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The Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate
Sultanate
(Persian:دهلی سلطان, Urdu:دہلی سلیٹیٹ) was a Muslim
Muslim
sultanate based mostly in Delhi
Delhi
that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
for 320 years (1206–1526).[5][6] Five dynasties ruled over the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate sequentially: the Mamluk
Mamluk
dynasty (1206–90), the Khalji dynasty (1290–1320), the Tughlaq dynasty
Tughlaq dynasty
(1320–1414),[7] the Sayyid dynasty (1414–51), and the Lodi dynasty
Lodi dynasty
(1451–1526). The sultanate is noted for being one of the few states to repel an attack by the Mongol Empire,[8] and enthroned one of the few female rulers in Islamic history, Razia Sultana, who reigned from 1236 to 1240.[9] Qutb al-Din Aibak, a former Turkic Mamluk
Mamluk
slave of Muhammad Ghori, was the first sultan of Delhi, and his Mamluk
Mamluk
dynasty conquered large areas of northern India. Afterwards, the Khalji dynasty
Khalji dynasty
was also able to conquer most of central India, but both failed to conquer the whole of the Indian subcontinent. The sultanate reached the peak of its geographical reach during the Tughlaq dynasty, occupying most of the Indian subcontinent.[10] This was followed by decline due to Hindu reconquests, states such as the Vijayanagara Empire
Vijayanagara Empire
asserting independence, and new Muslim
Muslim
sultanates such as the Bengal
Bengal
Sultanate breaking off.[11][12] During and in the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate, there was a synthesis of Indian civilization with that of Islamic civilization, and the further integration of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
with a growing world system and wider international networks spanning large parts of Afro-Eurasia, which had a significant impact on Indian culture
Indian culture
and society, as well as the wider world.[13] The time of their rule included the earliest forms of Indo-Islamic architecture,[14][15] increased growth rates in India's population and economy,[16] and the emergence of the Hindi- Urdu
Urdu
language.[17] The Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate
Sultanate
was also responsible for repelling the Mongol Empire's potentially devastating invasions of India
India
in the 13th and 14th centuries.[18] However, the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate also caused large scale destruction and desecration of temples in the Indian subcontinent.[19] In 1526, the Sultanate
Sultanate
was conquered and succeeded by the Mughal Empire.

Contents

1 Background 2 Sultans of Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate 3 Dynasties

3.1 Mamluk
Mamluk
/ Slave 3.2 Khalji 3.3 Tughlaq 3.4 Sayyid 3.5 Lodi

4 Economy 5 Demographics 6 Culture 7 Military 8 Temple desecration 9 See also 10 References

10.1 Bibliography

11 External links

Background[edit] See also: Mamluk, Turkic migration, and Turkish slaves in the Delhi Sultanate The context behind the rise of the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate
Sultanate
in India
India
was part of a wider trend affecting much of the Asian continent, including the whole of southern and western Asia: the influx of nomadic Turkic peoples from the Central Asian
Central Asian
steppes. This can be traced back to the 9th century, when the Islamic Caliphate
Caliphate
began fragmenting in the Middle East, where Muslim
Muslim
rulers in rival states began enslaving non- Muslim
Muslim
nomadic Turks from the Central Asian
Central Asian
steppes, and raising many of them to become loyal military slaves called Mamluks. Soon, Turks were migrating to Muslim
Muslim
lands and becoming Islamicized. Many of the Turkic Mamluk
Mamluk
slaves eventually rose up to become rulers, and conquered large parts of the Muslim
Muslim
world, establishing Mamluk Sultanates from Egypt to Afghanistan, before turning their attention to the Indian subcontinent.[18] It is also part of a longer trend predating the spread of Islam. Like other settled, agrarian societies in history, those in the Indian subcontinent have been attacked by nomadic tribes throughout its long history. In evaluating the impact of Islam on the subcontinent, one must note that the northwestern subcontinent was a frequent target of tribes raiding from Central Asia
Asia
in the pre-Islamic era. In that sense, the Muslim
Muslim
intrusions and later Muslim
Muslim
invasions were not dissimilar to those of the earlier invasions during the 1st millennium.[20] By 962 AD, Hindu
Hindu
and Buddhist kingdoms in South Asia
Asia
were under a wave of raids from Muslim
Muslim
armies from Central Asia.[21] Among them was Mahmud of Ghazni, the son of a Turkic Mamluk
Mamluk
military slave,[22] who raided and plundered kingdoms in north India
India
from east of the Indus river to west of Yamuna river seventeen times between 997 and 1030.[23] Mahmud of Ghazni
Mahmud of Ghazni
raided the treasuries but retracted each time, only extending Islamic rule into western Punjab.[24][25] The wave of raids on north Indian and western Indian kingdoms by Muslim
Muslim
warlords continued after Mahmud of Ghazni.[26] The raids did not establish or extend permanent boundaries of their Islamic kingdoms. The Ghurid sultan Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori, commonly known as Muhammad of Ghor, began a systematic war of expansion into north India
India
in 1173.[27] He sought to carve out a principality for himself by expanding the Islamic world.[23][28] Muhammad of Ghor sought a Sunni
Sunni
Islamic kingdom of his own extending east of the Indus river, and he thus laid the foundation for the Muslim
Muslim
kingdom called the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate.[23] Some historians chronicle the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate from 1192 due to the presence and geographical claims of Muhammad Ghori in South Asia
Asia
by that time.[29] Ghori was assassinated in 1206, by Ismāʿīlī Shia
Shia
Muslims in some accounts or by Hindu
Hindu
Khokhars in others.[30] After the assassination, one of Ghori's slaves (or mamluks, Arabic: مملوك), the Turkic Qutb al-Din Aibak, assumed power, becoming the first Sultan
Sultan
of Delhi.[23] Sultans of Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate[edit]

Sultans (Kings/Rulers) King in Death Note

Qutb-ud-din Aibak 1206 1210 First Sultan

Aram Shah 1210 1211

Iltutmish 1211 1236

Rukn-ud-din Firuz 1236 1236

Razia Sultan 1236 1240 Lady Ruler

Muiz ud din Bahram 1240 1243

Ala ud din Masud 1243 1249

Nasir ud din Mahmud 1249 1266

Ghiyas ud din Balban 1266 1287

Muiz ud din Qaiqabad 1287 1290

Jalaluddin Khilji 1290 1296

Alauddin Khilji 1296 1316

Shihabuddin Omar 1316 1316

Qutb-ud-din Mubarak 1316 1320

Khusrau Khan 1320 1321

Dynasties[edit]

Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate

Ruling dynasties

Mamluk
Mamluk
dynasty

Qutb al-Din Aibak 1206–1210

Aram Shah 1210–1211

Iltutmish 1211–1236

Rukn ud din Firuz 1236

Razia Sultana 1236-1240

Muiz ud din Bahram 1240–1242

Ala ud din Masud 1242–1246

Nasir ud din Mahmud 1246–1266

Ghiyas ud din Balban 1266–1287

Muiz ud din Qaiqabad 1287–1290

Shamsuddin Kayumars 1290

Khalji dynasty

Jalaluddin 1290–1296

Alauddin 1296–1316

Shihabuddin Omar 1316

Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah 1316–1320

Khusro Khan 1320

Tughlaq dynasty

Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq 1320–1325

Muhammad bin Tughluq 1325–1351

Firuz Shah Tughlaq 1351–1388

Tughluq Khan 1388–1389

Abu Bakr Shah 1389–1390

Nasir ud din Muhammad Shah III 1390–1393

Ala ud-din Sikandar Shah 1393

Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq 1394–1412/1413

Nasir-ud-din Nusrat Shah Tughluq 1394–1398

Sayyid dynasty

Khizr Khan 1414–1421

Mubarak Shah 1421–1434

Muhammad Shah 1434–1445

Alam Shah 1445–1451

Lodi dynasty

Bahlul Khan Lodi 1451–1489

Sikandar Lodi 1489–1517

Ibrahim Lodi 1517–1526

v t e

Mamluk
Mamluk
/ Slave[edit] Main article: Mamluk
Mamluk
Dynasty (Delhi) Qutb al-Din Aibak, a former slave of Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori (known more commonly as Muhammad of Ghor), was the first ruler of the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate. Aibak was of Cuman-Kipchak (Turkic) origin, and due to his lineage, his dynasty is known as the Mamluk
Mamluk
(Slave) dynasty (not to be confused with the Mamluk
Mamluk
dynasty of Iraq or the Mamluk dynasty of Egypt).[31] Aibak reigned as the Sultan
Sultan
of Delhi
Delhi
for four years, from 1206 to 1210. After Aibak died, Aram Shah assumed power in 1210, but he was assassinated in 1211 by Shams ud-Din Iltutmish.[32] Iltutmish's power was precarious, and a number of Muslim
Muslim
amirs (nobles) challenged his authority as they had been supporters of Qutb al-Din Aibak. After a series of conquests and brutal executions of opposition, Iltutmish consolidated his power.[33] His rule was challenged a number of times, such as by Qubacha, and this led to a series of wars.[34] Iltumish conquered Multan
Multan
and Bengal
Bengal
from contesting Muslim
Muslim
rulers, as well as Ranthambore and Siwalik
Siwalik
from the Hindu
Hindu
rulers. He also attacked, defeated, and executed Taj al-Din Yildiz, who asserted his rights as heir to Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori.[35] Iltutmish's rule lasted till 1236. Following his death, the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate
Sultanate
saw a succession of weak rulers, disputing Muslim
Muslim
nobility, assassinations, and short-lived tenures. Power shifted from Rukn ud-Din Firuz to Razia Sultana and others, until Ghiyas ud-Din Balban came to power and ruled from 1266 to 1287.[34][35] He was succeeded by 17-year-old Muiz ud-Din Qaiqabad, who appointed Jalal ud-Din Firuz Khalji as the commander of the army. Khalji assassinated Qaiqabad and assumed power, thus ending the Mamluk
Mamluk
dynasty and starting the Khalji dynasty. Qutb al-Din Aibak initiated the construction of the Qutub Minar[36] and the Quwwat-ul-Islam (Might of Islam) Mosque, now a UNESCO world heritage site.[37] It was built from the remains of twenty seven demolished Hindu
Hindu
and Jain temples. The Qutub Minar
Qutub Minar
Complex or Qutb Complex was expanded by Iltutmish, and later by Ala ud-Din Khalji (the second ruler of the Khalji dynasty) in the early 14th century.[37][38] During the Mamluk
Mamluk
dynasty, many nobles from Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Persia migrated and settled in India, as West Asia
Asia
came under Mongol siege.[39] Khalji[edit] Main article: Khalji dynasty See also: Mongol invasions
Mongol invasions
of India

Alai Gate and Qutub Minar
Qutub Minar
were built during the Mamluk
Mamluk
and Khalji dynasties of the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate.[37]

The Khalji dynasty
Khalji dynasty
was of Turko-Afghan
Turko-Afghan
heritage.[40][41][42][43] They trace their roots to Central Asia
Asia
and were originally of Turkic origin.[44] They had long been settled in present-day Afghanistan before proceeding to Delhi
Delhi
in India. The name "Khalji" refers to an Afghan village or town known as Qalat-e Khalji (Fort of Ghilji).[45] Sometimes they were treated by others as ethnic Afghans due to their adoption of Afghan habits and customs.[46][47] As a result of this, the dynasty is sometimes referred to as Turko-Afghan.[41][42][43] The dynasty later also had Indian ancestry, through Jhatyapali (daughter of Ramachandra of Devagiri), wife of Alauddin Khalji
Alauddin Khalji
and mother of Shihabuddin Omar.[48] The first ruler of the Khalji dynasty
Khalji dynasty
was Jalal ud-Din Firuz Khalji. He came to power in 1290 after killing the last ruler of the Mamluk dynasty, Muiz ud-Din Qaiqabad, with the support of Turkic and Afghan nobles. He was around 70 years old at the time of his ascension, and was known as a mild-mannered, humble and kind monarch to the general public.[49][50] Jalal ud-Din Firuz was of Turko Afghan origin,[51][52][53] and ruled for 6 years before he was murdered in 1296 by his nephew and son-in-law Juna Muhammad Khalji,[54] who later came to be known as Ala ud-Din Khalji. Ala ud-Din began his military career as governor of Kara province, from where he led two raids on Malwa
Malwa
(1292) and Devagiri
Devagiri
(1294) for plunder and loot. His military campaigning returned to these lands as well other south Indian kingdoms after he assumed power. He conquered Gujarat, Ranthambore, Chittor, and Malwa.[55] However, these victories were cut short because of Mongol attacks and plunder raids from the northwest. The Mongols withdrew after plundering and stopped raiding northwest parts of the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate.[56] After the Mongols withdrew, Ala ud-Din Khalji continued expanding the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate
Sultanate
into southern India
India
with the help of generals such as Malik Kafur
Malik Kafur
and Khusro Khan. They collected lots of war booty (anwatan) from those they defeated.[57] His commanders collected war spoils and paid ghanima (Arabic: الْغَنيمَة, a tax on spoils of war), which helped strengthen the Khalji rule. Among the spoils was the Warangal
Warangal
loot that included the famous Koh-i-noor
Koh-i-noor
diamond.[58] Ala ud-Din Khalji changed tax policies, raising agriculture taxes from 20% to 50% (payable in grain and agricultural produce), eliminating payments and commissions on taxes collected by local chiefs, banned socialization among his officials as well as inter-marriage between noble families to help prevent any opposition forming against him, and he cut salaries of officials, poets, and scholars.[54] These tax policies and spending controls strengthened his treasury to pay the keep of his growing army; he also introduced price controls on all agriculture produce and goods in the kingdom, as well as controls on where, how, and by whom these goods could be sold. Markets called "shahana-i-mandi" were created.[59] Muslim
Muslim
merchants were granted exclusive permits and monopoly in these "mandis" to buy and resell at official prices. No one other than these merchants could buy from farmers or sell in cities. Those found violating these "mandi" rules were severely punished, often by mutilation. Taxes collected in the form of grain were stored in the kingdom's storage. During famines that followed, these granaries ensured sufficient food for the army.[54] Historians note Ala ud-Din Khalji as being a tyrant. Anyone Ala ud-Din suspected of being a threat to this power was killed along with the women and children of that family. In 1298, between 15,000 and 30,000 people near Delhi, who had recently converted to Islam, were slaughtered in a single day, due to fears of an uprising.[60] He is also known for his cruelty against kingdoms he defeated in battle. After Ala ud-Din's death in 1316, his eunuch general Malik Kafur, who was born in a Hindu
Hindu
family in India
India
and had converted to Islam, tried to assume power. He lacked the support of Persian and Turkic nobility and was subsequently killed.[54] The last Khalji ruler was Ala ud-Din Khalji's 18-year-old son Qutb ud-Din Mubarak Shah Khalji, who ruled for four years before he was killed by Khusro Khan, another of Ala ud-Din's generals. Khusro Khan's reign lasted only a few months, when Ghazi Malik, later to be called Ghiyath al-Din Tughlaq, killed him and assumed power in 1320, thus ending the Khalji dynasty
Khalji dynasty
and starting the Tughlaq dynasty.[39][60] Tughlaq[edit] Main article: Tughlaq dynasty

Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate
Sultanate
from 1321-1330 AD under the Tughlaq dynasty. After 1330, various regions rebelled against the Sultanate
Sultanate
and the kingdom shrank.

The Tughlaq dynasty
Tughlaq dynasty
lasted from 1320 to nearly the end of the 14th century. The first ruler Ghazi Malik rechristened himself as Ghiyath al-Din Tughlaq and is also referred to in scholarly works as Tughlak Shah. He was of Turko-Indian origins; his father was a Turkic slave and his mother was a Hindu.[1] Ghiyath al-Din ruled for five years and built a town near Delhi
Delhi
named Tughlaqabad.[citation needed] According to some historians such as Vincent Smith,[61] he was killed by his son Juna Khan, who then assumed power in 1325. Juna Khan rechristened himself as Muhammad bin Tughlaq and ruled for 26 years.[62] During his rule, Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate
Sultanate
reached its peak in terms of geographical reach, covering most of the Indian subcontinent.[10] Muhammad bin Tughlaq was an intellectual, with extensive knowledge of the Quran, Fiqh, poetry and other fields. He was also deeply suspicious of his kinsmen and wazirs (ministers), extremely severe with his opponents, and took decisions that caused economic upheaval. For example, he ordered minting of coins from base metals with face value of silver coins - a decision that failed because ordinary people minted counterfeit coins from base metal they had in their houses and used them to pay taxes and jizya.[10][61]

Muhammad bin Tughlaq moved his capital to the Deccan Plateau, and build a new capital called Daulatabad (shown). He later reversed his decision because Daulatabad lacked the fresh water supply that Delhi had.[61]

A base metal coin of Muhammad bin Tughlaq that led to an economic collapse.

On another occasion, after becoming upset by some accounts, or to run the Sultanate
Sultanate
from the center of India
India
by other accounts, Muhammad bin Tughlaq ordered the transfer of his capital from Delhi
Delhi
to Devagiri
Devagiri
in modern-day Maharashtra
Maharashtra
(renaming it to Daulatabad), by forcing the mass migration of Delhi's population. Those who refused were killed. One blind person who failed to move to Daulatabad was dragged for the entire journey of 40 days - the man died, his body fell apart, and only his tied leg reached Daulatabad.[61] The capital move failed because Daulatabad was arid and did not have enough drinking water to support the new capital. The capital then returned to Delhi. Nevertheless, Muhammad bin Tughlaq's orders affected history as a large number of Delhi
Delhi
Muslims who came to the Deccan area did not return to Delhi
Delhi
to live near Muhammad bin Tughlaq. This influx of the then- Delhi
Delhi
residents into the Deccan region led to a growth of Muslim population in central and southern India.[10] Muhammad bin Tughlaq's adventures in the Deccan region also marked campaigns of destruction and desecration of Hindu
Hindu
and Jain temples, for example the Swayambhu Shiva Temple and the Thousand Pillar Temple.[63] Revolts against Muhammad bin Tughlaq began in 1327, continued over his reign, and over time the geographical reach of the Sultanate
Sultanate
shrunk. The Vijayanagara Empire
Vijayanagara Empire
originated in southern India
India
as a direct response to attacks from the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate.,[64] and liberated south India
India
from the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate's rule.[65] In 1337, Muhammad bin Tughlaq ordered an attack on China,[citation needed] sending part of his forces over the Himalayas. Few survived the journey, and they were executed upon their return for failing.[61] During his reign, state revenues collapsed from his policies such as the base metal coins from 1329-1332. To cover state expenses, he sharply raised taxes. Those who failed to pay taxes were hunted and executed. Famines, widespread poverty, and rebellion grew across the kingdom. In 1338 his own nephew rebelled in Malwa, whom he attacked, caught, and flayed alive.[citation needed] By 1339, the eastern regions under local Muslim
Muslim
governors and southern parts led by Hindu
Hindu
kings had revolted and declared independence from the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate. Muhammad bin Tughlaq did not have the resources or support to respond to the shrinking kingdom.[66] The historian Walford chronicled Delhi
Delhi
and most of India
India
faced severe famines during Muhammad bin Tughlaq's rule in the years after the base metal coin experiment.[67][68] By 1347, the Bahmani Sultanate
Sultanate
had become an independent and competing Muslim kingdom in Deccan region of South Asia.[21]

The Tughlaq dynasty
Tughlaq dynasty
is remembered for its architectural patronage, particularly for ancient lats (pillars, left image),[69] dated to be from the 3rd century BC, and of Buddhist and Hindu
Hindu
origins. The Sultanate
Sultanate
initially wanted to use the pillars to make mosque minarets. Firuz Shah Tughlaq
Firuz Shah Tughlaq
decided otherwise and had them installed near mosques. The meaning of Brahmi script on the pillar at right was unknown in Firuz Shah's time.[70] The inscription was deciphered by James Prinsep in 1837; the pillar script of Emperor Ashoka
Ashoka
asked people of his and future generations to seek a dharmic (virtuous) life, use persuasion in religion, grant freedom from religious persecution, stop all killing, and be compassionate to all living beings.[71]

Muhammad bin Tughlaq died in 1351 while trying to chase and punish people in Gujarat
Gujarat
who were rebelling against the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate.[66] He was succeeded by Firuz Shah Tughlaq
Firuz Shah Tughlaq
(1351–1388), who tried to regain the old kingdom boundary by waging a war with Bengal
Bengal
for 11 months in 1359. However, Bengal
Bengal
did not fall. Firuz Shah ruled for 37 years. His reign attempted to stabilize the food supply and reduce famines by commissioning an irrigation canal from the Yamuna river. An educated sultan, Firuz Shah left a memoir.[72] In it he wrote that he banned the practice of torture, such as amputations, tearing out of eyes, sawing people alive, crushing people's bones as punishment, pouring molten lead into throats, setting people on fire, driving nails into hands and feet, among others.[73] He also wrote that he did not tolerate attempts by Rafawiz Shia
Shia
Muslim
Muslim
and Mahdi
Mahdi
sects from proselytizing people into their faith, nor did he tolerate Hindus who tried to rebuild temples that his armies had destroyed.[74] As punishment for proselytizing, Firuz Shah put many Shias, Mahdi, and Hindus to death (siyasat). Firuz Shah Tughlaq
Firuz Shah Tughlaq
also lists his accomplishments to include converting Hindus to Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam
by announcing an exemption from taxes and jizya for those who convert, and by lavishing new converts with presents and honours. Simultaneously, he raised taxes and jizya, assessing it at three levels, and stopping the practice of his predecessors who had historically exempted all Hindu
Hindu
Brahmins from the jizya.[73][75] He also vastly expanded the number of slaves in his service and those of Muslim
Muslim
nobles. The reign of Firuz Shah Tughlaq
Firuz Shah Tughlaq
was marked by reduction in extreme forms of torture, eliminating favours to select parts of society, but also increased intolerance and persecution of targeted groups.[73] The death of Firuz Shah Tughlaq
Firuz Shah Tughlaq
created anarchy and disintegration of the kingdom. The last rulers of this dynasty both called themselves Sultan
Sultan
from 1394 to 1397: Nasir ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughlaq, the grandson of Firuz Shah Tughlaq
Firuz Shah Tughlaq
who ruled from Delhi, and Nasir ud-Din Nusrat Shah Tughlaq, another relative of Firuz Shah Tughlaq
Firuz Shah Tughlaq
who ruled from Firozabad, which was a few miles from Delhi.[76] The battle between the two relatives continued till Timur's invasion in 1398. Timur, also known as Tamerlane in Western scholarly literature, was the Turkic ruler of the Timurid Empire. He became aware of the weakness and quarreling of the rulers of the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate, so he marched with his army to Delhi, plundering and killing all the way.[77][78] Estimates for the massacre by Timur
Timur
in Dehli range from 100,000 to 200,000 people.[79][80] Timur
Timur
had no intention of staying in or ruling India. He looted the lands he crossed, then plundered and burnt Delhi. Over five days, Timur
Timur
and his army raged a massacre.[citation needed] Then he collected and carried the wealth, captured women and slaves (particularly skilled artisans), and returned to Samarkand. The people and lands within the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate were left in a state of anarchy, chaos, and pestilence.[76] Nasir ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughlaq, who had fled to Gujarat
Gujarat
during Timur's invasion, returned and nominally ruled as the last ruler of Tughlaq dynasty, as a puppet of various factions at the court.[81][citation needed] Sayyid[edit] Main article: Sayyid dynasty The Sayyid dynasty
Sayyid dynasty
was a Turkic dynasty[82] that ruled the Delhi Sultanate
Sultanate
from 1415 to 1451.[21] The Timurid invasion and plunder had left the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate
Sultanate
in shambles, and little is known about the rule by the Sayyid dynasty. Annemarie Schimmel
Annemarie Schimmel
notes the first ruler of the dynasty as Khizr Khan, who assumed power by claiming to represent Timur. His authority was questioned even by those near Delhi. His successor was Mubarak Khan, who rechristened himself as Mubarak Shah and tried to regain lost territories in Punjab, unsuccessfully.[81] With the power of the Sayyid dynasty
Sayyid dynasty
faltering, Islam's history on the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
underwent a profound change, according to Schimmel.[81] The previously dominant Sunni
Sunni
sect of Islam became diluted, alternate Muslim
Muslim
sects such as Shia
Shia
rose, and new competing centers of Islamic culture took roots beyond Delhi. The Sayyid dynasty
Sayyid dynasty
was displaced by the Lodi dynasty
Lodi dynasty
in 1451. Lodi[edit] Main article: Lodi dynasty

Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate
Sultanate
during Babur's invasion.

The Lodi dynasty
Lodi dynasty
belonged to the Pashtun[83] (Afghan) Lodi tribe.[82] Bahlul Khan Lodi
Bahlul Khan Lodi
started the Lodi dynasty
Lodi dynasty
and was the first Pashtun, to rule the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate.[84] Bahlul Lodi began his reign by attacking the Muslim
Muslim
Jaunpur Sultanate
Sultanate
to expand the influence of the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate, and was partially successful through a treaty. Thereafter, the region from Delhi
Delhi
to Varanasi
Varanasi
(then at the border of Bengal
Bengal
province), was back under influence of Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate. After Bahlul Lodi died, his son Nizam Khan assumed power, rechristened himself as Sikandar Lodi
Sikandar Lodi
and ruled from 1489 to 1517.[85] One of the better known rulers of the dynasty, Sikandar Lodi
Sikandar Lodi
expelled his brother Barbak Shah from Jaunpur, installed his son Jalal Khan as the ruler, then proceeded east to make claims on Bihar. The Muslim
Muslim
governors of Bihar
Bihar
agreed to pay tribute and taxes, but operated independent of the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate. Sikandar Lodi
Sikandar Lodi
led a campaign of destruction of temples, particularly around Mathura. He also moved his capital and court from Delhi
Delhi
to Agra,[86][citation needed] an ancient Hindu
Hindu
city that had been destroyed during the plunder and attacks of the early Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate
Sultanate
period. Sikandar thus erected buildings with Indo-Islamic architecture
Indo-Islamic architecture
in Agra
Agra
during his rule, and the growth of Agra
Agra
continued during the Mughal Empire, after the end of Delhi Sultanate.[84][87] Sikandar Lodi
Sikandar Lodi
died a natural death in 1517, and his second son Ibrahim Lodi assumed power. Ibrahim did not enjoy the support of Afghan and Persian nobles or regional chiefs.[88] Ibrahim attacked and killed his elder brother Jalal Khan, who was installed as the governor of Jaunpur by his father and had the support of the amirs and chiefs.[84] Ibrahim Lodi was unable to consolidate his power, and after Jalal Khan's death, the governor of Punjab, Daulat Khan Lodi, reached out to the Mughal Babur
Babur
and invited him to attack Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate.[86] Babur defeated and killed Ibrahim Lodi
Ibrahim Lodi
in the Battle of Panipat in 1526. The death of Ibrahim Lodi
Ibrahim Lodi
ended the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate, and the Mughal Empire replaced it. Economy[edit] See also: Economic history of India Before and during the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate, Islamic civilization was the most cosmopolitan civilization of the Middle Ages. It had a multicultural and pluralistic society, and wide-ranging international networks, including social and economic networks, spanning large parts of Afro-Eurasia, leading to escalating circulation of goods, peoples, technologies and ideas. While initially disruptive due to the passing of power from native Indian elites to Turkic Muslim
Muslim
elites, the Delhi Sultanate
Sultanate
was responsible for integrating the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
into a growing world system, drawing India
India
into a wider international network, which led to cultural and social enrichment in the Indian subcontinent.[13] Economist Angus Maddison
Angus Maddison
has estimated that, during the Medieval Delhi Sultanate
Sultanate
era, between 1000 and 1500, India's GDP grew nearly 80% up to $60.5 billion in 1500.[16] The worm gear roller cotton gin was invented in the Indian subcontinent during the early Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate
Sultanate
era of the 13th–14th centuries,[89] and is still used in India
India
through to the present day.[90] Another innovation, the incorporation of the crank handle in the cotton gin, first appeared in the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
some time during the late Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate
Sultanate
or the early Mughal Empire.[91] The production of cotton, which may have largely been spun in the villages and then taken to towns in the form of yarn to be woven into cloth textiles, was advanced by the diffusion of the spinning wheel across India
India
during the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate
Sultanate
era, lowering the costs of yarn and helping to increase demand for cotton. The diffusion of the spinning wheel, and the incorporation of the worm gear and crank handle into the roller cotton gin, led to greatly expanded Indian cotton textile production.[92] Demographics[edit] See also: Demographics of India: History The Indian population had largely been stagnant at 75 million during the Middle Kingdoms era from 1 AD to 1000 AD. During the Medieval Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate
Sultanate
era from 1000 to 1500, India
India
experienced lasting population growth for the first time in a thousand years, with its population increasing nearly 50% to 110 million by 1500 AD.[93][94] Culture[edit] See also: Indo-Persian culture
Indo-Persian culture
and Indo-Islamic architecture While the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
has had invaders from Central Asia
Asia
since ancient times, what made the Muslim
Muslim
invasions different is that unlike the preceding invaders who assimilated into the prevalent social system, the successful Muslim
Muslim
conquerors retained their Islamic identity and created new legal and administrative systems that challenged and usually in many cases superseded the existing systems of social conduct and ethics, even influencing the non- Muslim
Muslim
rivals and common masses to a large extent, though the non- Muslim
Muslim
population was left to their own laws and customs.[95][96] They also introduced new cultural codes that in some ways were very different from the existing cultural codes. This led to the rise of a new Indian culture which was mixed in nature, different from ancient Indian culture. The overwhelming majority of Muslims in India
India
were Indian natives converted to Islam. This factor also played an important role in the synthesis of cultures.[97] The Hindustani language
Hindustani language
(Hindi-Urdu) began to emerge in the Delhi Sultanate
Sultanate
period, developed from the Middle Indo-Aryan apabhramsha vernaculars of North India. Amir Khusro, who lived in the 13th century CE during the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate
Sultanate
period in North India, used a form of Hindustani, which was the lingua franca of the period, in his writings and referred to it as Hindavi.[17] Military[edit] See also: Mongol invasions
Mongol invasions
of India The bulk of Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate's army consisted of nomadic Turkic Mamluk military slaves, who were skilled in nomadic cavalry warfare. A major military contribution of the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate
Sultanate
was their successful campaigns in repelling the Mongol Empire's invasions of India, which could have been devastating for the Indian subcontinent, like the Mongol invasions
Mongol invasions
of China, Persia and Europe. The Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate's Mamluk
Mamluk
army were skilled in the same style of nomadic cavalry warfare used by the Mongols, making them successful in repelling the Mongol invasions, as was the case for the Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultanate
Sultanate
of Egypt. Were it not for the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate, it is possible that the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
may have been successful in invading India.[18]The strength of the armies changes according to time. According to firishta during the battle of kili Alauddin led an army of 300,000 cavalry and 2,700 elephants. During the tughlaq period Muhammad bin tughlaq wrose an army of 3 million. The soldiers use weapons such as sword, spears, shields etc. Armour such as steel helmet and chainmail is commonly used. Temple desecration[edit]

The Somnath Temple
Somnath Temple
in Gujarat
Gujarat
was repeatedly destroyed by Islamic armies and rebuilt by Hindus. It was destroyed by Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate's army in 1299 AD.[98]

Historian Richard Eaton has tabulated a campaign of destruction of idols and temples by Delhi
Delhi
Sultans, intermixed with instances of years where the temples were protected from desecration.[19][99][100] In his paper, he has listed 37 instances of Hindu
Hindu
temples being desecrated or destroyed in India
India
during the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate, from 1234 to 1518, for which reasonable evidences are available.[101][102][103] He also noted there were also many instances of Delhi
Delhi
sultans, who often had Hindu ministers, ordering the protection, maintenance and repairing of temples, according to both Muslim
Muslim
and Hindu
Hindu
sources. For example, a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
inscription notes that Sultan
Sultan
Muhammad bin Tughluq
Muhammad bin Tughluq
repaired a Siva temple in Bidar
Bidar
after his Deccan conquest. There was often a pattern of Delhi
Delhi
sultans plundering or damaging temples during conquest, and then patronizing or repairing temples after conquest. This pattern came to an end with the Mughal Empire, where Akbar the Great's chief minister Abu'l-Fazl criticized the excesses of earlier sultans such as Mahmud of Ghazni.[104] In many cases, the demolished remains, rocks and broken statue pieces of temples destroyed by Delhi
Delhi
sultans were reused to build mosques and other buildings. For example, the Qutb complex
Qutb complex
in Delhi
Delhi
was built from stones of 27 demolished Hindu
Hindu
and Jain temples by some accounts.[105] Similarly, the Muslim
Muslim
mosque in Khanapur, Maharashtra
Maharashtra
was built from the looted parts and demolished remains of Hindu
Hindu
temples.[39] Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji destroyed Buddhist and Hindu
Hindu
libraries and their manuscripts at Nalanda
Nalanda
and Odantapuri Universities in 1193 AD at the beginning of the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate.[63][106] The first historical record of a campaign of destruction of temples and defacement of faces or heads of Hindu
Hindu
idols lasted from 1193 through the early 13th century in Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh under the command of Ghuri. Under the Khaljis, the campaign of temple desecration expanded to Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat
Gujarat
and Maharashtra, and continued through the late 13th century.[19] The campaign extended to Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu under Malik Kafur
Malik Kafur
and Ulugh Khan in the 14th century, and by the Bahmanis in 15th century.[63] Orissa temples were destroyed in the 14th century under the Tughlaqs. Beyond destruction and desecration, the sultans of the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate in some cases had forbidden reconstruction of damaged Hindu, Jain and Buddhist temples, and they prohibited repairs of old temples or construction of any new temples.[107][108] In certain cases, the Sultanate
Sultanate
would grant a permit for repairs and construction of temples if the patron or religious community paid jizya (fee, tax). For example, a proposal by the Chinese to repair Himalayan Buddhist temples destroyed by the Sultanate
Sultanate
army was refused, on the grounds that such temple repairs were only allowed if the Chinese agreed to pay jizya tax to the treasury of the Sultanate.[109][110] In his memoirs, Firoz Shah Tughlaq describes how he destroyed temples and built mosques instead and killed those who dared build new temples.[111] Other historical records from wazirs, amirs and the court historians of various Sultans of the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate
Sultanate
describe the grandeur of idols and temples they witnessed in their campaigns and how these were destroyed and desecrated.[112]

Temple desecration during Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate
Sultanate
period, a list prepared by Richard Eaton in Temple Desecration and Indo- Muslim
Muslim
States[19][113]

Sultan
Sultan
/ Agent Dynasty Years Temple Sites Destroyed States

Muhammad Ghori, Qutb al-Din Aibak Mamluk 1193-1290 Ajmer, Samana, Kuhram, Delhi, Kol, Varanasi Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh

Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji, Shams ud-Din Iltumish, Jalal ud-Din Firuz Khalji, Ala ud-Din Khalji, Malik Kafur Mamluk
Mamluk
and Khalji 1290-1320 Nalanda, Odantapuri, Vikramashila, Bhilsa, Ujjain, Jhain, Vijapur, Devagiri, Somnath, Chidambaram, Madurai Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu

Ulugh Khan, Firuz Shah Tughlaq, Nahar, Muzaffar Khan Khalji and Tughlaq 1320-1395[114] Somnath, Warangal, Bodhan, Pillalamarri, Puri, Sainthali, Idar, Somnath[115] Gujarat, Telangana, Orissa, Haryana

Sikandar, Muzaffar Shah, Ahmad Shah, Mahmud Sayyid 1400-1442 Paraspur, Bijbehara, Tripuresvara, Idar, Diu, Manvi, Sidhpur, Delwara, Kumbhalmer Gujarat, Rajasthan

Suhrab, Begdha, Bahmani, Khalil Shah, Khawwas Khan, Sikandar Lodi, Ibrahim Lodi Lodi 1457-1518 Mandalgarh, Malan, Dwarka, Kondapalle, Kanchi, Amod, Nagarkot, Utgir, Narwar, Gwalior Rajasthan, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh

See also[edit]

Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate
Sultanate
literature Iconoclasm Ibrahim Lodhi's Tomb Persianate
Persianate
states Tomb of Bahlul Lodi Turkish slaves in the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate

References[edit]

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M. Reza Pirbha, Reconsidering Islam in a South Asian Context, ISBN 978-9004177581, Brill The Islamic frontier in the east: Expansion into South Asia, Journal of South Asian Studies, 4(1), pp. 91-109 Sookoohy M., Bhadreswar - Oldest Islamic Monuments in India, ISBN 978-9004083417, Brill Academic; see discussion of earliest raids in Gujarat

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and Jain temples; See: Welch, Anthony; Crane, Howard (1983). "The Tughluqs: Master Builders of the Delhi Sultanate" (PDF). Muqarnas. Brill. 1: 123–166. JSTOR 1523075.  ^ a b c Welch, Anthony; Crane, Howard (1983). "The Tughluqs: Master Builders of the Delhi
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Turkic dynasty but having been long domiciled in present-day Afghanistan, and adopted some Afghan habits and customs. They were treated as Afghans in Delhi
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Court.  ^ Cavendish, Marshall (2006). World and Its Peoples: The Middle East, Western Asia, and Northern Africa. Marshall Cavendish. p. 320. ISBN 0-7614-7571-0. Retrieved 2010-08-23. The sultans of the Slave Dynasty were Turkic Central Asians, but the members of the new dynasty, although they were also Turkic, had settled in Afghanistan and brought a new set of customs and culture to Delhi.  ^ Kishori Saran Lal (1950). History of the Khaljis (1290-1320). Allahabad: The Indian Press. pp. 56–57. OCLC 685167335.  ^ A. L. Srivastava (1966). The Sultanate
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States, Part I, Frontline, December 22, 2000, 62-70.[2] ^ Eaton, Richard M. (2000). "Temple Desecration and Indo-Muslim States" (PDF). The Hindu. Chennai, India. p. 297. Archived from the original on 6 January 2014. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Annemarie Schimmel, Islam in the Indian Subcontinent, ISBN 978-9004061170, Brill Academic, pp 7-10 ^ James Brown (1949), The History of Islam in India, The Muslim
Muslim
World, 39(1), 11-25 ^ Eaton, Richard M. (2000). "Temple Desecration and Indo-Muslim States" (PDF). The Hindu. Chennai, India. p. 297. Archived from the original on 6 January 2014. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Welch, Anthony (1993), Architectural patronage and the past: The Tughluq sultans of India, Muqarnas, Vol. 10, 311-322 ^ Gul and Khan (2008), Growth and Development of Oriental Libraries in India, Library Philosophy and Practice, University of Nebrasaka-Lincoln ^ Eva De Clercq (2010), ON JAINA APABHRAṂŚA PRAŚASTIS, Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hung. Volume 63 (3), pp 275–287 ^ R Islam (1997), A Note on the Position of the non- Muslim
Muslim
Subjects in the Sultanate
Sultanate
of Delhi
Delhi
under the Khaljis and the Tughluqs, Journal of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Historical Society, 45, pp. 215–229; R Islam (2002), Theory and Practice of Jizyah in the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate
Sultanate
(14th Century), Journal of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Historical Society, 50, pp. 7–18 ^ A.L. Srivastava (1966), Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate, 5th Edition, Agra
Agra
College ^ Peter Jackson (2003), The Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate: A Political and Military History, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521543293, pp 287-295 ^ Firoz Shah Tughlak, Futuhat-i Firoz Shahi - Memoirs of Firoz Shah Tughlaq, Translated in 1871 by Elliot and Dawson, Volume 3 - The History of India, Cornell University Archives, pp 377-381 ^ Hasan Nizami et al, Taju-l Ma-asir & Appendix, Translated in 1871 by Elliot and Dawson, Volume 2 - The History of India, Cornell University Archives, pp 22, 219, 398, 471 ^ Richard Eaton, Temple desecration and Indo- Muslim
Muslim
states, Frontline (January 5, 2001), pp 72-73 ^ Ulugh Khan also known as Almas Beg was brother of Ala-al Din Khalji; his destruction campaign overlapped the two dynasties ^ Somnath
Somnath
temple went through cycles of destruction by Sultans and rebuilding by Hindus

Bibliography[edit]

Elliot, H. M. (Henry Miers), Sir; John Dowson. "15. Táríkh-i Fíroz Sháhí, of Ziauddin Barani". The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period (Vol 3.). London: Trübner & Co.  Srivastava, Ashirvadi Lal (1929). The Sultanate
Sultanate
Of Delhi
Delhi
711-1526 A D. Shiva Lal Agarwala & Company.  Khan, Mohd. Adul Wali (1974). Gold and Silver Coins of Sultans of Delhi. Government of Andhra Pradesh.  Peter Jackson (2003). The Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-54329-3.  Majumdar, R. C., Raychaudhuri, H., & Datta, K. (1951). An advanced history of India: 2. London: Macmillan. Majumdar, R. C., & Munshi, K. M. (1990). The Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate. Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan.

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