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Tetrahydrocannabinol, abbreviated THC, is one of at least 113 cannabinoids identified in cannabis. THC is the principal psychoactive constituent of cannabis. With chemical name, (−)-trans-Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol, the term THC also refers to cannabinoid isomers. Dronabinol is a synthetic form of THC approved by the FDA as an appetite stimulant for people with AIDS and antiemetic for people receiving chemotherapy.[9] The pharmaceutical formulation dronabinol is an oily resin provided in capsules available by prescription in the US, Canada, Germany, and New Zealand. Like most pharmacologically-active secondary metabolites of plants, THC is a lipid found in cannabis,[10] assumed to be involved in the plant's self-defense, putatively against insect predation, ultraviolet light, and environmental stress.[11][12][13] THC, along with its double bond isomers and their stereoisomers, is one of only three cannabinoids scheduled by the UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances (the other two are dimethylheptylpyran and parahexyl). It was listed under Schedule I in 1971, but reclassified to Schedule II in 1991 following a recommendation from the WHO. Based on subsequent studies, the WHO has recommended the reclassification to the less-stringent Schedule III.[14] Cannabis as a plant is scheduled by the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs (Schedule I and IV). It is specifically still listed under Schedule I by US federal law[15] under the Controlled Substances Act passed by the US Congress in 1970.

Contents

1 Medical uses 2 Pharmacology

2.1 Mechanism of action 2.2 Pharmacokinetics

3 Physical and chemical properties

3.1 Discovery and structure identification 3.2 Solubility 3.3 Total Synthesis 3.4 Biosynthesis 3.5 Detection in body fluids

4 History 5 Society and culture

5.1 Comparisons with medical cannabis

6 Research

6.1 Multiple sclerosis symptoms 6.2 Neurodegenerative disorders 6.3 Other neurological disorders

7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Medical uses[edit] Further information: Dronabinol Not to be confused with Droperidol. THC is an active ingredient in nabiximols, a specific extract of Cannabis that was approved as a botanical drug in the United Kingdom in 2010 as a mouth spray for people with multiple sclerosis to alleviate neuropathic pain, spasticity, overactive bladder, and other symptoms.[16][17] Pharmacology[edit] See also: Effects of cannabis, Long-term effects of cannabis, and Cannabis in pregnancy Mechanism of action[edit] For a review of the mechanisms behind endocannabinoid synaptic transmission, see Endocannabinoid system. The actions of THC result from its partial agonist activity at the cannabinoid receptor CB1 (Ki=10nM[18]), located mainly in the central nervous system, and the CB2 receptor (Ki=24nM[18]), mainly expressed in cells of the immune system.[19] The psychoactive effects of THC are primarily mediated by the activation of cannabinoid receptors, which result in a decrease in the concentration of the second messenger molecule cAMP through inhibition of adenylate cyclase.[20] The presence of these specialized cannabinoid receptors in the brain led researchers to the discovery of endocannabinoids, such as anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glyceride (2-AG). THC targets receptors in a manner far less selective than endocannabinoid molecules released during retrograde signaling, as the drug has a relatively low cannabinoid receptor efficacy and affinity. In populations of low cannabinoid receptor density, THC may act to antagonize endogenous agonists that possess greater receptor efficacy.[21] THC is a lipophilic molecule[22] and may bind non-specifically to a variety of entities in the brain and body, such as adipose tissue (fat).[23][24] THC, similarly to cannabidiol, albeit less potently, is a positive allosteric modulator of the μ- and δ-opioid receptors.[25] Due to its partial agonistic activity, THC appears to result in greater downregulation of cannabinoid receptors than endocannabinoids, further limiting its efficacy over other cannabinoids. While tolerance may limit the maximal effects of certain drugs, evidence suggests that tolerance develops irregularly for different effects with greater resistance for primary over side-effects, and may actually serve to enhance the drug's therapeutic window.[21] However, this form of tolerance appears to be irregular throughout mouse brain areas. THC, as well as other cannabinoids that contain a phenol group, possesses mild antioxidant activity sufficient to protect neurons against oxidative stress, such as that produced by glutamate-induced excitotoxicity.[19] Pharmacokinetics[edit] THC is metabolized mainly to 11-OH-THC by the body. This metabolite is still psychoactive and is further oxidized to 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THC-COOH). In humans and animals, more than 100 metabolites could be identified, but 11-OH-THC and THC-COOH are the dominating metabolites.[26] Metabolism occurs mainly in the liver by cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4.[27] More than 55% of THC is excreted in the feces and ~20% in the urine. The main metabolite in urine is the ester of glucuronic acid and THC-COOH and free THC-COOH. In the feces, mainly 11-OH-THC was detected.[28] Physical and chemical properties[edit] Discovery and structure identification[edit] In 1940, cannabidiol was isolated and identified from Cannabis sativa,[29] and THC was isolated and described for its structure and synthesis in 1964.[30][31] Solubility[edit] As with many aromatic terpenoids, THC has a very low solubility in water, but good solubility in most organic solvents, specifically lipids and alcohols.[6] Total Synthesis[edit] A total synthesis of the compound was reported in 1965; that procedure called for the intramolecular alkyl lithium attack on a starting carbonyl to form the fused rings, and a tosyl chloride mediated formation of the ether.[32][third-party source needed] Biosynthesis[edit]

Biosynthesis of THCA

In the Cannabis plant, THC occurs mainly as tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA, 2-COOH-THC, THC-COOH). Geranyl pyrophosphate and olivetolic acid react, catalysed by an enzyme to produce cannabigerolic acid,[33] which is cyclized by the enzyme THC acid synthase to give THCA. Over time, or when heated, THCA is decarboxylated, producing THC. The pathway for THCA biosynthesis is similar to that which produces the bitter acid humulone in hops.[34][35] Detection in body fluids[edit] Main article: Cannabis drug testing THC and its 11-OH-THC and THC-COOH metabolites can be detected and quantified in blood, urine, hair, oral fluid or sweat using a combination of immunoassay and chromatographic techniques as part of a drug use testing program or in a forensic investigation.[36][37][38] History[edit] Further information: Removal of cannabis from Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act THC was first isolated in 1964 by Raphael Mechoulam and Yechiel Gaoni at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel.[30][39][40] At its 33rd meeting, in 2003, the World Health Organization Expert Committee on Drug Dependence recommended transferring THC to Schedule IV of the Convention, citing its medical uses and low abuse potential.[41] Society and culture[edit] Comparisons with medical cannabis[edit] Further information: Medical cannabis

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Female cannabis plants contain at least 113 cannabinoids,[42] including cannabidiol (CBD), thought to be the major anticonvulsant that helps people with multiple sclerosis;[43] and cannabichromene (CBC), an anti-inflammatory which may contribute to the pain-killing effect of cannabis.[44] Research[edit] The status of THC as an illegal drug in most countries imposes restrictions on research material supply and funding, such as in the United States where the National Institute on Drug Abuse and Drug Enforcement Agency regulated sources of cannabis for researchers until August 2016 when licenses were provided to growers for supplies of medical marijuana.[45] Although cannabis is legalized for medical uses in half of the United States, no products have been approved for federal commerce by the Food and Drug Administration, a status that limits cultivation, manufacture, distribution, clinical research, and therapeutic applications.[46] In April 2014, the American Academy of Neurology found evidence supporting the effectiveness of the cannabis extracts in treating certain symptoms of multiple sclerosis and pain, but there was insufficient evidence to determine effectiveness for treating several other neurological diseases.[47] A 2015 review confirmed that medical marijuana was effective for treating spasticity and chronic pain, but caused numerous short-lasting adverse events, such as euphoria and dizziness.[48] Multiple sclerosis symptoms[edit]

Spasticity. Based on the results of 3 high quality trials and 5 of lower quality, oral cannabis extract was rated as effective, and THC as probably effective, for improving people's subjective experience of spasticity. Oral cannabis extract and THC both were rated as possibly effective for improving objective measures of spasticity.[47][48] Centrally mediated pain and painful spasms. Based on the results of 4 high quality trials and 4 low quality trials, oral cannabis extract was rated as effective, and THC as probably effective in treating central pain and painful spasms.[47] Bladder dysfunction. Based on a single high quality study, oral cannabis extract and THC were rated as probably ineffective for controlling bladder complaints in multiple sclerosis[47]

Neurodegenerative disorders[edit]

Huntington disease. No reliable conclusions could be drawn regarding the effectiveness of THC or oral cannabis extract in treating the symptoms of Huntington disease as the available trials were too small to reliably detect any difference[47] Parkinson's disease. Based on a single study, oral CBD extract was rated probably ineffective in treating levodopa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease.[47] Alzheimer's disease. A 2011 Cochrane Review found insufficient evidence to conclude whether cannabis products have any utility in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.[49]

Other neurological disorders[edit]

Tourette syndrome. The available data was determined to be insufficient to allow reliable conclusions to be drawn regarding the effectiveness of oral cannabis extract or THC in controlling tics.[47] Cervical dystonia. Insufficient data was available to assess the effectiveness of oral cannabis extract of THC in treating cervical dystonia.[47] Epilepsy. Data was considered insufficient to judge the utility of cannabis products in reducing seizure frequency or severity.[47]

See also[edit]

Cannabis portal Chemistry portal

Cannabinoids

11-Hydroxy-THC, metabolite of THC Anandamide, 2-Arachidonoylglycerol, endogenous cannabinoid agonists Cannabidiol (CBD), an isomer of THC Cannabinol (CBN), a metabolite of THC Dimethylheptylpyran Parahexyl Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid, the biosynthetic precursor for THC HU-210, WIN 55,212-2, JWH-133, synthetic cannabinoid agonists

Medical cannabis Nabilone War on Drugs Effects of cannabis Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome List of investigational analgesics

References[edit]

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External links[edit]

U.S. National Library of Medicine: Drug Information Portal – Tetrahydrocannabinol

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Cannabinoids

Phytocannabinoids

Alkylamides Caryophyllene CBC CBCV CBD CBDV CBG CBGM CBGV CBL CBDL CBN CBV Epigallocatechin gallate Gallocatechol Perrottetinene Serinolamide A THC THC-C4 THCA THCV Yangonin

Active metabolites: 8,11-DiOH-THC 11-COOH-THC 11-OH-THC

Endocannabinoids

Arachidonoyl ethanolamide (AEA; anandamide) 2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) 2-Arachidonyl glyceryl ether (2-AGE; noladin ether) 2-Oleoylglycerol (2-OG) N-Arachidonoyl dopamine (NADA) N-Arachidonylglycine (NAGly) 2-Arachidonoyl lysophosphatidylinositol (2-ALPI) N-Arachidonoyl serotonin (AA-5-HT) Docosatetraenoylethanolamide (DEA) Lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) Oleamide Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) RVD-Hpα Stearoylethanolamide (SEA) O-Arachidonoyl ethanolamine (O-AEA; virodhamine)

Synthetic cannabinoids

Classical cannabinoids (dibenzopyrans)

A-40174 A-41988 A-42574 Ajulemic acid AM-087 AM-411 AM-855 AM-905 AM-906 AM-919 AM-926 AM-938 AM-2389 AM-4030 AMG-1 AMG-3 AMG-36 AMG-41 Dexanabinol (HU-211) DMHP Dronabinol HHC HU-210 HU-243 JWH-051 JWH-133 JWH-139 JWH-161 JWH-229 JWH-359 KM-233 L-759,633 L-759,656 Levonantradol (CP 50,5561) Menabitan Nabazenil Nabidrox (Canbisol) Nabilone Nabitan Naboctate O-224 O-581 O-774 O-806 O-823 O-1057 O-1125 O-1191 O-1238 O-2048 O-2113 O-2365 O-2372 O-2373 O-2383 O-2426 O-2484 O-2545 O-2694 O-2715 O-2716 O-3223 O-3226 Parahexyl Pirnabine THC-O-acetate THC-O-phosphate

Non-classical cannabinoids

Cannabicyclohexanol CBD-DMH CP 47,497 (C6)-CP 47,497 (C9)-CP 47,497 CP 55,244 CP 55,940 HU-308 HU-320 HU-331 HU-336 HU-345 HU-446 HU-465 HU-910 HUF-101 Nonabine O-1376 O-1422 O-1601 O-1656 O-1657 O-1660 O-1663 O-1871 SPA-229 Tinabinol

Benzoylindoles

1-Butyl-3-(2-methoxybenzoyl)indole 1-Butyl-3-(4-methoxybenzoyl)indole 1-Pentyl-3-(2-methoxybenzoyl)indole AM-630 AM-679 AM-694 AM-1241 AM-2233 GW-405,833 (L-768,242) Pravadoline RCS-4 WIN 54,461

Naphthoylindoles

AM-1220 AM-1221 AM-1235 AM-2201 AM-2232 CHM-081 EAM-2201 FUB-JWH-018 JWH-007 JWH-015 JWH-018 JWH-019 JWH-073 JWH-081 JWH-098 JWH-116 JWH-122 JWH-149 JWH-164 JWH-182 JWH-193 JWH-198 JWH-200 JWH-210 JWH-398 JWH-424 MAM-1220 MAM-2201 NE-CHMIMO

Naphthoylindazoles

THJ-018 THJ-2201

Pyrrolobenzoxazines

WIN 55,212-2

Naphthylmethylindoles

JWH-175 JWH-176 JWH-184 JWH-185 JWH-192 JWH-194 JWH-195 JWH-196 JWH-197 JWH-199

Phenylacetylindoles

Cannabipiperidiethanone JWH-167 JWH-203 JWH-249 JWH-250 JWH-251 JWH-302 RCS-8

Indole-3-carboxamides

5F-ADBICA 5F-NNE1 5F-PCN 5F-SDB-006 AB-FUBICA AB-PICA ADBICA ADB-FUBICA APICA CUMYL-BICA CUMYL-PICA CUMYL-5F-PICA FDU-NNE1 MDMB-CHMICA MMB-2201 MN-25 (UR-12) NNE1 PX-1 Org 28312 Org 28611 SDB-006 STS-135

Indole-3-carboxylates

5F-PB-22 FDU-PB-22 FUB-PB-22 QUCHIC (BB-22) QUPIC (PB-22) NM-2201

Tetramethylcyclo- propanoylindoles

5Br-UR-144 5Cl-UR-144 A-796,260 A-834,735 FUB-144 UR-144 XLR-11 XLR-12

Indazole-3- carboxamides

5Cl-APINACA 5F-ADB 5F-ADB-PINACA 5F-AMB 5F-APINACA 5F-CUMYL-PINACA 5F-EMB-PINACA AB-CHMINACA AB-FUBINACA AB-FUBINACA 2-fluorobenzyl isomer AB-PINACA ADB-CHMINACA ADB-FUBINACA ADB-PINACA ADAMANTYL-THPINACA ADSB-FUB-187 AMB-CHMINACA AMB-FUBINACA APINACA (AKB48) APP-FUBINACA CUMYL-4CN-BINACA CUMYL-PINACA CUMYL-THPINACA EMB-FUBINACA FUB-APINACA MDMB-FUBINACA MDMB-CHMINACA MN-18 PX-2 PX-3

Tetramethylcyclo- propanoylindazoles

FAB-144

Naphthoylpyrroles

JWH-030 JWH-147 JWH-307 JWH-369 JWH-370

Eicosanoids

AM-883 AM-1346 ACEA ACPA Methanandamide (AM-356) O-585 O-689 O-1812 O-1860 O-1861

Pyrazolecarboxamides

5F-AB-FUPPYCA AB-CHFUPYCA AB-CHMFUPPYCA

Others

4-HTMPIPO 5F-PY-PICA 5F-PY-PINACA 5F-3-pyridinoylindole A-836,339 A-955,840 Abnormal cannabidiol AB-001 BzODZ-EPyr AM-1248 AM-1714 AZ-11713908 BAY 38-7271 BAY 59-3074 BIM-018 CB-13 CB-86 CBS-0550 CUMYL-4CN-B7AICA CUMYL-5F-P7AICA CUMYL-PEGACLONE FUBIMINA GSK-554,418A GW-842,166X JTE 7-31 LASSBio-881 LBP-1 Leelamine MDA-7 MDA-19 MEPIRAPIM NESS-040C5 NMP-7 O-889 O-1269 O-1270 O-1399 O-1602 O-2220 PF-03550096 PSB-SB-1202 PTI-1 PTI-2 QMPSB S-444,823 SER-601 Tedalinab URB-447 VSN-16 WIN 56,098

Allosteric CBR ligands

Org 27569 Org 27759 Org 29647 RTI-371 Pregnenolone

Endocannabinoid enhancers (inactivation inhibitors)

4-Nonylphenylboronic acid AM-404 Arachidonoyl serotonin Arvanil BIA 10-2474 Biochanin A CAY-10401 CAY-10429 Genistein Guineesine IDFP JNJ 1661010 JNJ-42165279 JZL184 JZL195 Kaempferol LY-2183240 MK-4409 O-1624 O-2093 Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) Olvanil Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) PF-04457845 PF-622 PF-750 PF-3845 PHOP URB-447 URB-597 URB-602 URB-754 VDM-11

Anticannabinoids (antagonists/inverse agonists/antibodies)

AM-251 AM-281 AM-630 AM-1387 AM-4113 AM-6527 AM-6545 BML-190 Brizantin (Бризантин) CAY-10508 CB-25 CB-52 CB-86 Dietressa (Диетресса) Drinabant (AVE1625) Hemopressin Ibipinabant (SLV319) JTE-907 LH-21 LY-320,135 MDA-77 MJ-15 MK-9470 NESS-0327 NIDA-41020 O-606 O-1184 O-1248 O-1918 O-2050 O-2654 Otenabant (CP-945,598) PF-514273 PipISB PSB-SB-487 Rimonabant (SR141716) Rosonabant (E-6776) SR-144,528 Surinabant (SR147778) Taranabant (MK-0364) TM-38837 VCHSR

See also: Cannabinoid receptor modulators (cannabinoids by pharmacology) List of: AM cannabinoids JWH cannabinoids Designer drugs § Synthetic cannabimimetics

v t e

Cannabis plant

Recreational and medical applications

rights

Industrial applications

General

Autoflowering cannabis Cannabis

indica ruderalis sativa Difference between C. indica and C. sativa

Consumption Cultivation Etymology (cannabis, marijuana) Glossary Cannabis strains Synthetic cannabis

Usage

General

Medical cannabis

History

Timeline Religious and spiritual use

Chalice

Hemp

Hanfparade List of hemp diseases List of hemp products (Hempcrete  • Jewelry  • Milk  • Oil  • Paper) Hemp for Victory Hemp Industries Association The Emperor Wears No Clothes

Variants

Cannabis edible

Bhang Cannabis tea

Cannabis smoking Vaporizing

Preparations

Kief Charas Essential oil Tincture

Extracts by potency

Hash oil Hashish

Phytocannabinoids

Cannabidiol (CBD) Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)

Effects

Cannabis in pregnancy Dependence Effects of cannabis

Long-term

Endocannabinoid system Impaired driving

Culture

420 Cannabis Culture Competitions Films High Times Music Religion Head shop

Pro-Cannabis organizations

ACT AMMA Aotearoa (ALCP) ASA Buyers Club CCRMG CLEAR CRC DPA FCA GMM LEAP MAPS MPP NCIA NORML SAFER Social Club SSDP SCC

Use demographics

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Politics

General

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Major legal reforms

UK: Return to class B Uruguay: Law No. 19172 US:

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Politicians and parties

Cannabis political parties List of British politicians who have acknowledged cannabis use List of US politicians who have acknowledged cannabis use

Legal cases

ADPF 187 Gonzales v. Raich Ker v. California Kyllo v. United States (thermal imaging) Leary v. United States

Category Portal

Medical and recreational uses

v t e

Recreational drug use

Major recreational drugs

Depressants

Barbiturates Benzodiazepines Carbamates Ethanol (alcohol)

Alcoholic drinks Beer Wine

Gabapentinoids GHB Inhalants

Medical

Nitrous oxide

Hazardous solvents

contact adhesives Gasoline nail polish remover Paint thinner

Other

Freon

Kava Nonbenzodiazepines Quinazolinones

Opioids

Buprenorphine

Suboxone Subutex

Codeine Desomorphine

Krokodil

Dextropropoxyphene

Darvocet Darvon

Fentanyl Diamorphine

Heroin

Hydrocodone Hydromorphone

Dilaudid

Methadone Mitragyna speciosa

Kratom

Morphine

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Oxycodone

/paracetamol

Tramadol

Stimulants

Amphetamine Arecoline

Areca

Betel Caffeine

Coffee Energy drinks Tea

Cathinone

Khat

Cocaine

Coca Crack

Ephedrine

Ephedra

MDPV Mephedrone Methamphetamine Methylone Methylphenidate Modafinil Nicotine

Tobacco

Theobromine

Cocoa Chocolate

Entactogens

2C series 6-APB

Benzofury

AMT MDA MDMA

Ecstasy

Hallucinogens

Psychedelics

Bufotenin

Psychoactive toads Vilca Yopo

DMT

Ayahuasca

LSA LSD-25 Mescaline

Peruvian torch Peyote San Pedro

Psilocybin / Psilocin

Psilocybin mushrooms

Dissociatives

DXM Glaucine Inhalants

Nitrous oxide alkyl nitrites poppers amyl nitrite

Ketamine MXE Muscimol

Amanita muscaria

PCP Salvinorin A

Salvia divinorum

Deliriants

Atropine and Scopolamine

Atropa belladonna Datura Hyoscyamus niger Mandragora officinarum

Dimenhydrinate Diphenhydramine

Cannabinoids

JWH-018 THC

Cannabis Hashish Hash oil Marijuana

Oneirogens

Calea zacatechichi Silene capensis

Club drugs

Cocaine Quaaludes MDMA (Ecstasy) Nitrous oxide Poppers

Drug culture

Cannabis culture

420 Cannabis cultivation Cannabis smoking Head shop Legal history of cannabis in the United States Legality of cannabis Marijuana Policy Project Medical cannabis NORML Cannabis and religion Stoner film

Coffee culture

Coffee break Coffeehouse Latte art Tea house

Drinking culture

Bartending Beer culture Beer festival Binge drinking Diethyl ether Drinking games Drinking song Happy hour Hip flask Nightclub Pub Pub crawl Sommelier Sports bar Tailgate party Wine bar Wine tasting

Psychedelia

Psychonautics Art Drug Era Experience Literature Music Microdosing Therapy

Smoking culture

Cigarette card Fashion cigarettes Cloud-chasing Loosie Smokeasy Smoking fetishism Tobacco smoking

Other

Club drug Counterculture of the 1960s Dance party Drug paraphernalia Drug tourism Entheogen Hippie Nootropic Party and play Poly drug use Rave Religion and drugs Self-medication Sex and drugs Whoonga

Drug production and trade

Drug production

Coca production in Colombia Drug precursors Opium production in Afghanistan Rolling meth lab

Drug trade

Illegal drug trade

Colombia

Darknet market Drug distribution

Beer shop Cannabis shop Liquor store Liquor license

Issues with drug use

Abuse Date rape drug Impaired driving Drug harmfulness

Effects of cannabis

Addiction Dependence

Prevention Opioid replacement therapy Rehabilitation Responsible use

Drug-related crime Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder Long-term effects of cannabis Neurotoxicity Overdose Passive smoking

of tobacco or other substances

Legality of drug use

International

1961 Narcotic Drugs 1971 Psychotropic Substances 1988 Drug Trafficking Council of the European Union decisions on designer drugs

State level

Drug policy

Decriminalization Prohibition Supply reduction

Policy reform

Demand reduction Drug Policy Alliance Harm reduction Law Enforcement Action Partnership Liberalization

Latin America

Students for Sensible Drug Policy Transform Drug Policy Foundation

Drug policy by country

Australia Canada Germany India Netherlands Portugal Slovakia Soviet Union Sweden Switzerland United States

Just Say No Office of National Drug Control Policy School district drug policies California Colorado Maryland Virginia

Other

Arguments for and against drug prohibition Capital punishment for drug trafficking Cognitive liberty Designer drug Drug court Drug possession Drug test Narc Politics of drug abuse War on Drugs

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Zero tolerance

Lists of countries by...

Alcohol legality

Alcohol consumption

Anabolic steroid legality Cannabis legality

Annual use Lifetime use

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Cocaine use

Methamphetamine legality Opiates use Psilocybin mushrooms legality Salvia legality

v t e

Euphoriants

μ-Opioid receptor agonists (opioids) (e.g., morphine, heroin, hydrocodone, oxycodone, opium, kratom) α2δ subunit-containing voltage-dependent calcium channels blockers (gabapentinoids) (e.g., gabapentin, pregabalin, phenibut) AMPA receptor antagonists (e.g., perampanel) CB1 receptor agonists (cannabinoids) (e.g., THC, cannabis) Dopamine receptor agonists (e.g., levodopa) Dopamine releasing agents (e.g., amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, mephedrone) Dopamine reuptake inhibitors (e.g., cocaine, methylphenidate) GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulators (e.g., barbiturates, benzodiazepines, carbamates, ethanol (alcohol) (alcoholic drink), inhalants, nonbenzodiazepines, quinazolinones) GHB (sodium oxybate) and analogues Glucocorticoids (corticosteroids) (e.g., dexamethasone, prednisone) nACh receptor agonists (e.g., nicotine, tobacco, arecoline, areca nut) Nitric oxide prodrugs (e.g., alkyl nitrites (poppers)) NMDA receptor antagonists (e.g., DXM, ketamine, methoxetamine, nitrous oxide, phencyclidine, inhalants) Orexin receptor antagonists (e.g., suvorexant)

See also: Recreational drug use

v t e

Hallucinogens

Psychedelics (5-HT2A agonists)

Benzofurans

2C-B-FLY 2CBFly-NBOMe 5-MeO-BFE 5-MeO-DiBF Bromo-DragonFLY F-2 F-22 TFMFly

Lyserg‐ amides

1P-ETH-LAD 1P-LSD 2-Butyllysergamide 3-Pentyllysergamide AL-LAD ALD-52 BU-LAD Diallyllysergamide Dimethyllysergamide Ergometrine ETH-LAD IP-LAD LAE-32 LPD-824 LSA LSD LSD-Pip LSH LSM-775 LSZ Methylergometrine Methylisopropyllysergamide Methysergide MLD-41 PARGY-LAD PRO-LAD

Phenethyl‐ amines

2C-x

2C-B 2C-B-AN 2C-Bn 2C-Bu 2C-C 2C-CN 2C-CP 2C-D 2C-E 2C-EF 2C-F 2C-G 2C-G-1 2C-G-2 2C-G-3 2C-G-4 2C-G-5 2C-G-6 2C-G-N 2C-H 2C-I 2C-iP 2C-N 2C-NH2 2C-O 2C-O-4 2C-P 2C-Ph 2C-SE 2C-T 2C-T-2 2C-T-3 2C-T-4 2C-T-5 2C-T-6 2C-T-7 2C-T-8 2C-T-9 2C-T-10 2C-T-11 2C-T-12 2C-T-13 2C-T-14 2C-T-15 2C-T-16 2C-T-17 2C-T-18 2C-T-19 2C-T-20 2C-T-21 2C-T-22 2C-T-22.5 2C-T-23 2C-T-24 2C-T-25 2C-T-27 2C-T-28 2C-T-30 2C-T-31 2C-T-32 2C-T-33 2C-TFE 2C-TFM 2C-YN 2C-V

25x-NBx

25x-NB3OMe

25B-NB3OMe 25C-NB3OMe 25D-NB3OMe 25E-NB3OMe 25H-NB3OMe 25I-NB3OMe 25N-NB3OMe 25P-NB3OMe 25T2-NB3OMe 25T4-NB3OMe 25T7-NB3OMe 25TFM-NB3OMe

25x-NB4OMe

25B-NB4OMe 25C-NB4OMe 25D-NB4OMe 25E-NB4OMe 25H-NB4OMe 25I-NB4OMe 25N-NB4OMe 25P-NB4OMe 25T2-NB4OMe 25T4-NB4OMe 25T7-NB4OMe 25TFM-NB4OMe

25x-NBF

25B-NBF 25C-NBF 25D-NBF 25E-NBF 25H-NBF 25I-NBF 25P-NBF 25T2-NBF 25T7-NBF 25TFM-NBF

25x-NBMD

25B-NBMD 25C-NBMD 25D-NBMD 25E-NBMD 25F-NBMD 25H-NBMD 25I-NBMD 25P-NBMD 25T2-NBMD 25T7-NBMD 25TFM-NBMD

25x-NBOH

25B-NBOH 25C-NBOH 25CN-NBOH 25D-NBOH 25E-NBOH 25F-NBOH 25H-NBOH 25I-NBOH 25P-NBOH 25T2-NBOH 25T7-NBOH 25TFM-NBOH

25x-NBOMe

25B-NBOMe 25C-NBOMe 25CN-NBOMe 25D-NBOMe 25E-NBOMe 25F-NBOMe 25G-NBOMe 25H-NBOMe 25I-NBOMe 25iP-NBOMe 25N-NBOMe 25P-NBOMe 25T2-NBOMe 25T4-NBOMe 25T7-NBOMe 25TFM-NBOMe

Atypical structures

25I-NB34MD 2CBCB-NBOMe 2CBFly-NBOMe NBOMe-mescaline

3C-x

3C-AL 3C-BZ 3C-DFE 3C-E 3C-P

4C-x

4C-B 4C-D 4C-T-2

DOx

DOT DOB DOC DOEF DOET DOF DOI DOiPR DOM DON DOPR DOTFM MEM

HOT-x

HOT-2 HOT-7 HOT-17

MDxx

DMMDA DMMDA-2 Lophophine MDA MMDA MMDA-2 MMDA-3a MMDMA

Mescaline (subst.)

2-Bromomescaline 3-TE 4-TE 3-TM 4-TM Allylescaline Asymbescaline Buscaline Cyclopropylmescaline Difluoromescaline Difluoroescaline Escaline Fluoroproscaline Isobuscaline Isoproscaline Jimscaline Mescaline Metaescaline Methallylescaline Proscaline Thioproscaline Trifluoroescaline Trifluoromescaline

TMAs

TMA TMA-2 TMA-3 TMA-4 TMA-5 TMA-6

Others

2C-B-BUTTERFLY 2C-B-DragonFLY 2CB-5-hemifly 2-TOM 5-TOET 5-TOM 2CB-Ind 2CD-5EtO BOB BOD βk-2C-B βk-2C-I DESOXY DMCPA DMBMPP DOB-FLY Fenfluramine Ganesha Macromerine MMA TCB-2 TOMSO

Piperazines

BZP pFPP

Tryptamines

alpha-alkyltryptamines

4,5-DHP-α-MT 5-MeO-α-ET 5-MeO-α-MT α-ET α-MT

x-DALT

(Daltocin) 4-HO-DALT (Daltacetin) 4-AcO-DALT 5-MeO-DALT DALT

x-DET

(Ethacetin) 4-AcO-DET (Ethocin) 4-HO-DET 5-MeO-DET (T-9) DET (Ethocybin) 4-PO-DET

x-DiPT

1-Me-5-MeO-DiPT (Ipracetin) 4-AcO-DiPT (Iprocin) 4-HO-DiPT (Foxy Methoxy) 5-MeO-DiPT DiPT

x-DMT

4,5-DHP-DMT 2,N,N-TMT 4-AcO-DMT 4-HO-5-MeO-DMT 4,N,N-TMT 4-Propionyloxy-DMT 5,6-diBr-DMT 5-AcO-DMT 5-Bromo-DMT 5-MeO-2,N,N-TMT 5-MeO-4,N,N-TMT 5-MeO-α,N,N-TMT 5-MeO-DMT 5-N,N-TMT 7,N,N-TMT α,N,N-TMT (Bufotenin) 5-HO-DMT DMT Norbaeocystin (Psilocin) 4-HO-DMT (Psilocybin) 4-PO-DMT

x-DPT

(Depracetin) 4-AcO-DPT (Deprocin) 4-HO-DPT 5-MeO-DPT (The Light) DPT

Ibogaine-related

18-MAC 18-MC Coronaridine Ibogaine Ibogamine ME-18-MC Noribogaine Tabernanthine Voacangine

x-MET

(Metocin) 4-HO-MET (Metocetin) 4-AcO-MET 5-MeO-MET MET

x-MiPT

(Mipracetin) 4-AcO-MiPT (Miprocin) 4-HO-MiPT 5-Me-MiPT (Moxy) 5-MeO-MiPT MiPT

Others

4-HO-DBT 4-HO-EPT 4-HO-McPT (Lucigenol) 4-HO-MPMI (Meprocin) 4-HO-MPT 5-MeO-EiPT 5-MeO-MALT 5-MeO-MPMI Aeruginascin Baeocystin DBT DCPT EiPT EPT MPT PiPT

Others

5-MeO-DiBF AL-38022A ALPHA Dimemebfe Efavirenz Lorcaserin M-ALPHA RH-34 Also empathogens in general (e. g.: 5-APB, 5-MAPB, 6-APB and other substituted benzofurans, MDAI, MDMA).

Dissociatives (NMDAR antagonists)

Arylcyclo‐ hexylamines

Ketamine-related

2-Fluorodeschloroketamine Arketamine ((R)-ketamine) Deschloroketamine Ethketamine (N-Ethylnorketamine) Esketamine ((S)-ketamine) Ketamine Methoxetamine Methoxmetamine Methoxyketamine Norketamine Tiletamine

PCP-related

3'-HO-PCP 3'-MeO-PCE 3'-MeO-PCMo 3'-MeO-PCP BDPC Dieticyclidine (PCDE) Eticyclidine (PCE) Methoxydine (4'-MeO-PCP) PCPr Phencyclidine (PCP) Rolicyclidine (PCPy) Tenocyclidine (TCP)

Others

BTCP Gacyclidine PRE-084

Diarylethylamines

Diphenidine Ephenidine Fluorolintane Methoxphenidine

Morphinans

Dextrallorphan Dextromethorphan Dextrorphan Racemethorphan Racemorphan

Others

2-EMSB 2-MDP 8A-PDHQ Aptiganel Budipine Delucemine Dexoxadrol Dizocilpine Etoxadrol Herkinorin Ibogaine Midafotel NEFA Neramexane Nitrous oxide Noribogaine Perzinfotel RB-64 Remacemide Salvinorin A Selfotel Xenon

Deliriants (mAChR antagonists)

Atropine Benactyzine Benzatropine Benzydamine Biperiden BRN-1484501 Brompheniramine BZ CAR-226,086 CAR-301,060 CAR-302,196 CAR-302,282 CAR-302,368 CAR-302,537 CAR-302,668 Chloropyramine Chlorphenamine Clemastine CS-27349 Cyclizine Cyproheptadine Dicycloverine Dimenhydrinate Diphenhydramine Ditran Doxylamine EA-3167 EA-3443 EA-3580 EA-3834 Elemicin Flavoxate Hyoscyamine JB-318 JB-336 Meclozine Mepyramine Myristicin Orphenadrine Oxybutynin Pheniramine Phenyltoloxamine Procyclidine Promethazine Scopolamine Tolterodine Trihexyphenidyl Tripelennamine Triprolidine WIN-2299

Others

Cannabinoids (CB1 agonists)

Natural

THC (Dronabinol) THCV

Synthetic

AM-x

AM-087 AM-251 AM-279 AM-281 AM-356 AM-374 AM-381 AM-404 AM-411 AM-630 AM-661 AM-678 AM-679 AM-694 AM-735 AM-855 AM-881 AM-883 AM-905 AM-906 AM-919 AM-926 AM-938 AM-1116 AM-1172 AM-1220 AM-1221 AM-1235 AM-1241 AM-1248 AM-1710 AM-1714 AM-1902 AM-2201 AM-2212 AM-2213 AM-2232 AM-2233 AM-2389 AM-3102 AM-4030 AM-4054 AM-4056 AM-4113 AM-6545

CP x

CP 47,497 CP 55,244 CP 55,940 (±)-CP 55,940 (+)-CP 55,940 (-)-CP 55,940

HU-x

HU-210 HU-211 HU-239 HU-243 HU-308 HU-320 HU-331 HU-336 HU-345

JWH-x

JWH-007 JWH-015 JWH-018 JWH-019 JWH-030 JWH-047 JWH-048 JWH-051 JWH-057 JWH-073 JWH-081 JWH-098 JWH-116 JWH-120 JWH-122 JWH-133 JWH-139 JWH-147 JWH-148 JWH-149 JWH-149 JWH-161 JWH-164 JWH-166 JWH-167 JWH-171 JWH-175 JWH-176 JWH-181 JWH-182 JWH-184 JWH-185 JWH-192 JWH-193 JWH-193 JWH-194 JWH-195 JWH-196 JWH-197 JWH-198 JWH-199 JWH-200 JWH-203 JWH-205 JWH-210 JWH-210 JWH-213 JWH-220 JWH-229 JWH-234 JWH-249 JWH-250 JWH-251 JWH-253 JWH-258 JWH-300 JWH-302 JWH-307 JWH-336 JWH-350 JWH-359 JWH-387 JWH-398 JWH-424

Misc. designer cannabinoids

4-HTMPIPO 5F-AB-FUPPYCA 5F-AB-PINACA 5F-ADB 5F-ADB-PINACA 5F-ADBICA 5F-AMB 5F-APINACA 5F-CUMYL-PINACA 5F-NNE1 5F-PB-22 5F-SDB-006 A-796,260 A-836,339 AB-001 AB-005 AB-CHFUPYCA AB-CHMINACA AB-FUBINACA AB-PINACA ADAMANTYL-THPINACA ADB-CHMINACA ADB-FUBINACA ADB-PINACA ADBICA ADSB-FUB-187 AMB-FUBINACA APICA APINACA APP-FUBINACA CB-13 CUMYL-PICA CUMYL-PINACA CUMYL-THPINACA DMHP EAM-2201 FAB-144 FDU-PB-22 FUB-144 FUB-APINACA FUB-JWH-018 FUB-PB-22 FUBIMINA JTE 7-31 JTE-907 Levonantradol MDMB-CHMICA MDMB-CHMINACA MDMB-FUBINACA MEPIRAPIM MAM-2201 MDA-19 MN-18 MN-25 NESS-0327 NESS-040C5 Nabilone Nabitan NM-2201 NNE1 Org 28611 Parahexyl PTI-1 PTI-2 PX-1 PX-2 PX-3 QUCHIC QUPIC RCS-4 RCS-8 SDB-005 SDB-006 STS-135 THC-O-acetate THC-O-phosphate THJ-018 THJ-2201 UR-144 WIN 55,212-2 XLR-11

D2 agonists

Apomorphine Aporphine Bromocriptine Cabergoline Lisuride Memantine Nuciferine Pergolide Phenethylamine Piribedil Pramipexole Ropinirole Rotigotine Salvinorin A Also indirect D2 agonists, such as dopamine reuptake inhibitors (cocaine, methylphenidate), releasing agents (amphetamine, methamphetamine), and precursors (levodopa).

GABAA enhancers

CI-966 Eszopiclone Ibotenic acid Muscimol (Amanita muscaria) Zaleplon Zolpidem Zopiclone

Inhalants (Mixed MOA)

Aliphatic hydrocarbons

Butane Gasoline Kerosene Propane

Aromatic hydrocarbons

Toluene

Ethers

Diethyl ether Enflurane

Haloalkanes

Chlorofluorocarbons Chloroform

κOR agonists

2-EMSB Alazocine Bremazocine Butorphan Butorphanol Cyclazocine Cyclorphan Cyprenorphine Diprenorphine Enadoline Herkinorin Heroin HZ-2 Ibogaine Ketazocine Levallorphan Levomethorphan Levorphanol LPK-26 Metazocine Morphine Nalbuphine Nalmefene Nalorphine Noribogaine Oxilorphan Pentazocine Phenazocine Proxorphan Racemethorphan Racemorphan Salvinorin A Spiradoline Tifluadom U-50488 U-69,593 Xorphanol

Others

Glaucine Isoaminile Noscapine Pukateine

v t e

Antiemetics (A04)

5-HT3 serotonin ion channel antagonists

Alosetron Azasetron Bemesetron Cilansetron Clozapine Dazopride Dolasetron Granisetron Lerisetron Metoclopramide Mianserin Mirtazapine Olanzapine Ondansetron Palonosetron (+netupitant) Quetiapine Ramosetron Ricasetron Tropisetron Zatosetron

5-HT serotonin G-protein receptor antagonists

Clozapine Cyproheptadine Hydroxyzine Olanzapine Risperidone Ziprasidone

CB1 agonists (cannabinoids)

Dronabinol Nabilone Tetrahydrocannabinol (cannabis)

D2/D3 antagonists

Alizapride Bromopride Chlorpromazine Clebopride Domperidone Haloperidol Hydroxyzine Itopride Metoclopramide Metopimazine Prochlorperazine Thiethylperazine Trimethobenzamide

H1 antagonists (antihistamines)

Cyclizine Dimenhydrinate Diphenhydramine Hydroxyzine Meclizine Promethazine

mACh antagonists (anticholinergics)

Atropine Diphenhydramine Hydroxyzine (very mild) Hyoscyamine Scopolamine

NK1 antagonists

Aprepitant Casopitant Ezlopitant Fosaprepitant Maropitant Netupitant Rolapitant Vestipitant

Others

Cerium oxalate Dexamethasone Lorazepam Midazolam Propofol

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Appetite stimulants (A15)

Exogenous

Amitriptyline Clonidine Cyproheptadine Dexamethasone Dronabinol/Tetrahydrocannabinol (Cannabis) Medroxyprogesterone acetate Megestrol acetate Mirtazapine Nabilone Nandrolone Olanzapine Omega-3 fatty acid Oxandrolone Pentoxifylline Prednisone Sugars Testosterone Thalidomide

Endogenous

ACTH/Corticotropin Adiponectin Agouti-related peptide Anandamide Cortisol/Hydrocortisone Cortisone Ghrelin Melanin-concentrating hormone Melatonin Neuropeptide Y Orexin/Hypocretin

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Ancient anaesthesia

Plants / animals

Aconitum (aconite) Atropa belladonna (belladonna) Cannabis

medical use

Castoreum Coca Conium (hemlock) Datura innoxia (thorn-apple) Datura metel (devil's trumpet) Hyoscyamus niger (henbane) Lactucarium Mandragora officinarum (mandrake) Opium Saussurea (saw-wort) Willow

People

Abulcasis Avenzoar Avicenna Celsus Dioscorides Galen Hippocrates Rhazes Sabuncuoğlu Sushrutha Theophrastus Zhang

Compounds

Aconitine Atropine Cocaine Coniine Hyoscine Δ9-THC Hyoscyamine Morphine Salicylate

Pharmacodynamics

v t e

Acetylcholine metabolism and transport modulators

Enzyme (modulators)

ChAT

Inhibitors: 1-(-Benzoylethyl)pyridinium 2-(α-Naphthoyl)ethyltrimethylammonium 3-Chloro-4-stillbazole 4-(1-Naphthylvinyl)pyridine Acetylseco hemicholinium-3 Acryloylcholine AF64A B115 BETA CM-54,903 N,N-Dimethylaminoethylacrylate N,N-Dimethylaminoethylchloroacetate

AChE

Inhibitors: Reversible: Carbamates: Aldicarb Aminocarb Bendiocarb Bufencarb Carbaryl Carbendazim Carbetamide Carbofuran Carbosulfan Chlorbufam Chloropropham Dimetilan Ethienocarb Ethiofencarb Fenobucarb Formetanate Formparanate Methiocarb Methomyl Metolcarb Miotine Oxamyl Phenmedipham Pinmicarb Pirimicarb Propamocarb Propham Propoxur Thiofanox; Stigmines: Distigmine Eptastigmine Ganstigmine Neostigmine Phenserine Physostigmine Pyridostigmine Quilostigmine Rivastigmine Terestigmine; Others: Acotiamide Ambenonium Caffeine Donepezil EA-3990 EA-4056 Edrophonium Galantamine Huperzine A Ipidacrine Itopride Ladostigil Minaprine T-1123 Tacrine Zanapezil

Irreversible: Organophosphates: Acephate Anatoxin-a(S) Azinphos-ethyl Azinphos-methyl BAY-29952 Bensulide Cadusafos Carbophenothion Chlorethoxyfos Chlorfenvinphos Chlorpyrifos Chlorpyrifos-methyl Coumaphos Cyanophos Cyclosarin Demephion Demeton Demeton-S-methyl Dialifor Diazinon Dichlorvos Dicrotophos Diisopropyl fluorophosphate Diisopropylphosphate Dimefox Dimethoate Dimethyl 4-(methylthio)phenyl phosphate Dioxathion Disulfoton EA-3148 Echothiophate Endothion Ethion Ethoprop Fenamiphos Fenitrothion Fenthion Fonofos Formothion Fosthiazate GV Hexaethyl tetraphosphate Isofluorophate Isoxathion Leptophos Malaoxon Malathion Methamidophos Methidathion Methyl phenkapton Metrifonate Mevinphos Monocrotophos Naled Novichok agent Omethoate Oxydemeton-methyl Paraoxon Parathion Parathion-methyl Phorate Phosalone Phosfolan Phosmet Phosphamidon Phoxim Pirimiphos-methyl Profenofos Prothoate Sarin Soman Tabun Tebupirimfos Temefos Terbufos Tetrachlorvinphos Triazofos Tribufos Trichlorfon Trichloronate Tricresyl phosphate VE VG VM VR VX; Others: Demecarium Fasciculins (green mamba toxins) (1, 2, 3, 4) Onchidal (Onchidella binneyi)

Unsorted: α-Pinene α-Viniferin Affinine Affinisine Arisugacin A Bulbocapnine Conodurine Coronaridine Corydaline Corynoline Crimidine Cyclanoline Cymserine Harmaline Kobophenol A Lactucopicrin Lycorine Phosacetim Rosmarinic acid Stercuronium iodide Taspine Tetrahydrocannabinol Ungeremine Ungiminorine

Reactivators: Asoxime chloride Methoxime Obidoxime Pralidoxime Trimedoxime bromide

BChE

Inhibitors: Affinine Affinisine Conodurine Cymserine Ladostigil Profenamine (ethopropazine) Rivastigmine Tacrine ZINC-12613047 Many of the other AChE inhibitors listed above

Transporter (modulators)

CHT

Inhibitors: Hemicholinium-3 (hemicholine) Triethylcholine

Enhancers: Coluracetam

VAChT

Inhibitors: Vesamicol

Release (modulators)

Inhibitors

SNAP-25 inactivators: Botulinum toxin (A, C, E)

VAMP inactivators: Botulinum toxin (B, D, F, G)

Others: Bungarotoxins (β-bungarotoxin, γ-bungarotoxin)

Enhancers

LPHN agonists: α-Latrotoxin

Others: Atracotoxin (e.g., robustoxin, versutoxin) Crotoxin

See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor modulators

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Cannabinoid receptor modulators

Receptor (ligands)

CB1

Agonists (abridged; see here for more): 2-AG 2-AGE (noladin ether) 11-Hydroxy-THC α-Amyrin β-Amyrin AB-CHMINACA AM-1172 AM-1220 AM-1221 AM-1235 AM-2201 AM-2232 Anandamide Arvanil AZ-11713908 Cannabinol CB-13 CP 47,497 CP 55,940 Dimethylheptylpyran DEA ECG EGCG Epicatechin Gallocatechol (gallocatechin) Honokiol HU-210 JWH-007 JWH-015 JWH-018 JWH-073 Kavain L-759,633 Levonantradol Menabitan Nabilone Nabitan NADA O-1812 Oleamide Pravadoline Serinolamide A THC (dronabinol) UR-144 WIN 55,212-2 Yangonin

Antagonists: AM-251 AM-6545 Cannabidiol Cannabigerol Drinabant Falcarinol (carotatoxin) Hemopressin Ibipinabant LY-320,135 MK-9470 NESS-0327 O-2050 Otenabant PF-514273 PipISB Rimonabant Rosonabant Surinabant Taranabant THCV TM-38837 VCHSR Virodhamine

Antibodies: Brizantin (Бризантин) Dietressa (Диетресса)

Unknown/unsorted: MAFP

CB2

Agonists: 2-AG 2-AGE (noladin ether) 3,3'-Diindolylmethane 4-O-Methylhonokiol α-Amyrin β-Amyrin A-796,260 A-834,735 A-836,339 AM-1172 AM-1221 AM-1235 AM-1241 AM-2232 Anandamide AZ-11713908 Cannabinol Caryophyllene CB-13 CBS-0550 CP-55,940 GW-405,833 (L-768,242) GW-842,166X HU-308 JTE 7-31 JWH-007 JWH-015 JWH-018 JWH-73 JWH-133 L-759,633 L-759,656 Magnolol MDA-19 Nabitan NADA PF-03550096 S-444,823 SER-601 Serinolamide A UR-144 Tedalinab THC (dronabinol) THCV Tetrahydromagnolol Virodhamine

Antagonists: 4-O-Methylhonokiol AM-630 BML-190 Cannabidiol Honokiol JTE-907 SR-144,528 WIN 54,461 WIN 56,098

NAGly (GPR18)

Agonists: Abnormal cannabidiol ACPA AM251 Anandamide Cannabidiol NADGly THC (dronabinol) O-1602

Antagonists: CID-85469571 O-1918

GPR55

Agonists: 2-AGE (noladin ether) 2-ALPI Abnormal cannabidiol AM-251 CID1011163 CID1252842 CID1792579 CP 55,940 GSK-494581A Lysophosphatidylinositol ML-184 ML-185 ML-186 O-1602 Oleoylethanolamide Palmitoylethanolamide THC (dronabinol)

Antagonists: Cannabidiol CID-16020046 ML-191 ML-192 ML-193 O-1918 PSB-SB-487 PSB-SB-1202 PSB-SB-1203 Tetrahydromagnolol

GPR119

Agonists: 2-Oleoylglycerol Anandamide APD668 AR-231,453 AS-1269574 MBX-2982 N-Oleoyldopamine Oleoylethanolamide Olvanil PSN-375,963 PSN-632,408

Transporter (modulators)

eCBTs

Inhibitors: 5'-DMH-CBD AM-404 AM-1172 Arachidonoyl serotonin Arvanil Cannabidiol Guineensine LY-2183240 O-2093 OMDM-2 Paracetamol (acetaminophen) SB-FI-26 UCM-707 URB-597 VDM-11 WOBE490 WOBE491 WOBE492

Enzyme (modulators)

FAAH

Inhibitors: 4-Nonylphenylboronic acid AACOCF3 AM-404 Arachidonoyl serotonin BIA 10-2474 Biochanin A Genistein IDFP JNJ-1661010 JNJ-42165279 JZL-195 Kaempferol LY-2183240 MAFP Palmitoylisopropylamide Paracetamol (acetaminophen) PF-3845 PF-04457845 PF-750 SA-47 SA-57 TAK 21d TC-F 2 UCM710 URB-597

Activators: PDP-EA

MAGL

Inhibitors: ABX-1431 IDFP JJKK 048 JW 642 JZL-184 JZL-195 JZP-361 KML 29 MAFP MJN110 NAM Pristimerin URB-602

ABHD6

Inhibitors: JZP-169 JZP-430 KT182 KT185 KT195 KT203 LEI-106 ML294 ML295 ML296 UCM710 WWL-70

ABHD12

Inhibitors: Betulinic acid Maslinic acid MAFP Oleanolic acid Orlistat (tetrahydrolipstatin) Ursolic acid

Others

Precursors: Phosphatidylethanolamine NAPE Diacylglycerol

Others: 2-PG (directly potentiates activity of 2-AG at CB1 receptor) ARN-272 (FAAH-like anandamide transporter inhibitor)

See also Receptor/signaling modulators Cannabinoids (cannabinoids by structure)

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Glycine receptor modulators

Receptor (ligands)

GlyR

Agonists: β-Alanine β-ABA (BABA) β-AIBA Caesium D-Alanine D-Serine GABA Glycine Hypotaurine Ivermectin L-Alanine L-Proline L-Serine L-Threonine MDL-27531 Milacemide Picolinic acid Propofol Quisqualamine Sarcosine Taurine

Positive modulators: Alcohols (e.g., brometone, chlorobutanol (chloretone), ethanol (alcohol), tert-butanol (2M2P), tribromoethanol, trichloroethanol, trifluoroethanol) Alkylbenzene sulfonate Anandamide Barbiturates (e.g., pentobarbital, sodium thiopental) Chlormethiazole D12-116 Dihydropyridines (e.g., nicardipine) Etomidate Ginseng constituents (e.g., ginsenosides (e.g., ginsenoside-Rf)) Glutamic acid (glutamate) Ivermectin Ketamine Neuroactive steroids (e.g., alfaxolone, pregnenolone (eltanolone), pregnenolone acetate, minaxolone, ORG-20599) Nitrous oxide Penicillin G Propofol Tamoxifen Tetrahydrocannabinol Triclofos Tropeines (e.g., atropine, bemesetron, cocaine, LY-278584, tropisetron, zatosetron) Volatiles/gases (e.g., chloral hydrate, chloroform, desflurane, diethyl ether (ether), enflurane, halothane, isoflurane, methoxyflurane, sevoflurane, toluene, trichloroethane (methyl chloroform), trichloroethylene) Xenon Zinc

Antagonists: 2-Aminostrychnine 2-Nitrostrychnine 4-Phenyl-4-formyl-N-methylpiperidine αEMBTL Bicuculline Brucine Cacotheline Caffeine Colchicine Colubrine Cyanotriphenylborate Dendrobine Diaboline Endocannabinoids (e.g., 2-AG, anandamide (AEA)) Gaboxadol (THIP) Gelsemine iso-THAZ Isobutyric acid Isonipecotic acid Isostrychnine Laudanosine N-Methylbicuculline N-Methylstrychnine N,N-Dimethylmuscimol Nipecotic acid Pitrazepin Pseudostrychnine Quinolines (e.g., 4-hydroxyquinoline, 4-hydroxyquinoline-3-carboxylic acid, 5,7-CIQA, 7-CIQ, 7-TFQ, 7-TFQA) RU-5135 Sinomenine Strychnine Thiocolchicoside Tutin

Negative modulators: Amiloride Benzodiazepines (e.g., bromazepam, clonazepam, diazepam, flunitrazepam, flurazepam) Corymine Cyanotriphenylborate Daidzein Dihydropyridines (e.g., nicardipine, nifedipine, nitrendipine) Furosemide Genistein Ginkgo constituents (e.g., bilobalide, ginkgolides (e.g., ginkgolide A, ginkgolide B, ginkgolide C, ginkgolide J, ginkgolide M)) Imipramine NBQX Neuroactive steroids (e.g., 3α-androsterone sulfate, 3β-androsterone sulfate, deoxycorticosterone, DHEA sulfate, pregnenolone sulfate, progesterone) Opioids (e.g., codeine, dextromethorphan, dextrorphan, levomethadone, levorphanol, morphine, oripavine, pethidine, thebaine) Picrotoxin (i.e., picrotin and picrotoxinin) PMBA Riluzole Tropeines (e.g., bemesetron, LY-278584, tropisetron, zatosetron) Verapamil Zinc

NMDAR

See here instead.

Transporter (blockers)

GlyT1

ACPPB ALX-1393 ALX-5407 (NFPS) AMG-747 ASP2535 Bitopertin (RG1678/RO4917838) CP-802079 Ethanol (alcohol) Glycyldodecylamide GSK1018921 LY-2365109 ORG-24598 ORG-25935 (SCH-900435) PF-02545920 PF-03463275 PF-04958242 Sarcosine SSR-103,800 SSR-504,734

GlyT2

Amoxapine Ethanol (alcohol) NAGly Opiranserin (VVZ-149) ORG-25543 VVZ-368

See also Receptor/signaling modulators GABA receptor modulators GABAA receptor positive modulators Ionotropic glutamate receptor modulators

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Opioid receptor modulators

MOR

Agonists (abridged; see here for a full list): 3-HO-PCP 7-Acetoxymitragynine 7-Hydroxymitragynine ψ-Akuammigine α-Chlornaltrexamine α-Narcotine Acetyldihydrocodeine Acetylfentanyl Acrylfentanyl Adrenorphin (metorphamide) AH-7921 Akuammicine Akuammidine Alfentanil Anileridine Apparicine β-Endorphin BAM-12P BAM-18P BAM-22P Benzhydrocodone Benzylmorphine Bezitramide Biphalin BU08070 Buprenorphine Butorphan Butorphanol Butyrfentanyl BW-373U86 Carfentanil Casokefamide Cebranopadol Chloroxymorphamine Codeine DADLE DAMGO (DAGO) Dermorphin Desmetramadol (desmethyltramadol) Desomorphine Dextromoramide Dextropropoxyphene (propoxyphene) Dezocine Dimenoxadol Dimethylaminopivalophenone Eluxadoline Diamorphine (heroin) Dihydrocodeine Dihydroetorphine Dihydromorphine Diphenoxylate Dipipanone Dynorphin A Embutramide Endomorphin-1 Endomorphin-2 Eseroline Ethylmorphine Etorphine Fentanyl Fluorophen Frakefamide Furanylfentanyl Hemorphin-4 Herkinorin Hodgkinsine Hydrocodone Hydromorphinol Hydromorphone IBNtxA Ketamine Ketobemidone Kratom Laudanosine Lefetamine Leu-enkephalin Levacetylmethadol Levomethorphan Levorphanol Lexanopadol Loperamide Loxicodegol Matrine Meptazinol Met-enkephalin (metenkefalin) Methadone Metkefamide Metopon Mitragynine Mitragynine pseudoindoxyl Morphiceptin Morphine Nalbuphine Nalbuphine sebacate NalBzOH Nalmexone Naltalimide Neopine NFEPP Nicocodeine Nicodicodeine Nicomorphine NKTR-181 Norketamine Octreotide Oliceridine OM-3-MNZ Oripavine Oxycodone Oxymorphazone Oxymorphonazine Oxymorphone Oxymorphone phenylhydrazone OxyPNPH Papaver somniferum (opium) Pentazocine Pericine Pethidine (meperidine) Phenazocine Phencyclidine Piminodine Piritramide PL-017 Prodine Propiram PZM21 Racemethorphan Racemorphan Remifentanil Salsolinol SC-17599 Sinomenine Sufentanil Tapentadol Tetrahydropapaveroline TH-030418 Thebaine Thienorphine Tianeptine Tilidine Tramadol Trimebutine TRIMU 5 TRV734 Tubotaiwine U-47700 Valorphin Viminol Xorphanol

PAMs: BMS-986121 BMS-986122

Antagonists: (3S,4S)-Picenadol 2-(S)-N,N-(R)-Viminol 3CS-nalmefene 4-Caffeoyl-1,5-quinide 4′-Hydroxyflavanone 4',7-Dihydroxyflavone 6β-Naltrexol 6β-Naltrexol-d4 18-MC α-Gliadin β-Chlornaltrexamine β-Funaltrexamine Akuammine Alvimopan AM-251 Apigenin AT-076 Axelopran Bevenopran Catechin Catechin gallate Clocinnamox CTAP CTOP Cyclofoxy Cyprodime Diacetylnalorphine Diprenorphine ECG EGC Epicatechin Eptazocine Gemazocine Ginsenoside R Hyperoside Ibogaine Levallorphan Lobeline LY-255582 LY-2196044 Methocinnamox Methylnaltrexone Methylsamidorphan chloride Naldemedine Nalmefene Nalodeine (N-allylnorcodeine) Nalorphine Nalorphine dinicotinate Naloxazone Naloxegol Naloxol Naloxonazine Naloxone Naltrexazone Naltrexonazine Naltrexone Naltrindole Naringenin Noribogaine Oxilorphan Pawhuskin A Rimonabant Quadazocine Samidorphan Taxifolin

Unknown/unsorted: Cannabidiol Coronaridine Cyproterone acetate Dihydroakuuamine Tabernanthine Tetrahydrocannabinol

DOR

Agonists: 3CS-nalmefene 6'-GNTI 7-SIOM ADL-5747 (PF-04856881) ADL-5859 Alazocine (SKF-10047) Amoxapine AR-M100390 (ARM390) AZD2327 β-Endorphin BAM-18P Biphalin BU-48 Butorphan Butorphanol BW-373U86 Casokefamide Cebranopadol Codeine Cyclazocine DADLE Deltorphin A Deltorphin I Deltorphin II Desmethylclozapine Desmetramadol (desmethyltramadol) Dezocine Diamorphine (heroin) Dihydroetorphine Dihydromorphine DPDPE DPI-221 DPI-3290 DSLET Ethylketazocine Etorphine Fentanyl FIT Fluorophen Hemorphin-4 Hydrocodone Hydromorphone Ibogaine Isomethadone JNJ-20788560 KNT-127 Kratom Laudanosine Leu-enkephalin Levomethorphan Levorphanol Lexanopadol Lofentanil Met-enkephalin (metenkefalin) Metazocine Metkefamide Mitragynine Mitragynine pseudoindoxyl Morphine N-Phenethyl-14-ethoxymetopon Norbuprenorphine NalBzOH Oripavine Oxycodone Oxymorphone Pethidine (meperidine) Proglumide Racemethorphan Racemorphan RWJ-394674 Samidorphan SB-235863 SNC-80 SNC-162 TAN-67 (SB-205,607) TH-030418 Thebaine Thiobromadol (C-8813) Tonazocine Tramadol TRV250 Xorphanol Zenazocine

Antagonists: 4',7-Dihydroxyflavone 5'-NTII 6β-Naltrexol 6β-Naltrexol-d4 α-Santolol β-Chlornaltrexamine Apigenin AT-076 Axelopran Bevenopran BNTX Catechin Catechin gallate Clocinnamox Diacetylnalorphine Diprenorphine ECG EGC Eluxadoline Epicatechin ICI-154129 ICI-174864 LY-255582 LY-2196044 Methylnaltrexone Methylnaltrindole N-Benzylnaltrindole Nalmefene Nalorphine Naltrexone Naltriben Naltrindole Naloxone Naringenin Noribogaine Pawhuskin A Quadazocine SDM25N SoRI-9409 Taxifolin Thienorphine

Unknown/unsorted: 18-MC Cannabidiol Coronaridine Cyproterone acetate Tabernanthine Tetrahydrocannabinol

KOR

Agonists: 3CS-nalmefene 6'-GNTI 8-CAC 18-MC 14-Methoxymetopon β-Chlornaltrexamine β-Funaltrexamine Adrenorphin (metorphamide) Akuuamicine Alazocine (SKF-10047) Allomatrine Apadoline Asimadoline BAM-12P BAM-18P BAM-22P Big dynorphin Bremazocine BRL-52537 Butorphan Butorphanol BW-373U86 Cebranopadol Ciprefadol CR665 Cyclazocine Cyclorphan Cyprenorphine Desmetramadol (desmethyltramadol) Diamorphine (heroin) Diacetylnalorphine Difelikefalin Dihydroetorphine Dihydromorphine Diprenorphine Dynorphin A Dynorphin B (rimorphin) Eluxadoline Enadoline Eptazocine Erinacine E Ethylketazocine Etorphine Fedotozine Fentanyl Gemazocine GR-89696 GR-103545 Hemorphin-4 Herkinorin HS665 Hydromorphone HZ-2 Ibogaine ICI-199,441 ICI-204,448 Ketamine Ketazocine Laudanosine Leumorphin (dynorphin B-29) Levallorphan Levomethorphan Levorphanol Lexanopadol Lofentanil LPK-26 Lufuradom Matrine MB-1C-OH Menthol Metazocine Metkefamide Mianserin Mirtazapine Morphine Moxazocine MR-2034 N-MPPP Nalbuphine Nalbuphine sebacate NalBzOH Nalfurafine Nalmefene Nalodeine (N-allylnorcodeine) Nalorphine Naltriben Niravoline Norbuprenorphine Norbuprenorphine-3-glucuronide Noribogaine Norketamine Oripavine Oxilorphan Oxycodone Pentazocine Pethidine (meperidine) Phenazocine Proxorphan Racemethorphan Racemorphan RB-64 Salvinorin A (salvia) Salvinorin B ethoxymethyl ether Salvinorin B methoxymethyl ether Samidorphan Spiradoline (U-62,066) TH-030418 Thienorphine Tifluadom Tricyclic antidepressants (e.g., amitriptyline, desipramine, imipramine, nortriptyline) U-50,488 U-54,494A U-69,593 Xorphanol

Antagonists: 4′-Hydroxyflavanone 4',7-Dihydroxyflavone 5'-GNTI 6'-GNTI 6β-Naltrexol 6β-Naltrexol-d4 β-Chlornaltrexamine Buprenorphine/samidorphan Amentoflavone ANTI Apigenin Arodyne AT-076 Axelopran AZ-MTAB Binaltorphimine BU09059 Buprenorphine Catechin Catechin gallate CERC-501 (LY-2456302) Clocinnamox Cyclofoxy Dezocine DIPPA EGC ECG Epicatechin Hyperoside JDTic LY-255582 LY-2196044 LY-2444296 LY-2459989 LY-2795050 MeJDTic Methylnaltrexone ML190 ML350 MR-2266 N-Fluoropropyl-JDTic Naloxone Naltrexone Naltrindole Naringenin Norbinaltorphimine Noribogaine Pawhuskin A PF-4455242 RB-64 Quadazocine Taxifolin UPHIT Zyklophin

Unknown/unsorted: Akuammicine Akuammine Coronaridine Cyproterone acetate Dihydroakuuamine Ibogamine Tabernanthine

NOP

Agonists: (Arg14,Lys15)Nociceptin ((pF)Phe4)Nociceptin(1-13)NH2 (Phe1Ψ(CH2-NH)Gly2)Nociceptin(1-13)NH2 Ac-RYYRWK-NH2 Ac-RYYRIK-NH2 BU08070 Buprenorphine Cebranopadol Dihydroetorphine Etorphine JNJ-19385899 Levomethorphan Levorphanol Levorphanol Lexanopadol MCOPPB MT-7716 NNC 63-0532 Nociceptin (orphanin FQ) Nociceptin (1-11) Nociceptin (1-13)NH2 Norbuprenorphine Racemethorphan Racemorphan Ro64-6198 Ro65-6570 SCH-221510 SCH-486757 SR-8993 SR-16435 TH-030418

Antagonists: (Nphe1)Nociceptin(1-13)NH2 AT-076 BAN-ORL-24 BTRX-246040 (LY-2940094) J-113397 JTC-801 NalBzOH Nociceptin (1-7) Nocistatin SB-612111 SR-16430 Thienorphine Trap-101 UFP-101

Unsorted

β-Casomorphins Amidorphin BAM-20P Cytochrophin-4 Deprolorphin Gliadorphin (gluteomorphin) Gluten exorphins Hemorphins Kava constituents MEAGL MEAP NEM Neoendorphins Nepetalactone (catnip) Peptide B Peptide E Peptide F Peptide I Rubiscolins Soymorphins

Others

Enkephalinase inhibitors: Amastatin BL-2401 Candoxatril D -Phenylalanine Dexecadotril (retorphan) Ecadotril (sinorphan) Kelatorphan Racecadotril (acetorphan) RB-101 RB-120 RB-3007 Opiorphan Selank Semax Spinorphin Thiorphan Tynorphin Ubenimex (bestatin)

Propeptides: β-Lipotropin (proendorphin) Prodynorphin Proenkephalin Pronociceptin Proopiomelanocortin (POMC)

Others: Kyotorphin (met-enkephalin releaser/degradation stabilizer)

See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators

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TRP channel modulators

TRPA

Activators

4-Hydroxynonenal 4-Oxo-2-nonenal 4,5-EET 12S-HpETE 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 α-Sanshool (ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) Acrolein Allicin (garlic) Allyl isothiocyanate (mustard, radish, horseradish, wasabi) AM404 Bradykinin Cannabichromene (cannabis) Cannabidiol (cannabis) Cannabigerol (cannabis) Cinnamaldehyde (cinnamon) CR gas (dibenzoxazepine; DBO) CS gas (2-chlorobenzal malononitrile) Curcumin (turmeric) Dehydroligustilide (celery) Diallyl disulfide Dicentrine (Lindera spp.) Farnesyl thiosalicylic acid Formalin Gingerols (ginger) Hepoxilin A3 Hepoxilin B3 Hydrogen peroxide Icilin Isothiocyanate Ligustilide (celery, Angelica acutiloba) Linalool (Sichuan pepper, thyme) Methylglyoxal Methyl salicylate (wintergreen) N-Methylmaleimide Nicotine (tobacco) Oleocanthal (olive oil) Paclitaxel (Pacific yew) Paracetamol (acetaminophen) PF-4840154 Phenacyl chloride Polygodial (Dorrigo pepper) Shogaols (ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) Tear gases Tetrahydrocannabinol (cannabis) Thiopropanal S-oxide (onion) Umbellulone (Umbellularia californica) WIN 55,212-2

Blockers

Dehydroligustilide (celery) Nicotine (tobacco) Ruthenium red

TRPC

Activators

Adhyperforin (St John's wort) Diacyl glycerol GSK1702934A Hyperforin (St John's wort) Substance P

Blockers

DCDPC DHEA-S Flufenamic acid GSK417651A GSK2293017A Meclofenamic acid N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid Niflumic acid Pregnenolone sulfate Progesterone Pyr3 Tolfenamic acid

TRPM

Activators

ADP-ribose BCTC Calcium (intracellular) Cold Coolact P Cooling Agent 10 CPS-369 Eucalyptol (eucalyptus) Frescolat MGA Frescolat ML Geraniol Hydroxycitronellal Icilin Linalool Menthol (mint) PMD 38 Pregnenolone sulfate Rutamarin (Ruta graveolens) Steviol glycosides (e.g., stevioside) (Stevia rebaudiana) Sweet tastants (e.g., glucose, fructose, sucrose; indirectly) Thio-BCTC WS-3 WS-12 WS-23

Blockers

Capsazepine Clotrimazole DCDPC Flufenamic acid Meclofenamic acid Mefenamic acid N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid Nicotine (tobacco) Niflumic acid Ruthenium red Rutamarin (Ruta graveolens) Tolfenamic acid TPPO

TRPML

Activators

MK6-83 PI(3,5)P2 SF-22

TRPP

Activators

Triptolide (Tripterygium wilfordii)

Blockers

Ruthenium red

TRPV

Activators

2-APB 5',6'-EET 9-HODE 9-oxoODE 12S-HETE 12S-HpETE 13-HODE 13-oxoODE 20-HETE α-Sanshool (ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) Allicin (garlic) AM404 Anandamide Bisandrographolide (Andrographis paniculata) Camphor (camphor laurel, rosemary, camphorweed, African blue basil, camphor basil) Cannabidiol (cannabis) Cannabidivarin (cannabis) Capsaicin (chili pepper) Carvacrol (oregano, thyme, pepperwort, wild bergamot, others) DHEA Diacyl glycerol Dihydrocapsaicin (chili pepper) Estradiol Eugenol (basil, clove) Evodiamine (Euodia ruticarpa) Gingerols (ginger) GSK1016790A Heat Hepoxilin A3 Hepoxilin B3 Homocapsaicin (chili pepper) Homodihydrocapsaicin (chili pepper) Incensole (incense) Lysophosphatidic acid Low pH (acidic conditions) Menthol (mint) N-Arachidonoyl dopamine N-Oleoyldopamine N-Oleoylethanolamide Nonivamide (PAVA) (PAVA spray) Nordihydrocapsaicin (chili pepper) Paclitaxel (Pacific yew) Paracetamol (acetaminophen) Phorbol esters (e.g., 4α-PDD) Piperine (black pepper, long pepper) Polygodial (Dorrigo pepper) Probenecid Protons RhTx Rutamarin (Ruta graveolens) Resiniferatoxin (RTX) (Euphorbia resinifera/pooissonii) Shogaols (ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) Tetrahydrocannabivarin (cannabis) Thymol (thyme, oregano) Tinyatoxin (Euphorbia resinifera/pooissonii) Tramadol Vanillin (vanilla) Zucapsaicin

Blockers

α-Spinasterol (Vernonia tweediana) AMG-517 Asivatrep BCTC Cannabigerol (cannabis) Cannabigerolic acid (cannabis) Cannabigerovarin (cannabis) Cannabinol (cannabis) Capsazepine DCDPC DHEA DHEA-S Flufenamic acid GRC-6211 HC-067047 Lanthanum Meclofenamic acid N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid NGD-8243 Niflumic acid Pregnenolone sulfate RN-1734 RN-9893 Ruthenium red SB-705498 Tivanisiran Tolfenamic acid

See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Ion channel modulators

v t e

Xenobiotic-sensing receptor modulators

CAR

Agonists: 6,7-Dimethylesculetin Amiodarone Artemisinin Benfuracarb Carbamazepine Carvedilol Chlorpromazine Chrysin CITCO Clotrimazole Cyclophosphamide Cypermethrin DHEA (prasterone) Efavirenz Ellagic acid Griseofulvin Methoxychlor Mifepristone Nefazodone Nevirapine Nicardipine Octicizer Permethrin Phenobarbital Phenytoin Pregnanedione (5β-dihydroprogesterone) Reserpine TCPOBOP Telmisartan Tolnaftate Troglitazone Valproic acid

Antagonists: 3,17β-Estradiol 3α-Androstanol 3α-Androstenol 3β-Androstanol 17-Androstanol AITC Ethinylestradiol Meclizine Nigramide J Okadaic acid PK-11195 S-07662 T-0901317

PXR

Agonists: 17α-Hydroxypregnenolone 17α-Hydroxyprogesterone Δ4-Androstenedione Δ5-Androstenediol Δ5-Androstenedione AA-861 Allopregnanediol Allopregnanedione (5α-dihydroprogesterone) Allopregnanolone (brexanolone) Alpha-Lipoic acid Ambrisentan AMI-193 Amlodipine besylate Antimycotics Artemisinin Aurothioglucose Bile acids Bithionol Bosentan Bumecaine Cafestol Cephaloridine Cephradine Chlorpromazine Ciglitazone Clindamycin Clofenvinfos Chloroxine Clotrimazole Colforsin Corticosterone Cyclophosphamide Cyproterone acetate Demecolcine Dexamethasone DHEA (prasterone) DHEA-S (prasterone sulfate) Dibunate sodium Diclazuril Dicloxacillin Dimercaprol Dinaline Docetaxel Docusate calcium Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid Dronabinol Droxidopa Eburnamonine Ecopipam Enzacamene Epothilone B Erythromycin Famprofazone Febantel Felodipine Fenbendazole Fentanyl Flucloxacillin Fluorometholone Griseofulvin Guggulsterone Haloprogin Hetacillin potassium Hyperforin Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort) Indinavir sulfate Lasalocid sodium Levothyroxine Linolenic acid LOE-908 Loratadine Lovastatin Meclizine Metacycline Methylprednisolone Metyrapone Mevastatin Mifepristone Nafcillin Nicardipine Nicotine Nifedipine Nilvadipine Nisoldipine Norelgestromin Omeprazole Orlistat Oxatomide Paclitaxel Phenobarbital Piperine Plicamycin Prednisolone Pregnanediol Pregnanedione (5β-dihydroprogesterone) Pregnanolone Pregnenolone Pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile Proadifen Progesterone Quingestrone Reserpine Reverse triiodothyronine Rifampicin Rifaximin Rimexolone Riodipine Ritonavir Simvastatin Sirolimus Spironolactone Spiroxatrine SR-12813 Suberoylanilide Sulfisoxazole Suramin Tacrolimus Tenylidone Terconazole Testosterone isocaproate Tetracycline Thiamylal sodium Thiothixene Thonzonium bromide Tianeptine Troglitazone Troleandomycin Tropanyl 3,5-dimethulbenzoate Zafirlukast Zeranol

Antagonists: Ketoconazole Sesamin

See also Receptor/signaling modulators Nuclear r

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