DEINOCOCCUS–THERMUS is a phylum of bacteria that are highly
resistant to environmental hazards, also known as extremophiles .
These bacteria have thick cell walls that give them gram-positive
stains, but they include a second membrane and so are closer in
structure to those of gram-negative bacteria.
this clade HADOBACTERIA (from
* 1 Taxonomy * 2 Molecular Signatures * 3 Phylogeny * 4 Taxonomy * 5 Sequenced genomes * 6 References
The phylum Deinococcus- Thermus consists of a single class (Deinococci ) and two orders:
* The Deinococcales include two families (Deinococcaceae andTrueperaceae ), with three genera, Deinococcus , Deinobacterium and Truepera . Truepera radiovictrix is the earliest diverging member of the order. Within the order, Deinococcus forms a distinct monophyletic cluster with respect to Deinobacterium and Truepera species . The genus includes several species that are resistant to radiation; they have become famous for their ability to eat nuclear waste and other toxic materials, survive in the vacuum of space and survive extremes of heat and cold. * The Thermales include several genera resistant to heat (Marinithermus , Meiothermus , Oceanithermus , Thermus , Vulcanithermus , Rhabdothermus ) placed within a single family, Thermaceae . Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that within the Thermales , Meiothermus and Thermus species form a monophyletic cluster, with respect to Marinithermus , Oceanithermus , Vulcanithermus and Rhabdothermus that branch as outgroups within the order. This suggests that Meiothermus and Thermus species are more closely related to one another relative to other genera within the order. Thermus aquaticus was important in the development of the polymerase chain reaction where repeated cycles of heating DNA to near boiling make it advantageous to use a thermo-stable DNA polymerase enzyme.
Though these two groups evolved from a common ancestor, the two mechanisms of resistance appear to be largely independent.
Molecular Signatures in the form of conserved signature indels (CSIs)
and proteins (CSPs) have been found that are uniquely shared by all
members belonging to the Deinococcus-
Thermus phylum. These CSIs and
CSPs are distinguishing characteristics that delineate the unique
phylum from all other bacterial organisms, and their exclusive
distribution is parallel with the observed differences in physiology.
CSIs and CSPs have also been found that support order and family-level
taxonomic rankings within the phylum. Some of the CSIs found to
support order level distinctions are thought to play a role in the
respective extremophilic characteristics. The CSIs found in
DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit beta and DNA topoisomerase I in
Thermales species may be involved in thermophilicity , while those
DNA gyrase , and
Additionally, some genera within this group, including Deinococcus , Thermus and Meiothermus , also have molecular signatures that demarcate them as individual genera, inclusive of their respective species, providing a means to distinguish them from the rest of the group and all other bacteria. CSIs have also been found specific for Truepera radiovictrix .
See also: Bacterial taxonomy
The phylogeny is based on 16S rRNA-based LTP release 123 by \'The All-Species Living Tree\' Project .
Rhabdothermus arcticus Steinsbu et al. 2011
Vulcanithermus mediatlanticus Miroshnichenko et al. 2003
O. desulfurans Mori et al. 2004
O. profundus Miroshnichenko et al. 2003 (type sp.)
Marinithermus hydrothermalis Sako et al. 2003
Truepera radiovictrix Albuquerque et al. 2005
Deinobacterium chartae Ekman et al. 2011
Note: ♠ Strains found at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) but not listed in the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LSPN)
The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN) and National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)
* Class DEINOCOCCI Garrity Hadobacteria Cavalier-Smith 2002; "Xenobacteria"]
* Order DEINOCOCCALES Rainey et al. 1997
* Family Deinococcaceae Brooks and Murray 1981 emend. Rainey et al. 1997
* Family Trueperaceae Rainey et al. 2005
* Genus Truepera da Costa, Rainey and Albuquerque 2005
* Order THERMALES Rainey and Da Costa 2002
* Family Thermaceae Da Costa and Rainey 2002
* Genus Thermus Brock and Freeze 1969 emend. Nobre et al. 1996 * Genus Meiothermus Nobre et al. 1996 emend. Albuquerque et al. 2009 * Genus Marinithermus Sako et al. 2003 * Genus Oceanithermus Miroshnichenko et al. 2003 emend. Mori et al. 2004 * Genus Rhabdothermus Steinsbu et al. 2011 * Genus Vulcanithermus Miroshnichenko et al. 2003
Currently there are 10 sequenced genomes of strains in this phylum.
* Deinococcus radiodurans R1 * Thermus thermophilus HB27 * Thermus thermophilus HB8 * Deinococcus geothermalis DSM 11300 * Deinococcus deserti VCD115 * Meiothermus ruber DSM 1279 * Meiothermus silvanus DSM 9946 * Truepera radiovictrix DSM 17093 * Oceanithermus profundus DSM 14977
Meiothermus species were sequenced under the auspices of the
Genomic Encyclopedia of
* ^ A B Griffiths E, Gupta RS (September 2007). "Identification of
signature proteins that are distinctive of the Deinococcus–Thermus
phylum" (PDF). Int. Microbiol. 10 (3): 201–8. PMID 18076002 .
Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-14.
* ^ Gupta RS (2011). "Origin of diderm (Gram-negative) bacteria:
antibiotic selection pressure rather than endosymbiosis likely led to
the evolution of bacterial cells with two membranes" . Antonie Van
Leeuwenhoek. 100 (2): 171–182. PMC 3133647 . PMID 21717204 . doi
* ^ Campbell C, Sutcliffe IC, Gupta RS (2014). "Comparative
proteome analysis of Acidaminococcus intestini supports a relationship
between outer membrane biogenesis in
Proteobacteria". Arch Microbiol. 196 (4): 307–310. PMID 24535491 .
doi :10.1007/s00203-014-0964-4 .
* ^ Sutcliffe IC (2010). "A phylum level perspective on bacterial
cell envelope architecture". Trends Microbiol. 18 (10): 464–470.
PMID 20637628 . doi :10.1016/j.tim.2010.06.005 .
Cavalier-Smith T (2006). "Rooting the tree of life by
transition analyses". Biol. Direct. 1: 19. PMC 1586193 . PMID
16834776 . doi :10.1186/1745-6150-1-19 .
* ^ A B Albuquerque L, Simões C, Nobre MF, et al. (2005).
Truepera radiovictrix gen. nov., sp. nov., a new radiation resistant
species and the proposal of Trueperaceae fam. nov.". FEMS Microbiol
Lett. 247 (2): 161–169. PMID 15927420 . doi
* ^ A B Garrity GM, Holt JG. (2001)
* v * t * e
* Acidophile * Alkaliphile * Capnophile * Cryozoa * Endolith * Halophile * Hypolith * Lipophile * Lithoautotroph * Lithophile * Methanogen * Metallotolerant * Oligotroph * Osmophile * Piezophile * Polyextremophile * Psammophile * Psychrophile * Radioresistant * Thermophile / Hyperthermophile * Thermoacidophile * Xerophile
Abiogenic petroleum origin
Acidophiles in acid mine drainage
* v * t * e
G- / OM
Terra-/ Glidobacteria (BV1 )
* Deinococcus- Thermus
Proteobacteria (BV2 )
* Acidithiobacillales * Aeromonadales * Alteromonadales * Cardiobacteriales * Chromatiales * Enterobacteriales * Legionellales * Methylococcales * Oceanospirillales * Orbales * Pasteurellales * Pseudomonadales * Salinisphaerales * Thiotrichales * Vibrionales * Xanthomonadales
Sphingobacteria ( FCB group )
* Chlorobiales * Ignavibacteriales
* Lentisphaerales * Oligosphaerales * Victivallales
* Phycisphaerales * Planctomycetales
* Puniceicoccales * Opitutales * Chthoniobacterales * Verrucomicrobiales
* " Poribacteria "
* Acidobacteriales * Acanthopleuribacterales * Holophagales * Solibacterales
* Armatimonadales * Chthonomonadales * Fimbriimonadales
G+ / no OM
Firmicutes (BV3 )