Gallatin
recalled only two caucuses on legislative policy between 1795 and
1801, one over appropriations for Jay's Treaty, the other over the
The new party invented some of the campaign and organizational
techniques which were later adopted by the Federalists and became
standard American practice. It was especially effective in building a
network of newspapers in major cities to broadcast its statements and
editorialize its policies.
As one historian explained, "It was the good fortune of the Republicans to have within their ranks a number of highly gifted political manipulators and propagandists. Some of them had the ability... to not only see and analyze the problem at hand but to present it in a succinct fashion; in short, to fabricate the apt phrase, to coin the compelling slogan and appeal to the electorate on any given issue in language it could understand." Outstanding propagandists included editor William Duane (1760–1835), and party leaders Albert Gallatin , Thomas Cooper and Jefferson himself.
Just as important was effective party organization of the sort that
John J. Beckley pioneered. In 1796, he managed the Jefferson campaign
in Pennsylvania, blanketing the state with agents who passed out
30,000 hand-written tickets, naming all 15 electors (printed tickets
were not allowed). He told one agent, "In a few days a select
republican friend from the City will call upon you with a parcel of
tickets to be distributed in your County. Any assistance and advice
you can furnish him with, as to suitable districts they were stunned
when party leaders started a
Second Bank of the United States
The first official Republican Congressional Caucus meeting took place
at Marache's boarding house on May 11, 1800, in Philadelphia. The
January 26, 1799 letter
In the Senate chamber on February 25, 1804, a "Convention of
Republican members of both houses of Congress" met. Senator Stephen
Bradley presided, a Committee on Presidential Electors was formed and
it was resolved that
The party held a convention by the same name on January 23, 1808, again in the Senate chamber at 6:00 pm on a Saturday. Senator Stephen Bradley, who was the President pro tempore of the Senate, again served as President of the convention with Representative Richard Johnson as the Secretary. A Committee on Correspondence was formed, James Madison was nominated for President, and George Clinton was re-nominated for Vice President.
Legislative issues were handled by the Committee of the Whole, and the elected Speaker of the House of Representatives and floor leaders, who at that time were the Chairman for the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives and Chairman for the Committee on Finance of the Senate.
The state legislatures often instructed Members of Congress how to vote on specific issues. More exactly, they "instructed" the Senators (who were elected by the legislatures), and "requested" the Representatives (who were elected by the people.) On rare occasions a Senator resigned rather than follow instructions.
The opposition Federalist Party, suffering from a lack of leadership
after the death of Hamilton and the retirement of
John Adams , quickly
declined; it revived briefly in opposition to the
War of 1812
Albert Gallatin focused on the danger that the public
debt, unless it was paid off, would be a threat to republican values.
They were appalled that Hamilton was increasing the national debt and
using it to solidify his Federalist base. Gallatin was the Republican
Party's chief expert on fiscal issues and as Treasury Secretary under
Jefferson and Madison worked hard to lower taxes and lower the debt,
while at the same time paying cash for the
His own fears of personal dependency and his small shopkeeper's sense of integrity, both reinforced by a strain of radical republican thought that originated in England a century earlier, convinced him that public debts were a nursery of multiple public evils—corruption, legislative impotence, executive tyranny, social inequality, financial speculation, and personal indolence. Not only was it necessary to extinguish the existing debt as rapidly as possible, he argued, but Congress would have to ensure against the accumulation of future debts by more diligently supervising government expenditures.
Fear of a large debt is a major legacy of the party. Andrew Jackson believed the national debt was a "national curse" and he took special pride in paying off the entire national debt in 1835. Politicians ever since have used the issue of a high national debt to denounce the other party for profligacy and a threat to fiscal soundness and the nation's future.
MONROE AND ADAMS, 1816–1828
In rapidly expanding western states, the Federalists had few
supporters. Every state had a distinct political geography that shaped
party membership. In Pennsylvania, the Republicans were weakest around
In the early years of the party, the key central organization grew out of caucuses of Congressional leaders in Washington. However, the key battles to choose electors occurred in the states, not in the caucus. In many cases, legislatures still chose electors; in others, the election of electors was heavily influenced by local parties that were heavily controlled by relatively small groups of officials. Without a significant Federalist opposition, the need for party unity was greatly diminished and the party's organization faded away.
James Monroe ran under the party's banner in the 1820 election and
built support by consensus. Monroe faced no serious rival and was
nearly unanimously elected by the electoral college. The party's
historic domination by the Virginian delegation faded as New York and
Pennsylvania became more important. In the 1824 election , most of the
party in Congress boycotted the caucus; only a small rump group backed
William Crawford . The Crawford faction included most "Old
Republicans"—those who remained committed to states' rights and the
Principles of 1798 and were distrustful of the nationalizing program
An opinion prevails that there is no longer any distinction, that the republicans the Republicans, if he is preferred.
Presidential electors were now all chosen by direct election, except
in South Carolina, where the state legislatures chose them. White
manhood suffrage was the norm throughout the West and in most of the
East as well. The voters thus were much more powerful, and to win
their votes required complex party organization. Under the leadership
Martin Van Buren , a firm believer in political organization, the
Jacksonians built strong state and local organizations throughout the
country. The Old Republicans, or "Radicals", mostly supported Jackson
and joined with supporters of incumbent Vice President Calhoun in an
alliance. President Adams was defeated by
REPUBLICAN PARTY NAME
Political parties were new in the United States, and people were not accustomed to having formal names for them. There was no single, official name for the party. Party members generally called themselves Republicans and voted for what they called the Republican Party, republican ticket, or republican interest. Jefferson and Madison often used the terms "republican" and "Republican party" in their letters. The 1804 Convention of Republican members of Congress that renominated Jefferson described itself as a "regular republican caucus". The name Democratic-Republican was used by contemporaries only occasionally.
The term "republican" was in widespread usage from the 1770s to describe the type of government the break-away colonies wanted to form: a republic of three separate branches of government derived from some principles and structure from ancient republics; especially the emphasis on civic duty and the opposition to corruption, elitism, aristocracy and monarchy. The word is used in the U.S. Constitution.
A split appeared in the then Republican party during the 1824
elections (at the end of the Monroe administration ). When the
election was thrown to the House of Representatives,
The Adams/Clay alliance became the basis of the National Republican
Party , a rival to the Jackson's Democracy and successor of the
Democratic-Republican Party. This party favored a higher tariff in
order to protect U.S. manufacturers, as well as public works,
especially roads. Many former members of the defunct Federalist Party,
The modern Republican Party was formed in 1854 to oppose the expansion of slavery. Many former Whig party leaders (such as Abraham Lincoln – modern Republican Party supporters still sometimes refer to themselves as "the party of Lincoln") and former Free Soil Party leaders joined the newly formed anti-slavery party. The party sought to combine Jefferson's ideals of liberty and equality with Clay's program of using an active government to modernize the economy.
Four United States Presidents were elected following a process that selected them as a national nominee of the Democratic-Republican party:
ELECTION YEAR RESULT NOMINEES
PRESIDENT VICE PRESIDENT
1792 lost None George Clinton
1804 won George Clinton
1812 won Elbridge Gerry
1824 N/A(c) None None
* (a) Jefferson did not win the presidency, and Burr did not win the
vice presidency. However, under the pre-12th Amendment election rules,
Jefferson won the vice presidency due to dissension among Federalist
* (b) Jefferson and Burr received the same number of electoral
votes. Jefferson was subsequently chosen as president by the House of
William H. Crawford and
Albert Gallatin were nominated for
president and vice-president by a group of 66 Congressmen that called
itself the "Democratic members of Congress". Gallatin later withdrew
from the contest.
* ^ "Anti-Federalist vs. Federalist". Diffen. * ^ "Democratic-Republican Party". The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. Retrieved December 7, 2014. * ^ Susan Dunn (2004). Jefferson\'s Second Revolution: The Election of 1800 and the Triumph of Republicanism. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 279. ISBN 0618131647 . * ^ Paul Kleppner, et. al. The Evolution of American Electoral Systems (1981), ch 3
* ^ For examples of original quotes and documents from various
states, see Cunningham, Noble E., Jeffersonian Republicans: The
Formation of Party Organization: 1789–1801 (1957), pp. 48, 63–66,
97, 99, 103, 110, 111, 112, 144, 151, 153, 156, 157, 161, 163, 188,
196, 201, 204, 213, 218 and 234.
See also "Address of the Republican committee of the County of
Gloucester, New-Jersey", Gloucester County, December 15, 1800
Jefferson used the term "republican party" in a letter to Washington
in May 1792 to refer to those in Congress who were his allies and who
supported the existing republican constitution. "
* Adams, Henry , History of the United States during the