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DEHOMAG was a German subsidiary of IBM
IBM
with monopoly in the German market before and during World War II
World War II
. The word was an acronym for Deutsche Hollerith-Maschinen Gesellschaft mbH (English: German Hollerith Machines LLC). Hollerith refers to the German-American inventor of the technology of punched cards , Herman Hollerith
Herman Hollerith
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Background * 2 History * 3 Holocaust
Holocaust
* 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading

BACKGROUND

A general-purpose punched card from the mid twentieth century.

The technology of punched cards dates back to the 18th century when it was used for mass production of woven textiles and later used as a recording and playback system in player pianos. The use of punched cards for recording and tabulating data was first proposed and used by Semen Korsakov
Semen Korsakov
around 1805. In 1832 Charles Babbage
Charles Babbage
proposed using similar cards to program and to store computations for his calculating engine. Punched card
Punched card
technology was further developed for data-processing by Herman Hollerith
Herman Hollerith
from the 1880s. It was used for the 1890 United States Census
1890 United States Census
and for the census work of several foreign governments.

HISTORY

Willy Heidinger , an acquaintance of Hollerith, licensed all of Hollerith’s The Tabulating Machine Company patents in 1910, and created Dehomag
Dehomag
in Germany. In 1911 The Tabulating Machine Company was amalgamated (via stock acquisition) with three others, creating a fifth company, the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company
Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company
(CTR). In 1923 CTR acquired 90% ownership of Dehomag, thus acquiring patents developed by them. In 1924 CTR was renamed IBM
IBM
.

HOLOCAUST

As an IBM
IBM
subsidiary, Dehomag
Dehomag
became the main provider of computing expertise and equipment in Nazi Germany
Germany
. Dehomag
Dehomag
gave the German government the means for two official censuses of the population after 1933 and for searching its data. It gave the Nazis
Nazis
a way of tracing Jews
Jews
and dissidents using the powerful automated search tools using the IBM
IBM
machines. It enabled them to search databases rapidly and efficiently, and the methods were used throughout occupied Europe by the Gestapo
Gestapo
and others to locate and arrest its victims, so contributing to the Holocaust
Holocaust
.

Dehomag
Dehomag
leased and maintained the German government's punched card machines. Dehomag
Dehomag
general manager for Germany, Hermann Rottke, reported to IBM
IBM
President Thomas J. Watson
Thomas J. Watson
in New York. It was legal for IBM
IBM
to conduct business with Germany
Germany
directly until America entered the war in December 1941.

IBM
IBM
New York established a special subsidiary in Poland
Poland
, Watson Business Machines, to deal with railway traffic in the General Government during the Holocaust
Holocaust
in Poland
Poland
. The German Transport Ministry used IBM
IBM
machines under the New York-controlled subsidiary in Warsaw
Warsaw
, not the German subsidiary. Watson Business Machines operated a punch card printing shop near the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto . The punch cards bore the indicia of the German subsidiary Dehomag.

Leon Krzemieniecki, the last surviving person involved in the Polish administration of the rail transportation to Auschwitz
Auschwitz
and Treblinka
Treblinka
, stated he knew the punched card machines were not German machines, because the labels were in English. Income from the machines leased in Poland
Poland
was sent through Geneva
Geneva
to IBM
IBM
in New York.

SEE ALSO

* International subsidiaries of IBM
IBM
* History of IBM
IBM
* IBM
IBM
during World War II
World War II

REFERENCES

* ^ Black, Edwin (March 26, 2002). "Final Solutions". Village Voice. Retrieved October 23, 2017. * ^ Black, Edwin (2012). IBM
IBM
and the Holocaust: The Strategic Alliance between Nazi Germany
Germany
and America's Most Powerful Corporation. Expanded Edition (2. ed.). Washington, DC: Dialog Press. p. 25. ISBN 978-0914153276 . * ^ Black, Edwin (2012). IBM
IBM
and the Holocaust: The Strategic Alliance between Nazi Germany
Germany
and America's Most Powerful Corporation. Expanded Edition (2. ed.). Washington, DC: Dialog Press. p. 30. ISBN 978-0914153276 . * ^ Black, Edwin (2012). IBM
IBM
and the Holocaust: The Strategic Alliance between Nazi Germany
Germany
and America's Most Powerful Corporation. Expanded Edition (2. ed.). Washington, DC: Dialog Press. p. 31. ISBN 978-0914153276 . * ^ A B C Elkin, Larry M. (July 6, 2011). "IBM: A Centenarian\'s Imperfect But Impressive Recall". Tech Insider. Business Insider
Business Insider
. Retrieved October 1, 2017. * ^ Aspray (ed.), William (1990). Computing
Computing
Before Computers. Iowa State University Press. p. 137. ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ Black, Edwin (2012). IBM
IBM
and the Holocaust: The Strategic Alliance between Nazi Germany
Germany
and America's Most Powerful Corporation. Expanded Edition (2. ed.). Washington, DC: Dialog Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-0914153276 . * ^ Black, Edwin (2001). IBM
IBM
and the Holocaust
Holocaust
: the strategic alliance between Nazi Germany
Germany
and America's most powerful corporation (1. ed.). New York: Crown Publishers. ISBN 0609607995 . * ^ A B C D E Black, Edwin (2012). IBM
IBM
and the Holocaust: The Strategic Alliance between Nazi Germany
Germany
and America's Most Powerful Corporation. Expanded Edition (2. ed.). Washington, DC: Dialog Press. ISBN 978-0914153276 . * ^ A B C D E Burkeman, Oliver (March 29, 2002). " IBM
IBM
\'dealt directly with Holocaust
Holocaust
organisers\'". The Guardian
The Guardian
. guardian.co.uk . Retrieved August 24, 2017. * ^ A B Black, Edwin (May 19, 2002). "The business of making the trains to Auschwitz
Auschwitz
run on time". Editorial. SFGate
SFGate
. San Francisco Chronicle . Retrieved October 1, 2017. * ^ Black, Edwin (2012). "IBM\'s Role in the Holocaust
Holocaust
— What the New Documents Reveal". Huffington Post . Retrieved October 23, 2017.

FURTHER READING

* Black, Edwin (2012). IBM
IBM
and the Holocaust
Holocaust
: The Strategic Alliance between Nazi Germany
Germany
and America's Most Powerful Corporation. Expanded Edition. ISBN 978-0914153276 * Anita Ramasastry . A Swiss court allows Gypsies\' Holocaust lawsuit to proceed. CNN
CNN
, 2004-07-08. * Dehomag
Dehomag
D11 tabulation machine exhibit in the United States Holocaust
Holocaust
Memorial Museum at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
(archived October 26, 2004)

AUTHORITY CONTROL

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