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Deer
Deer
(singular and plural) are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae. The two main groups are the Cervinae, including the muntjac, the elk (wapiti), the fallow deer and the chital, and the Capreolinae, including the reindeer (caribou), the roe deer and the moose. Female reindeer, and male deer of all species (except the Chinese water deer), grow and shed new antlers each year. In this they differ from permanently horned antelope, which are part of a different family (Bovidae) within the same order of even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla). The musk deer of Asia and water chevrotain (or mouse deer) of tropical African and Asian forests are not usually regarded as true deer and form their own families: Moschidae
Moschidae
and Tragulidae, respectively. Deer
Deer
appear in art from Paleolithic
Paleolithic
cave paintings onwards, and they have played a role in mythology, religion, and literature throughout history, as well as in heraldry. Their economic importance includes the use of their meat as venison, their skins as soft, strong buckskin, and their antlers as handles for knives. Deer hunting
Deer hunting
has been a popular activity since at least the Middle Ages, and remains an important business today.

Contents

1 Distribution 2 Description

2.1 Antlers 2.2 Anatomy

3 Biology

3.1 Diet 3.2 Reproduction

4 Evolution

4.1 Eocene
Eocene
epoch 4.2 Oligocene
Oligocene
epoch 4.3 Miocene
Miocene
epoch 4.4 Pliocene
Pliocene
epoch 4.5 Pleistocene
Pleistocene
epoch

5 Taxonomy and classification

5.1 External relationships 5.2 Internal relationships 5.3 Extant subfamilies, genera and species 5.4 Extinct subfamilies, genera and species

6 Human interaction

6.1 In prehistory 6.2 In history 6.3 In literature 6.4 Heraldry 6.5 Economic significance

7 Etymology 8 Terminology 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Distribution[edit]

Chital
Chital
deer in Nagarahole, India

Deer
Deer
live in a variety of biomes, ranging from tundra to the tropical rainforest. While often associated with forests, many deer are ecotone species that live in transitional areas between forests and thickets (for cover) and prairie and savanna (open space). The majority of large deer species inhabit temperate mixed deciduous forest, mountain mixed coniferous forest, tropical seasonal/dry forest, and savanna habitats around the world. Clearing open areas within forests to some extent may actually benefit deer populations by exposing the understory and allowing the types of grasses, weeds, and herbs to grow that deer like to eat. Additionally, access to adjacent croplands may also benefit deer. However, adequate forest or brush cover must still be provided for populations to grow and thrive. Deer
Deer
are widely distributed, with indigenous representatives in all continents except Antarctica and Australia, though Africa has only one native deer, the Barbary stag, a subspecies of red deer that is confined to the Atlas Mountains
Atlas Mountains
in the northwest of the continent. However, fallow deer have been introduced to South Africa. Small species of brocket deer and pudús of Central and South America, and muntjacs of Asia generally occupy dense forests and are less often seen in open spaces, with the possible exception of the Indian muntjac. There are also several species of deer that are highly specialized, and live almost exclusively in mountains, grasslands, swamps, and "wet" savannas, or riparian corridors surrounded by deserts. Some deer have a circumpolar distribution in both North America and Eurasia. Examples include the caribou that live in Arctic tundra and taiga (boreal forests) and moose that inhabit taiga and adjacent areas. Huemul deer (taruca and Chilean huemul) of South America's Andes
Andes
fill the ecological niches of the ibex and wild goat, with the fawns behaving more like goat kids. The highest concentration of large deer species in temperate North America lies in the Canadian Rocky Mountain and Columbia Mountain regions between Alberta and British Columbia where all five North American deer species (white-tailed deer, mule deer, caribou, elk, and moose) can be found. This region has several clusters of national parks including Mount Revelstoke National Park, Glacier National Park (Canada), Yoho National Park, and Kootenay National Park
Kootenay National Park
on the British Columbia side, and Banff National Park, Jasper National Park, and Glacier National Park (U.S.)
Glacier National Park (U.S.)
on the Alberta and Montana sides. Mountain slope habitats vary from moist coniferous/mixed forested habitats to dry subalpine/pine forests with alpine meadows higher up. The foothills and river valleys between the mountain ranges provide a mosaic of cropland and deciduous parklands. The rare woodland caribou have the most restricted range living at higher altitudes in the subalpine meadows and alpine tundra areas of some of the mountain ranges. Elk
Elk
and mule deer both migrate between the alpine meadows and lower coniferous forests and tend to be most common in this region. Elk
Elk
also inhabit river valley bottomlands, which they share with White-tailed deer. The White-tailed deer
White-tailed deer
have recently expanded their range within the foothills and river valley bottoms of the Canadian Rockies owing to conversion of land to cropland and the clearing of coniferous forests allowing more deciduous vegetation to grow up the mountain slopes. They also live in the aspen parklands north of Calgary and Edmonton, where they share habitat with the moose. The adjacent Great Plains
Great Plains
grassland habitats are left to herds of elk, American bison, and pronghorn antelope.

Reindeer
Reindeer
herds, standing on snow to avoid flies

The Eurasian Continent (including the Indian Subcontinent) boasts the most species of deer in the world, with most species being found in Asia. Europe, in comparison, has lower diversity in plant and animal species. However, many national parks and protected reserves in Europe do have populations of red deer, roe deer, and fallow deer. These species have long been associated with the continent of Europe, but also inhabit Asia Minor, the Caucasus Mountains, and Northwestern Iran. "European" fallow deer historically lived over much of Europe during the Ice Ages, but afterwards became restricted primarily to the Anatolian Peninsula, in present-day Turkey. Present-day fallow deer populations in Europe are a result of historic man-made introductions of this species, first to the Mediterranean regions of Europe, then eventually to the rest of Europe. They were initially park animals that later escaped and reestablished themselves in the wild. Historically, Europe's deer species shared their deciduous forest habitat with other herbivores, such as the extinct tarpan (forest horse), extinct aurochs (forest ox), and the endangered wisent (European bison). Good places to see deer in Europe include the Scottish Highlands, the Austrian Alps, the wetlands between Austria, Hungary, and the Czech Republic and some fine National Parks, including Doñana National Park
Doñana National Park
in Spain, the Veluwe
Veluwe
in the Netherlands, the Ardennes
Ardennes
in Belgium, and Białowieża National Park of Poland. Spain, Eastern Europe, and the Caucasus Mountains
Caucasus Mountains
still have virgin forest areas that are not only home to sizable deer populations but also for other animals that were once abundant such as the wisent, Eurasian lynx, Iberian lynx, wolves, and brown bears. The highest concentration of large deer species in temperate Asia occurs in the mixed deciduous forests, mountain coniferous forests, and taiga bordering North Korea, Manchuria (Northeastern China), and the Ussuri Region (Russia). These are among some of the richest deciduous and coniferous forests in the world where one can find Siberian roe deer, sika deer, elk, and moose. Asian caribou occupy the northern fringes of this region along the Sino-Russian border. Deer
Deer
such as the sika deer, Thorold's deer, Central Asian red deer, and elk have historically been farmed for their antlers by Han Chinese, Turkic peoples, Tungusic peoples, Mongolians, and Koreans. Like the Sami people
Sami people
of Finland and Scandinavia, the Tungusic peoples, Mongolians, and Turkic peoples
Turkic peoples
of Southern Siberia, Northern Mongolia, and the Ussuri Region have also taken to raising semi-domesticated herds of Asian caribou. The highest concentration of large deer species in the tropics occurs in Southern Asia in India's Indo-Gangetic Plain Region and Nepal's Terai Region. These fertile plains consist of tropical seasonal moist deciduous, dry deciduous forests, and both dry and wet savannas that are home to chital, hog deer, barasingha, Indian sambar, and Indian muntjac. Grazing species such as the endangered barasingha and very common chital are gregarious and live in large herds. Indian sambar can be gregarious but are usually solitary or live in smaller herds. Hog deer
Hog deer
are solitary and have lower densities than Indian muntjac. Deer
Deer
can be seen in several national parks in India, Nepal, and Sri Lanka of which Kanha National Park, Dudhwa National Park, and Chitwan National Park are most famous. Sri Lanka's Wilpattu National Park
Wilpattu National Park
and Yala National Park
Yala National Park
have large herds of Indian sambar and chital. The Indian sambar are more gregarious in Sri Lanka than other parts of their range and tend to form larger herds than elsewhere. The Chao Praya River Valley of Thailand was once primarily tropical seasonal moist deciduous forest and wet savanna that hosted populations of hog deer, the now-extinct Schomburgk's deer, Eld's deer, Indian sambar, and Indian muntjac. Both the hog deer and Eld's deer are rare, whereas Indian sambar and Indian muntjac
Indian muntjac
thrive in protected national parks, such as Khao Yai. Many of these South Asian and Southeast Asian deer species also share their habitat with other herbivores, such as Asian elephants, the various Asian rhinoceros species, various antelope species (such as nilgai, four-horned antelope, blackbuck, and Indian gazelle in India), and wild oxen (such as wild Asian water buffalo, gaur, banteng, and kouprey). One way that different herbivores can survive together in a given area is for each species to have different food preferences, although there may be some overlap. Australia has six introduced species of deer that have established sustainable wild populations from acclimatisation society releases in the 19th century. These are the fallow deer, red deer, sambar, hog deer, rusa, and chital. Red deer
Red deer
introduced into New Zealand in 1851 from English and Scottish stock were domesticated in deer farms by the late 1960s and are common farm animals there now. Seven other species of deer were introduced into New Zealand but none are as widespread as red deer.[1] Description[edit]

Tails of I) white-tailed deer, II) mule deer, III) black-tailed deer, IV) elk, V) red deer

Deer
Deer
constitute the second most diverse family after bovids.[clarification needed][2] Though of a similar build, deer are strongly distinguished from antelopes by their antlers, which are temporary and regularly regrown unlike the permanent horns of bovids.[3] Characteristics typical of deer include long, powerful legs, a diminutive tail and long ears.[4] Deer
Deer
exhibit a broad variation in physical proportions. The largest extant deer is the moose, which is nearly 2.6 metres (8.5 ft) tall and weighs up to 800 kilograms (1,800 lb).[5][6] The elk stands 1.4–2 metres (4.6–6.6 ft) at the shoulder and weighs 240–450 kilograms (530–990 lb).[7] On the contrary, the northern pudu is the smallest deer in the world; it reaches merely 32–35 centimetres (13–14 in) at the shoulder and weighs 3.3–6 kilograms (7.3–13.2 lb). The southern pudu is only slightly taller and heavier.[8] Sexual dimorphism
Sexual dimorphism
is quite pronounced – in most species males tend to be larger than females,[9] and, except for the reindeer, only males possess antlers.[10] Coat colour generally varies between red and brown,[11] though it can be as dark as chocolate brown in the tufted deer[12] or have a grayish tinge as in elk.[7] Different species of brocket deer vary from gray to reddish brown in coat colour.[13] Several species such as the chital,[14] the fallow deer[15] and the sika deer[16] feature white spots on a brown coat. Coat of reindeer shows notable geographical variation.[17] Deer
Deer
undergo two moults in a year;[11][18] for instance, in red deer the red, thin-haired summer coat is gradually replaced by the dense, greyish brown winter coat in autumn, which in turn gives way to the summer coat in the following spring.[19] Moulting
Moulting
is affected by the photoperiod.[20] Deer
Deer
are also excellent jumpers and swimmers. Deer
Deer
are ruminants, or cud-chewers, and have a four-chambered stomach. Some deer, such as those on the island of Rùm,[21] do consume meat when it is available.[22]

Play media

A fawn's first steps

Nearly all deer have a facial gland in front of each eye. The gland contains a strongly scented pheromone, used to mark its home range. Bucks of a wide range of species open these glands wide when angry or excited. All deer have a liver without a gallbladder. Deer
Deer
also have a tapetum lucidum, which gives them sufficiently good night vision. Antlers[edit] Main article: Antler

White-tailed deer

All male deer possess antlers, with the exception of the Chinese water deer, in which males have long tusk-like canines that reach below the lower jaw.[23] Females generally lack antlers, though female reindeer bear antlers smaller and less branched than those of the males.[24] Occasionally females in other species may develop antlers, especially in telemetacarpal deer such as European roe deer, red deer, white-tailed deer and mule deer and less often in plesiometacarpal deer. A study of antlered female white-tailed deer noted that antlers tend to be small and malformed, and are shed frequently around the time of parturition.[25] The fallow deer and the various subspecies of the reindeer have the largest as well as the heaviest antlers, both in absolute terms as well as in proportion to body mass (an average of 8 grams (0.28 oz) per kilogram of body mass);[24][26] the tufted deer, on the other hand, has the smallest antlers of all deer, while the pudú has the lightest antlers with respect to body mass (0.6 grams (0.021 oz) per kilogram of body mass).[24] The structure of antlers show considerable variation; while fallow deer and elk antlers are palmate (with a broad central portion), white-tailed deer antlers include a series of tines sprouting upward from a forward-curving main beam, and those of the pudú are mere spikes.[8] Antler
Antler
development begins from the pedicel, a bony structure that appears on the top of the skull by the time the animal is a year old. The pedicel gives rise to a spiky antler the following year, that is replaced by a branched antler in the third year. This process of losing a set of antlers to develop a larger and more branched set continues for the rest of the life.[24] The antlers emerge as soft tissues (known as velvet antlers) and progressively harden into bony structures (known as hard antlers), following mineralisation and blockage of blood vessels in the tissue, from the tip to the base.[27] Antlers might be one of the most exaggerated male secondary sexual characteristics,[28] and are intended primarily for reproductive success through sexual selection and for combat. The tines (forks) on the antlers create grooves that allow another male's antlers to lock into place. This allows the males to wrestle without risking injury to the face.[29] Antlers are correlated to an individual's position in the social hierarchy and its behaviour. For instance, the heavier the antlers, the higher the individual's status in the social hierarchy, and the greater is the delay in shedding the antlers;[24] males with larger antlers tend to be more aggressive and dominant over others.[30] Antlers can be an honest signal of genetic quality; males with larger antlers relative to body size tend to have increased resistance to pathogens[31] and higher reproductive capacity.[32] Anatomy[edit] Most deer bear 32 teeth; the corresponding dental formula is: 0.0.3.33.1.3.3. The elk and the reindeer may be exceptions, as they may retain their upper canines and thus have 34 teeth (dental formula: 0.1.3.33.1.3.3).[33] The Chinese water deer, tufted deer, and muntjac have enlarged upper canine teeth forming sharp tusks, while other species often lack upper canines altogether. The cheek teeth of deer have crescent ridges of enamel, which enable them to grind a wide variety of vegetation.[34] The teeth of deer are adapted to feeding on vegetation, and like other ruminants, they lack upper incisors, instead having a tough pad at the front of their upper jaw. Biology[edit]

Fawn

Diet[edit] Deer
Deer
are browsers, and feed primarily on leaves. They have small, unspecialized stomachs by ruminant standards, and high nutrition requirements. Rather than eating and digesting vast quantities of low-grade fibrous food as, for example, sheep and cattle do, deer select easily digestible shoots, young leaves, fresh grasses, soft twigs, fruit, fungi, and lichens. The low-fibered food, after minimal fermentation and shredding, passes rapidly through the alimentary canal. The deer require a large amount of minerals such as calcium and phosphate in order to support antler growth, and this further necessitates a nutrient-rich diet. There are, however, some reports of deer engaging in carnivorous activity, such as depredating the nests of Northern bobwhites.[35] Reproduction[edit]

Female elk nursing young

Main article: Rut (mammalian reproduction) § Cervidae Nearly all cervids are so-called uniparental species: the fawns are only cared for by the mother, known as a doe. A doe generally has one or two fawns at a time (triplets, while not unknown, are uncommon). The gestation period is anywhere up to ten months for the European roe deer. Most fawns are born with their fur covered with white spots, though in many species they lose these spots by the end of their first winter. In the first twenty minutes of a fawn's life, the fawn begins to take its first steps. Its mother licks it clean until it is almost free of scent, so predators will not find it. Its mother leaves often to graze, and the fawn does not like to be left behind. Sometimes its mother must gently push it down with her foot.[36] The fawn stays hidden in the grass for one week until it is strong enough to walk with its mother. The fawn and its mother stay together for about one year. A male usually leaves and never sees his mother again, but females sometimes come back with their own fawns and form small herds. Evolution[edit] Deer
Deer
are believed to have evolved from antlerless, tusked ancestors that resembled modern duikers and diminutive deer in the early Eocene, and gradually developed into the first antlered cervoids (the superfamily of cervids and related extinct families) in the Miocene. Eventually, with the development of antlers, the tusks as well as the upper incisors disappeared. Thus evolution of deer took nearly 30 million years. Biologist Valerius Geist
Valerius Geist
suggests evolution to have occurred in stages. There are not many prominent fossils to trace this evolution, but only fragments of skeletons and antlers that might be easily confused with false antlers of non-cervid species.[8][37] Eocene
Eocene
epoch[edit] The ruminants, ancestors of the Cervidae, are believed to have evolved from Diacodexis, the earliest known artiodactyl (even-toed ungulate), 50–55 Mya in the Eocene.[38] Diacodexis, nearly the size of a rabbit, featured the talus bone characteristic of all modern even-toed ungulates. This ancestor and its relatives occurred throughout North America and Eurasia, but were on the decline by at least 46 Mya.[38][39] Analysis of a nearly complete skeleton of Diacodexis discovered in 1982 gave rise to speculation that this ancestor could be closer to the non-ruminants than the ruminants.[40] Andromeryx is another prominent prehistoric ruminant, but appears to be closer to the tragulids.[41] Oligocene
Oligocene
epoch[edit]

Leptomeryx

The formation of the Himalayas
Himalayas
and the Alps
Alps
brought about significant geographic changes. This was the chief reason behind the extensive diversification of deer-like forms and the emergence of cervids from the Oligocene
Oligocene
to the early Pliocene.[42] The latter half of the Oligocene
Oligocene
(28–34 Mya) saw the appearance of the European Eumeryx and the North American Leptomeryx. The latter resembled modern-day bovids and cervids in dental morphology (for instance, it had brachyodont molars), while the former was more advanced.[43] Other deer-like forms included the North American Blastomeryx
Blastomeryx
and the European Dremotherium; these sabre-toothed animals are believed to have been the direct ancestors of all modern antlered deer, though they themselves lacked antlers.[44] Another contemporaneous form was the four-horned protoceratid Protoceras, that was replaced by Syndyoceras
Syndyoceras
in the Miocene; these animals were unique in having a horn on the nose.[37] Late Eocene
Eocene
fossils dated approximately 35 million years ago, which were found in North America, show that Syndyoceras
Syndyoceras
had bony skull outgrowths that resembled non-deciduous antlers.[45] Miocene
Miocene
epoch[edit] Fossil evidence suggests that the earliest members of the superfamily Cervoidea appeared in Eurasia
Eurasia
in the Miocene. Dicrocerus, Euprox and Heteroprox
Heteroprox
were probably the first antlered cervids.[46] Dicrocerus featured single-forked antlers that were shed regularly.[47] Stephanocemas had more developed and diffuse ("crowned") antlers.[48] Procervulus
Procervulus
(Palaeomerycidae), in addition to the tusks of Dremotherium, possessed antlers that were not shed.[49] Contemporary forms such as the merycodontines eventually gave rise to the modern pronghorn.[50] The Cervinae
Cervinae
emerged as the first group of extant cervids around 7–9 Mya, during the late Miocene
Miocene
in central Asia. The tribe Muntiacini made its appearance as † Muntiacus
Muntiacus
leilaoensis around 7–8 Mya;[51] The early muntjacs varied in size–as small as hares or as large as fallow deer. They had tusks for fighting and antlers for defence.[8] Capreolinae
Capreolinae
followed soon after; Alceini appeared 6.4–8.4 Mya.[52] Around this period, the Tethys Ocean
Tethys Ocean
disappeared to give way to vast stretches of grassland; these provided the deer with abundant protein-rich vegetation that led to the development of ornamental antlers and allowed populations to flourish and colonise areas.[8][42] As antlers had become pronounced, the canines were no more retained or were poorly represented (as in elk), probably because diet was no more browse-dominated and antlers were better display organs. In muntjac and tufted deer, the antlers as well as the canines are small. The tragulids, however, possess long canines to this day.[39] Pliocene
Pliocene
epoch[edit]

Cervocerus novorossiae

With the onset of the Pliocene, the global climate became cooler. A fall in the sea-level led to massive glaciation; consequently, grasslands abounded in nutritious forage. Thus a new spurt in deer populations ensued.[8][42] The oldest member of Cervini, † Cervocerus novorossiae, appeared around the transition from Miocene
Miocene
to Pliocene
Pliocene
(4.2–6 Mya) in Eurasia;[53] cervine fossils from early Pliocene
Pliocene
to as late as the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
have been excavated in China[54] and the Himalayas.[55] While Cervus
Cervus
and Dama appeared nearly 3 Mya, Axis emerged during the late Pliocene–Pleistocene. The tribes Capreolini and Rangiferini appeared around 4–7 Mya.[52] Around 5 Mya, the rangiferines † Bretzia and † Eocoileus were the first cervids to reach North America.[52] This implies the Bering Strait could be crossed during the late Miocene–Pliocene; this appears highly probable as the camelids migrated into Asia from North America around the same time.[56] Deer
Deer
invaded South America in the late Pliocene
Pliocene
(2.5–3 Mya) as part of the Great American Interchange, thanks to the recently formed Isthmus of Panama, and emerged successful due to the small number of competing ruminants in the continent.[57] Pleistocene
Pleistocene
epoch[edit] Large deer with impressive antlers evolved during the early Pleistocene, probably as a result of abundant resources to drive evolution.[8] The early Pleistocene
Pleistocene
cervid † Eucladoceros
Eucladoceros
was comparable in size to the modern elk.[58] † Megaloceros (Pliocene–Pleistocene) featured the Irish elk
Irish elk
(M. giganteus), one of the largest known cervids. The Irish elk
Irish elk
reached 2 metres (6.6 ft) at the shoulder and had heavy antlers that spanned 3.6 metres (12 ft) from tip to tip.[59] These large animals are thought to have faced extinction due to conflict between sexual selection for large antlers and body and natural selection for a smaller form.[60] Meanwhile, the moose and reindeer radiated into North America from Siberia.[61] Taxonomy and classification[edit]

Cervid skull.

Deer
Deer
constitute the artiodactyl family Cervidae. This family was first described by German zoologist Georg August Goldfuss
Georg August Goldfuss
in Handbuch der Zoologie (1820). Three subfamilies are recognised: Capreolinae
Capreolinae
(first described by the English zoologist Joshua Brookes
Joshua Brookes
in 1828), Cervinae (described by Goldfuss) and Hydropotinae
Hydropotinae
(first described by French zoologist Édouard Louis Trouessart
Édouard Louis Trouessart
in 1898).[2][62] Other attempts at the classification of deer have been based on morphological and genetic differences.[37] The Anglo-Irish naturalist Victor Brooke suggested in 1878 that deer could be bifurcated into two classes on the according to the features of the second and fifth metacarpal bones of their forelimbs: Plesiometacarpalia (most Old World deer) and Telemetacarpalia (most New World deer). He treated the musk deer as a cervid, placing it under Telemetacarpalia. While the telemetacarpal deer showed only those elements located far from the joint, the plesiometacarpal deer retained the elements closer to the joint as well.[63] Differentiation on the basis of diploid number of chromosomes in the late 20th century has been flawed by several inconsistencies.[37] In 1987, the zoologists Colin Groves
Colin Groves
and Peter Grubb identified three subfamilies: Cervinae, Hydropotinae
Hydropotinae
and Odocoileinae; they noted that the hydropotines lack antlers, and the other two subfamilies differ in their skeletal morphology.[64] However, they reverted from this classification in 2000.[65] External relationships[edit] Until the beginning of the 21st century it was understood that the family Moschidae
Moschidae
(musk deer) is sister to Cervidae. However, a 2003 phylogenetic study by Alexandre Hassanin (of National Museum of Natural History, France) and colleagues, based on mitochondrial and nuclear analyses, revealed that Moschidae
Moschidae
and Bovidae
Bovidae
form a clade sister to Cervidae. According to the study, Cervidae diverged from the Bovidae- Moschidae
Moschidae
clade 27 to 28 million years ago.[66] A similar study in 2013 echoed the findings of this study.[67] The following cladogram is based on the 2003 study.[66]

Ruminantia

Tragulina

Tragulidae
Tragulidae

Pecora

Antilocapridae
Antilocapridae

Giraffidae
Giraffidae

Cervidae

Bovidae
Bovidae

Moschidae
Moschidae

Internal relationships[edit] A 2006 phylogenetic study of the internal relationships in Cervidae by Clément Gilbert and colleagues divided the family into two major clades: Capreolinae
Capreolinae
(telemetacarpal or New World deer) and Cervinae (plesiometacarpal or Old World deer). Studies in the late 20th century suggested a similar bifurcation in the family. This as well as previous studies support monophyly in Cervinae, while Capreolinae appears paraphyletic. The 2006 study identified two lineages in Cervinae, Cervini (comprising the genera Axis, Cervus, Dama and Rucervus) and Muntiacini
Muntiacini
( Muntiacus
Muntiacus
and Elaphodus). Capreolinae featured three lineages, Alceini ( Alces
Alces
species), Capreolini ( Capreolus
Capreolus
and the subfamily Hydropotinae) and Rangiferini (Blastocerus, Hippocamelus, Mazama, Odocoileus, Pudu and Rangifer species). The following cladogram is based on the 2006 study.[52]

Cervidae

Cervinae

Muntiacini

Reeves's muntjac

Tufted deer
Tufted deer

Cervini

Fallow deer
Fallow deer

Persian fallow deer

Rusa

Sambar

Red deer
Red deer

Thorold's deer

Sika deer

Eld's deer

Père David's deer

Barasingha

Indian hog deer

Chital

Capreolinae

Rangiferini

Reindeer
Reindeer
(Caribou)

American red brocket
American red brocket

White-tailed deer
White-tailed deer

Mule deer
Mule deer

Marsh deer

Gray brocket

Southern pudu
Southern pudu

Taruca
Taruca

Capreolini

Roe deer
Roe deer

Water deer
Water deer

Alceini

Moose
Moose
or Eurasian elk

Extant subfamilies, genera and species[edit] The subfamily Capreolinae
Capreolinae
consists of 9 genera and 36 species, while Cervinae
Cervinae
comprises 10 genera and 55 species.[62] Hydropotinae
Hydropotinae
consists of a single species, the water deer (H. inermis); however, a 1998 study placed it under Capreolinae.[68] The following list is based on molecular and phylogenetic studies by zoologists such as Groves and Grubb.[69][70][71][72][73]

Subfamily
Subfamily
Capreolinae
Capreolinae
( Odocoileinae
Odocoileinae
or New World deer)

Tribe Alceini

Moose, the largest species of deer

Genus Alces

Moose
Moose
or Eurasian elk (A. alces)

Tribe Capreolini

Genus Capreolus

Western roe deer (C. capreolus) Eastern roe deer
Eastern roe deer
(C. pygargus; considered a subspecies of the western roe deer until the late 20th century)

Tribe Rangiferini or Odocoileini (reindeer and New World deer)

Genus Blastocerus

Marsh deer
Marsh deer
(B. dichotomus)

Genus Hippocamelus

Taruca
Taruca
(H. antisensis) Huemul (H. bisulcus)

Genus Mazama

Amazonian brown brocket
Amazonian brown brocket
(M. nemorivaga; sometimes considered to be a subspecies of the gray brocket) Brazilian brocket
Brazilian brocket
(M. superciliaris; sometimes considered to be a subspecies of the gray brocket) Brazilian red brocket
Brazilian red brocket
(M. jucunda; sometimes considered to be a subspecies of the red brocket) Central American red brocket
American red brocket
(M. temama; sometimes considered to be a subspecies of the red brocket) Colombian brocket
Colombian brocket
(M. sanctaemartae; sometimes considered to be a subspecies of gray brocket) Colombian red brocket
Colombian red brocket
(M. zetta; sometimes considered to be a subspecies of the red brocket) Dwarf brocket
Dwarf brocket
(M. chunyi; sometimes considered a subspecies of the Merida brocket) Ecuador brocket
Ecuador brocket
(M. murelia; sometimes considered to be a subspecies of the gray brocket) Ecuador red brocket
Ecuador red brocket
(M. gualea; sometimes considered to be a subspecies of the red brocket) Gray brocket
Gray brocket
(M. gouazoubira) Isla San Jose brocket
Isla San Jose brocket
(M. permira; sometimes considered to be a subspecies of the gray brocket) Little red brocket
Little red brocket
(M. rufina) Merida brocket
Merida brocket
(M. bricenii) Northern Venezuelan brocket
Northern Venezuelan brocket
(M. cita; sometimes considered to be a subspecies of gray brocket) Peruvian brocket
Peruvian brocket
(M. tschudii; sometimes considered to be a subspecies of the gray brocket) Peruvian red brocket
Peruvian red brocket
(M. zamora; sometimes considered to be a subspecies of the red brocket) Pygmy brocket
Pygmy brocket
(M. nana; sometimes considered to be a subspecies of little red brocket) Red brocket
Red brocket
(M. americana) Rodon (M. rondoni; sometimes considered to be a subspecies of the gray brocket) Small red brocket
Small red brocket
or Bororo (M. bororo) Southern red brocket
Southern red brocket
(M. whitelyi; sometimes considered to be a subspecies of the red brocket) Trinidad red brocket
Trinidad red brocket
(M. trinitatis; sometimes considered to be a subspecies of the red brocket) Yucatan brown brocket
Yucatan brown brocket
(M. pandora; formerly considered to be a subspecies of the gray brocket or the red brocket)

Genus Odocoileus

Mule deer
Mule deer
(O. hemionus) White-tailed deer
White-tailed deer
(O. virginianus)

Genus Ozotoceros

Pampas deer
Pampas deer
(O. bezoarticus)

Pudú, the smallest species of deer

Genus Pudu

Northern pudú
Northern pudú
(P. mephistophiles) Southern pudú
Southern pudú
(P. pudu)

Genus Rangifer

Reindeer
Reindeer
or caribou (R. tarandus)

Tufted deer, along with other muntjacs and the water deer, are the only living cervids with tusks

Subfamily
Subfamily
Cervinae
Cervinae
(Old World deer)

Tribe Cervini (true deer)

Genus Axis (formerly considered to be a subgenus of Cervus)

Chital
Chital
(A. axis)

Genus Cervus

Red deer
Red deer
(C. elaphus) Maral deer (C. maral; sometimes considered to be a subspecies of the west European red deer) Corsican red deer
Corsican red deer
(C. corsicanus; sometimes considered to be a subspecies of the west European red deer) Yarkand deer (C. yarkandensis; sometimes considered to be a subspecies of the west European red deer) Bactrian deer
Bactrian deer
(C. bactrianus; sometimes considered to be a subspecies of the west European red deer) Thorold's deer
Thorold's deer
(C. albirostris) Sika deer
Sika deer
(C. nippon) Vietnamese deer
Vietnamese deer
(C. pseudaxis; sometimes considered to be a subspecies of the sika deer) Tsushima Island deer
Tsushima Island deer
(C. pulchellus; sometimes considered to be a subspecies of the sika deer) Formosan deer
Formosan deer
(C. taiouanus; sometimes considered to be a subspecies of the sika deer) Kashmir wapiti
Kashmir wapiti
(C. hanglu; sometimes considered to be a subspecies of the west European red deer or the American wapiti) Manchurian wapiti
Manchurian wapiti
(C. xanthopygus; sometimes considered to be a subspecies of the American wapiti) Tibetan wapiti
Tibetan wapiti
(C. wallichi; sometimes considered to be a subspecies of the American wapiti) Sichuan wapiti (C. macneilli; sometimes considered to be a subspecies of the American wapiti) Alashan wapiti (C. alashanicus; sometimes considered to be a subspecies of the American wapiti) American wapiti
American wapiti
(elk) (C. canadensis)

Genus Dama

Fallow deer
Fallow deer
(D. dama) Persian fallow deer
Persian fallow deer
(D. mesopotamica)

Père David's deer
Père David's deer
is an extremely endangered species, and extinct in the wild

Genus Elaphurus

Père David's deer
Père David's deer
(E. davidianus)

Genus Hyelaphus
Hyelaphus
(formerly considered to be a subgenus of Axis)

Bawean deer
Bawean deer
(H. kuhlii) Calamian deer
Calamian deer
(H. calamianensis) Hog deer
Hog deer
(H. porcinus) Indochinese hog deer (H. annamiticus; sometimes considered to be a subspecies of the hog deer)

Genus Panolia[74]

Eastern Eld's deer
Eld's deer
(P. siamensis; sometimes considered to be a subspecies of the Manipur Eld's deer) Manipur Eld's deer
Eld's deer
(P. eldii) Thamin
Thamin
(P. thamin; sometimes considered to be a subspecies of the Manipur Eld's deer)

Genus Rucervus

Barasingha
Barasingha
(R. duvaucelii) Eastern swamp deer
Eastern swamp deer
(R. ranjitsinhi; sometimes considered to be a subspecies of the barasingha) Western swamp deer
Western swamp deer
(R. branderi; sometimes considered to be a subspecies of the barasingha)

Genus Rusa (sometimes considered synonymous to Cervus)

Mindanao mountain deer
Mindanao mountain deer
(R. nigellus; sometimes considered to be a subspecies of the Philippine sambar) Mindoro deer
Mindoro deer
(R. barandanus; sometimes considered to be a subspecies of the Philippine sambar) Philippine sambar
Philippine sambar
(R. mariannus) Prince Alfred's deer
Prince Alfred's deer
(R. alfredi) Javan rusa
Javan rusa
(R. timorensis) Sambar deer
Sambar deer
(R. unicolor) Southeast Asian sambar
Southeast Asian sambar
(R. equinus; sometimes considered to be a subspecies of the sambar deer)

Tribe Muntiacini

Genus Elaphodus

Tufted deer
Tufted deer
(E. cephalophus)

Genus Muntiacus

Annamite muntjac
Annamite muntjac
(M. truongsonensis) Black-legged muntjac
Black-legged muntjac
(M. nigripes; sometimes considered to be a subspecies of the Javan muntjac) Bornean yellow muntjac
Bornean yellow muntjac
(M. atherodes) Fea's muntjac
Fea's muntjac
(M. feae) Giant muntjac
Giant muntjac
(M. vuquangensis) Gongshan muntjac
Gongshan muntjac
(M. gongshanensis) Hairy-fronted muntjac
Hairy-fronted muntjac
(M. crinifrons) Indian muntjac
Indian muntjac
(M. aureus; sometimes considered to be a subspecies of the Javan muntjac) Javan muntjac
Javan muntjac
(M. muntjak) Leaf muntjac
Leaf muntjac
(M. putaoensis) Northern red muntjac
Northern red muntjac
(M. vaginalis; sometimes considered to be a subspecies of the Javan muntjac) Pu Hoat muntjac
Pu Hoat muntjac
(M. puhoatensis) Reeves's muntjac
Reeves's muntjac
(M. reevesi) Roosevelt's muntjac
Roosevelt's muntjac
(M. rooseveltorum) Sri Lankan muntjac
Sri Lankan muntjac
(M. malabaricus; sometimes considered to be a subspecies of the Javan muntjac) Sumatran muntjac
Sumatran muntjac
(M. montanum)

Subfamily
Subfamily
Hydropotinae

Tribe Hydropotini

Genus Hydropotes

Water deer
Water deer
(H. inermis)

Extinct subfamilies, genera and species[edit] The following is the classification of the extinct cervids with known fossil record:

Subfamily
Subfamily
Procervulinae (Miocene)[75]

Genus Procervulus

P. dichotoma

Subfamily
Subfamily
Cervinae
Cervinae
(Old World deer)

Tribe Muntiacini
Muntiacini
(Muntjacs)

Genus Dicrocerus

D. elegans D. furcatus D. necatus D. teres D. trilateralis

Genus Euprox[76]

E. robustus E. furcatus

Genus Eustyloceros[77]

E. blainvillei E. hezhengensis E. longchuanensis E. maci E. pidoplitschkoi E. propria

Genus Muntiacus

M. leilaoensis M. pliocaenicus M. polonicus

Genus Paracervulus[78] Genus Stephanocemas[79]

S. actauensis S. aralensis S. chinghaiensis S. palmatus S. rucha S. thomsoni

Tribe Cervini ("true" deer)

Genus Allocaenelaphus Genus Arvernoceros[80]

A. giuli

Genus Axis

A. nesti A. eurygonos

Genus Candiacervus
Candiacervus
(sometimes considered a subgenus as Megaloceros
Megaloceros
or synonym of Praemegaceros; Possibly polyphyletic)

C. rethymnensis C. major C. dorothensis C. ropalophorus C. cretensis

Genus Cervavitus (?subgenus as Megaloceros) Genus Cervus

C. ertborni C. falconeri C. giganteus C. rhenanus C. lascrucensis

Genus Croizetoceros[81]

C. ramosus

Genus Dama[82]

D. dolichopsis D. ensifer D. laevicornis D. virginiana D. whitneyi

Genus Elaphurus

E. formosanus E. meziesianus E. bifurcatus E. shikamai

Genus Eucladoceros

Eucladoceros
Eucladoceros
tetraceros

Genus Gona

G. sinhalaya

Irish elk, one of the largest cervids ever

Genus Megaloceros

M. antecedens M. giganteus

Genus Neomegaloceros Genus Nesoleipoceros Genus Orchonoceros(sometimes considered a subgenus as Megaloceros) Genus Pliocervus[83] Genus Praemegaceros
Praemegaceros
(sometimes considered a subgenus as Megaloceros)

P. obscurus P. dawkinsi P. savini P. verticornis P. cazioti

Genus Praesinomegaceros (sometimes considered a subgenus as Megaloceros)

P. venustus P. asiaticus

Genus Pselcupsoceros Genus Pseudodama[84] Genus Rucervus

Schomburgk's deer
Schomburgk's deer
(R. schomburgki)

Sinomegaceros (sometimes considered a subgenus as Megaloceros)

S. luochuanensis S. pachyosteus

Subfamily
Subfamily
Capreolinae
Capreolinae
(New World or telemetecarpal deer)

Tribe Capreolini

Genus Bretzia

B. pseudalces B. nebrascensis

Genus Capreolus

C. constantini C. suessenbornensis

Stag-moose
Stag-moose
was the largest cervid ever to live

Genus Cervalces (?= Alces)

C. latifrons C. scotti

Genus Libralces
Libralces
(?=Cervalces or Alces)

L. gallicus L. reynoldsi

Genus Procapreolus

P. cusanus P. moldavicus P. stenos P. ucrainicus

Genus Pseudalces

P. mirandus P. wenzensis

Tribe Rangiferini

Genus Agalmaceros

A. blicki

Genus Antifer

A. ultra A. crassus

Genus Blastocerus

B. extraneus B. arpeitianus

Genus Charitoceros Genus Eocoileus

E. gentryorum

Genus Epieuryceros

E. proximus E. truncus

Genus Morenelaphus

M. lujanensis M. brachyceros M. fragilis

Genus Odocoileus

O. brachyodontus O. dolichopsis O. laevicornis O. sellardsiae O. lucasi

Genus Torontoceros

T. hypocaeus

Human interaction[edit]

Upper Palaeolithic
Upper Palaeolithic
cave painting of a Megaloceros
Megaloceros
giant deer at Lascaux, 17,300 years old

In prehistory[edit] Deer
Deer
were an important source of food for early hominids. In China, Homo erectus
Homo erectus
fed upon the sika deer, while the red deer was hunted in Germany. In the Upper Palaeolithic, the reindeer was the staple food for Cro-Magnon
Cro-Magnon
people,[85] while the cave paintings at Lascaux
Lascaux
in southwestern France include some 90 images of stags.[86] In history[edit]

Ancient Greek gilt-silver rhyton, 4th century BC

Deer
Deer
had a central role in the ancient art, culture and mythology of the Hittites, the ancient Egyptians, the Celts, the ancient Greeks, the Asians and several others. For instance, the Stag Hunt Mosaic
Stag Hunt Mosaic
of ancient Pella, under the Kingdom of Macedonia
Kingdom of Macedonia
(4th century BC), possibly depicts Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
hunting a deer with Hephaistion.[87] In Japanese Shintoism, the sika deer is believed to be a messenger to the gods. In China, deer are associated with great medicinal significance; deer penis is thought by some in China to have aphrodisiac properties.[88] Spotted deer are believed in China to accompany the god of longevity. Deer
Deer
was the principal sacrificial animal for the Huichal Indians of Mexico. In medieval Europe, deer appeared in hunting scenes and coats-of-arms. Deer
Deer
are depicted in many materials by various pre-Hispanic civilizations in the Andes.[85][89] The common male first name Oscar is taken from the Irish Language, where it is derived from two elements: the first, os, means "deer"; the second element, cara, means "friend". The name is borne by a famous hero of Irish mythology—Oscar, grandson of Fionn Mac Cumhail. The name was popularised in the 18th century by James Macpherson, creator of 'Ossianic poetry'. In literature[edit] Deer
Deer
have been an integral part of fables and other literary works since the inception of writing. Stags were used as symbols in the latter Sumerian writings. For instance, the boat of Sumerian god Enki is named the Stag of Azbu. There are several mentions of the animal in the Rigveda
Rigveda
as well as the Bible. In the Indian epic Ramayana, Sita
Sita
is lured by a golden deer which Rama
Rama
tries to catch. In the absence of both Rama
Rama
and Lakshman, Ravana
Ravana
kidnaps Sita. Many of the allegorical Aesop's fables, such as "The Stag at the Pool", "The One-Eyed Doe" and "The Stag and a Lion", personify deer to give moral lessons. For instance, "The Sick Stag" gives the message that uncaring friends can do more harm than good.[85] The Yaqui deer song accompanies the deer dance which is performed by a pascola [from the Spanish 'pascua', Easter] dancer (also known as a deer dancer). Pascolas would perform at religious and social functions many times of the year, especially during Lent and Easter.[85][90] In one of Rudolf Erich Raspe's 1785 stories of Baron Munchausen's Narrative of his Marvellous Travels and Campaigns in Russia, the baron encounters a stag while eating cherries and, without ammunition, fires the cherry-pits at the stag with his musket, but it escapes. The next year, the baron encounters a stag with a cherry tree growing from its head; presumably this is the animal he had shot at the previous year. In Christmas
Christmas
lore (such as in the narrative poem "A Visit from St. Nicholas"), reindeer are often depicted pulling the sleigh of Santa Claus.[91] Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings's Pulitzer Prize-winning 1938 novel The Yearling
The Yearling
was about a boy's relationship with a baby deer. The fiction book Fire Bringer
Fire Bringer
is about a young fawn who goes on a quest to save the Herla, the deer kind.[92] In the 1942 Walt Disney Pictures film, Bambi
Bambi
is a white-tailed deer, while in Felix Salten's original 1923 book Bambi, a Life in the Woods, he is a roe deer. In C. S. Lewis's 1950 fantasy novel The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe
The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe
the adult Pevensies, now kings and queens of Narnia, chase the White Stag on a hunt, as the Stag is said to grant its captor a wish. The hunt is key in returning the Pevensies to their home in England. In the 1979 book The Animals of Farthing Wood, The Great White Stag is the leader of all the animals. Heraldry[edit]

Arms of Raon-aux-Bois, France

Deer
Deer
are represented in heraldry by the stag or hart, or less often, by the hind, and the brocket (a young stag up to two years), respectively. Stag's heads and antlers also appear as charges. The old name for deer was simply cerf, and it is chiefly the head that appears on the ancient arms. Examples of deer in coats of arms can be found in the arms of Hertfordshire, England, and its county town of Hertford; both are examples of canting arms. A deer appears on the arms of the Israeli Postal Authority (see Hebrew language page).[93] Coats of arms
Coats of arms
based on deer include those of Dotternhausen, Thierachern, Friolzheim, Bauen, Albstadt, and Dassel
Dassel
in Germany; of the Earls Bathurst
Earls Bathurst
in England; of Balakhna, Russia; of Åland, Finland; of Gjemnes, Hitra, Hjartdal, Rendalen
Rendalen
and Voss
Voss
in Norway; of Jelenia Góra, Poland; of Umeå, Sweden; of Cervera, Catalonia; of Northern Ireland; and of Chile. Economic significance[edit] Deer
Deer
have long had economic significance to humans. Deer
Deer
meat, known as venison, is produced in small amounts compared to beef, but still represents a significant trade. By 2012, some 25,000 tons of red deer were raised on farms in North America. The major deer-producing countries are New Zealand, the market leader, with Ireland, Great Britain and Germany. The trade earns over $100 million annually for these countries.[94] The skins make a peculiarly strong, soft leather, known as buckskin. There is nothing special about skins with the fur on since the hair is brittle and soon falls off. The hoofs and horns are used for ornamental purposes, especially the antlers of the roe deer, which are utilized for making umbrella handles, and for similar purposes; elk horn is often employed in making knife handles. In China, a medicine is made from stag horn, and the antlers of certain species are eaten when "in the velvet".[95] Among the Inuit, the traditional ulu women's knife was made with an antler, horn, or ivory handle.[96]

Nicholas Mavrogenes, Phanariote Prince of Wallachia, riding through Bucharest
Bucharest
in a stag−drawn carriage. Late 1780s

Deer
Deer
have long been bred in captivity as ornaments for parks, but only in the case of reindeer has thorough domestication succeeded.[95] The Sami of Scandinavia and the Kola Peninsula
Kola Peninsula
of Russia and other nomadic peoples of northern Asia use reindeer for food, clothing, and transport. Deer
Deer
bred for hunting are selected based on the size of the antlers.[97] In North America, the reindeer, known there as caribou, is not domesticated or herded, but it is important as a quarry animal to the Caribou Inuit.[98] Automobile collisions with deer can impose a significant cost on the economy. In the U.S., about 1.5 million deer-vehicle collisions occur each year, according to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Those accidents cause about 150 human deaths and $1.1 billion in property damage annually.[99] In Scotland, several roads including the A82, the A87 and the A835 have had significant enough problems with deer vehicle collisions (DVCs) that sets of vehicle activated automatic warning signs have been installed along these roads.[100] In some areas of the UK, deer (especially fallow deer due to their gregarious behaviour), have been implicated as a possible reservoir for transmission of bovine tuberculosis,[101][102] a disease which in the UK in 2005 cost £90 million in attempts to eradicate.[103] In New Zealand, deer are thought to be important as vectors picking up M. bovis in areas where brushtail possums Trichosurus vulpecula
Trichosurus vulpecula
are infected, and transferring it to previously uninfected possums when their carcasses are scavenged elsewhere.[104] The white-tailed deer Odocoileus
Odocoileus
virginianus has been confirmed as the sole maintenance host in the Michigan outbreak of bovine tuberculosis which remains a significant barrier to the US nationwide eradication of the disease in livestock. In 2008, 733,998 licensed deer hunters harvested approximately 489,922 white-tailed deer in attempts to control the deer population and disease spread. These hunters purchased more than 1.5 million deer harvest tags. The economic value of deer hunting to Michigan's economy is substantial. For example, in 2006, hunters spent US$507 million hunting white-tailed deer in Michigan.[105] Deer hunting
Deer hunting
is a popular activity in the U.S. and generates revenue for states and the federal government from the sales of licenses, permits and tags. The 2006 survey by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service estimates that license sales generate approximately $700 million annually. This revenue generally goes to support conservation efforts in the states where the licenses are purchased. Overall, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service estimates that big game hunting for deer and elk generates approximately $11.8 billion annually in hunting-related travel, equipment and related expenditures.[106] Etymology[edit] The word deer was originally broad in meaning, becoming more specific with time. Old English
Old English
dēor and Middle English
Middle English
der meant a wild animal of any kind. Cognates of Old English
Old English
dēor in other dead Germanic languages
Germanic languages
have the general sense of animal, such as Old High German tior, Old Norse
Old Norse
djur or dȳr, Gothic dius, Old Saxon
Old Saxon
dier, and Old Frisian diar.[107] This general sense gave way to the modern English sense by the end of the Middle English
Middle English
period, around 1500. However, all modern Germanic languages
Germanic languages
save English and Scots retain the more general sense: for example, German Tier and Norwegian dyr mean animal.[108] Terminology[edit]

"The Stag Hunt of Frederick III, Elector of Saxony" by Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1529

For most types of deer in modern English usage, the male is a buck and the female a doe, but the terms vary with dialect, and according to the size of the species. The male red deer is a stag, while for other large species the male is a bull, the female a cow, as in cattle. In older usage, the male of any species is a hart, especially if over five years old, and the female is a hind, especially if three or more years old.[109] The young of small species is a fawn and of large species a calf; a very small young may be a kid. A castrated male is a havier.[110] A group of any species is a herd. The adjective of relation is cervine; like the family name Cervidae, this is from Latin: cervus, meaning stag or deer. See also[edit]

Deer
Deer
management Australian Deer
Deer
Association Deer
Deer
forest Reindeer
Reindeer
hunting in Greenland

References[edit]

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Answer Guide. Baltimore, USA: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 1–142. ISBN 978-1-4214-0387-8.  ^ Francis, C. M. (2008). A Field Guide to the Mammals of South-East Asia. London, UK: New Holland. p. 130. ISBN 978-1-84537-735-9.  ^ Trolle, M.; Emmons, L. H. (2004). "A record of a dwarf brocket from Lowland Madre De Dios, Peru" (PDF). Deer
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Specialist Group News (19): 2–5.  ^ Schmidly, D. J. (2004). The Mammals of Texas (Revised ed.). Austin, Texas (USA): University of Texas Press. pp. 263–4. ISBN 978-1-4773-0886-8.  ^ Hames, D. S.; Koshowski, Denise (1999). Hoofed Mammals of British Columbia. Vancouver, Canada: UBC Press. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-7748-0728-9.  ^ Booy, O.; Wade, M.; Roy, H. (2015). Field Guide to Invasive Plants and Animals in Britain. London, UK: Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 170. ISBN 978-1-4729-1153-7.  ^ Bowers, N.; Bowers, R.; Kaufmann, K. (2004). Mammals of North America. New York, USA: Houghton Mifflin. pp. 158–9. ISBN 978-0-618-15313-8.  ^ Hooey, T. (2004). Strategic Whitetail Hunting. Krause Publications. p. 39. ISBN 978-1-4402-2702-8.  ^ Ryder, M. L.; Kay, R. N. B. (1973). "Structure of and seasonal change in the coat of Red deer
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( Cervus
Cervus
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Further reading[edit]

Deerland: America's Hunt for Ecological Balance and the Essence of Wildness by Al Cambronne, Lyons Press (2013), ISBN 978-0-7627-8027-3

External links[edit]

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Cervidae

Look up deer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cervidae.

Family Cervidae at the Animal
Animal
Diversity Web Chronic Wasting Disease Information Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture – Deer  "Deer". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914. 

v t e

Extant Artiodactyla species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Ruminantia

Antilocapridae

Antilocapra

Pronghorn
Pronghorn
(A. americana)

Giraffidae

Okapia

Okapi
Okapi
(O. johnstoni)

Giraffa

Northern giraffe
Northern giraffe
(G. camelopardalis) Southern giraffe
Southern giraffe
(G. giraffa) Reticulated giraffe
Reticulated giraffe
(G. reticulata) Masai giraffe
Masai giraffe
(G. tippelskirchi)

Moschidae

Moschus

Anhui musk deer
Anhui musk deer
(M. anhuiensis) Dwarf musk deer
Dwarf musk deer
(M. berezovskii) Alpine musk deer
Alpine musk deer
(M. chrysogaster) Kashmir musk deer
Kashmir musk deer
(M. cupreus) Black musk deer
Black musk deer
(M. fuscus) Himalayan musk deer (M. leucogaster) Siberian musk deer
Siberian musk deer
(M. moschiferus)

Tragulidae

Hyemoschus

Water chevrotain
Water chevrotain
(H. aquaticus)

Moschiola

Indian spotted chevrotain
Indian spotted chevrotain
(M. indica) Yellow-striped chevrotain
Yellow-striped chevrotain
(M. kathygre) Sri Lankan spotted chevrotain
Sri Lankan spotted chevrotain
(M. meminna)

Tragulus

Java mouse-deer
Java mouse-deer
(T. javanicus) Lesser mouse-deer
Lesser mouse-deer
(T. kanchil) Greater mouse-deer
Greater mouse-deer
(T. napu) Philippine mouse-deer
Philippine mouse-deer
(T. nigricans) Vietnam mouse-deer
Vietnam mouse-deer
(T. versicolor) Williamson's mouse-deer
Williamson's mouse-deer
(T. williamsoni)

Cervidae

Large family listed below

Bovidae

Large family listed below

Family Cervidae

Cervinae

Muntiacus

Indian muntjac
Indian muntjac
(M. muntjak) Reeves's muntjac
Reeves's muntjac
(M. reevesi) Hairy-fronted muntjac
Hairy-fronted muntjac
(M. crinifrons) Fea's muntjac
Fea's muntjac
(M. feae) Bornean yellow muntjac
Bornean yellow muntjac
(M. atherodes) Roosevelt's muntjac
Roosevelt's muntjac
(M. rooseveltorum) Gongshan muntjac
Gongshan muntjac
(M. gongshanensis) Giant muntjac
Giant muntjac
(M. vuquangensis) Truong Son muntjac
Truong Son muntjac
(M. truongsonensis) Leaf muntjac
Leaf muntjac
(M. putaoensis) Sumatran muntjac
Sumatran muntjac
(M. montanus) Pu Hoat muntjac
Pu Hoat muntjac
(M. puhoatensis)

Elaphodus

Tufted deer
Tufted deer
(E. cephalophus)

Dama

Fallow deer
Fallow deer
(D. dama) Persian fallow deer
Persian fallow deer
(D. mesopotamica)

Axis

Chital
Chital
(A. axis)

Rucervus

Barasingha
Barasingha
(R. duvaucelii)

Panolia

Eld's deer
Eld's deer
(P. eldii)

Elaphurus

Père David's deer
Père David's deer
(E. davidianus)

Hyelaphus

Hog deer
Hog deer
(H. porcinus) Calamian deer
Calamian deer
(H. calamianensis) Bawean deer
Bawean deer
(H. kuhlii)

Rusa

Sambar deer
Sambar deer
(R. unicolor) Rusa deer (R. timorensis) Philippine sambar
Philippine sambar
(R. mariannus) Philippine spotted deer (R. alfredi)

Cervus

Red deer
Red deer
(C. elaphus) Elk
Elk
(C. canadensis) Thorold's deer
Thorold's deer
(C. albirostris) Sika deer
Sika deer
(C. nippon)

Capreolinae

Alces

Moose
Moose
(A. alces)

Hydropotes

Water deer
Water deer
(H. inermis)

Capreolus

Roe deer
Roe deer
(C. capreolus) Siberian roe deer
Siberian roe deer
(C. pygargus)

Rangifer

Reindeer
Reindeer
(R. tarandus)

Hippocamelus

Taruca
Taruca
(H. antisensis) South Andean deer
South Andean deer
(H. bisulcus)

Mazama

Red brocket
Red brocket
(M. americana) Small red brocket
Small red brocket
(M. bororo) Merida brocket
Merida brocket
(M. bricenii) Dwarf brocket
Dwarf brocket
(M. chunyi) Gray brocket
Gray brocket
(M. gouazoubira) Pygmy brocket
Pygmy brocket
(M. nana) Amazonian brown brocket
Amazonian brown brocket
(M. nemorivaga) Yucatan brown brocket
Yucatan brown brocket
(M. pandora) Little red brocket
Little red brocket
(M. rufina) Central American red brocket
American red brocket
(M. temama)

Ozotoceros

Pampas deer
Pampas deer
(O. bezoarticus)

Blastocerus

Marsh deer
Marsh deer
(B. dichotomus)

Pudu

Northern pudú
Northern pudú
(P. mephistophiles) Southern pudú
Southern pudú
(P. pudu)

Odocoileus

White-tailed deer
White-tailed deer
(O. virginianus) Mule deer
Mule deer
(O. hemionus)

Family Bovidae

Cephalophinae

Cephalophus

Abbott's duiker
Abbott's duiker
(C. spadix) Aders's duiker
Aders's duiker
(C. adersi) Bay duiker
Bay duiker
(C. dorsalis) Black duiker
Black duiker
(C. niger) Black-fronted duiker
Black-fronted duiker
(C. nigrifrons) Brooke's duiker (C. brookei) Harvey's duiker
Harvey's duiker
(C. harveyi) Jentink's duiker
Jentink's duiker
(C. jentinki) Ogilby's duiker
Ogilby's duiker
(C. ogilbyi) Peters's duiker (C. callipygus) Red-flanked duiker
Red-flanked duiker
(C. rufilatus) Red forest duiker
Red forest duiker
(C. natalensis) Ruwenzori duiker
Ruwenzori duiker
(C. rubidis) Weyns's duiker
Weyns's duiker
(C. weynsi) White-bellied duiker
White-bellied duiker
(C. leucogaster) White-legged duiker
White-legged duiker
(C. crusalbum) Yellow-backed duiker
Yellow-backed duiker
(C. Sylvicultor) Zebra duiker
Zebra duiker
(C. zebra)

Philantomba

Blue duiker
Blue duiker
(P. monticola) Maxwell's duiker
Maxwell's duiker
(P. maxwellii) Walter's duiker
Walter's duiker
(P. walteri)

Sylvicapra

Common duiker
Common duiker
(S. grimmia)

Hippotraginae

Hippotragus

Roan antelope
Roan antelope
(H. equinus) Sable antelope
Sable antelope
(H. niger)

Oryx

East African oryx
East African oryx
(O. beisa) Scimitar oryx
Scimitar oryx
(O. dammah) Gemsbok
Gemsbok
(O. gazella) Arabian oryx
Arabian oryx
(O. leucoryx)

Addax

Addax
Addax
(A. nasomaculatus)

Reduncinae

Kobus

Upemba lechwe
Upemba lechwe
(K. anselli) Waterbuck
Waterbuck
(K. ellipsiprymnus) Kob
Kob
(K. kob) Lechwe
Lechwe
(K. leche) Nile lechwe
Nile lechwe
(K. megaceros) Puku
Puku
(K. vardonii)

Redunca

Southern reedbuck
Southern reedbuck
(R. arundinum) Mountain reedbuck
Mountain reedbuck
(R. fulvorufula) Bohor reedbuck
Bohor reedbuck
(R. redunca)

Aepycerotinae

Aepyceros

Impala
Impala
(A. melampus)

Peleinae

Pelea

Grey rhebok
Grey rhebok
(P. capreolus)

Alcelaphinae

Beatragus

Hirola
Hirola
(B. hunteri)

Damaliscus

Topi
Topi
(D. korrigum) Common tsessebe
Common tsessebe
(D. lunatus) Bontebok
Bontebok
(D. pygargus) Bangweulu tsessebe
Bangweulu tsessebe
(D. superstes)

Alcelaphus

Hartebeest
Hartebeest
(A. buselaphus) Red hartebeest
Red hartebeest
(A. caama) Lichtenstein's hartebeest
Lichtenstein's hartebeest
(A. lichtensteinii)

Connochaetes

Black wildebeest
Black wildebeest
(C. gnou) Blue wildebeest
Blue wildebeest
(C. taurinus)

Pantholopinae

Pantholops

Tibetan antelope
Tibetan antelope
(P. hodgsonii)

Caprinae

Large subfamily listed below

Bovinae

Large subfamily listed below

Antilopinae

Large subfamily listed below

Family Bovidae
Bovidae
(subfamily Caprinae)

Ammotragus

Barbary sheep
Barbary sheep
(A. lervia)

Budorcas

Takin
Takin
(B. taxicolor)

Capra

Wild goat
Wild goat
(C. aegagrus) Domestic goat (C. aegagrus hircus) West Caucasian tur
West Caucasian tur
(C. caucasia) East Caucasian tur
East Caucasian tur
(C. cylindricornis) Markhor
Markhor
(C. falconeri) Alpine ibex
Alpine ibex
(C. ibex) Nubian ibex
Nubian ibex
(C. nubiana) Spanish ibex
Spanish ibex
(C. pyrenaica) Siberian ibex
Siberian ibex
(C. sibirica) Walia ibex
Walia ibex
(C. walie)

Capricornis

Japanese serow
Japanese serow
(C. crispus) Taiwan serow
Taiwan serow
(C. swinhoei) Sumatran serow
Sumatran serow
(C. sumatraensis) Mainland serow
Mainland serow
(C. milneedwardsii) Red serow
Red serow
(C. rubidusi) Himalayan serow
Himalayan serow
(C. thar)

Hemitragus

Nilgiri tahr
Nilgiri tahr
(H. hylocrius) Arabian tahr
Arabian tahr
(H. jayakari) Himalayan tahr
Himalayan tahr
(H. jemlahicus)

Naemorhedus

Red goral
Red goral
(N. baileyi) Long-tailed goral
Long-tailed goral
(N. caudatus) Himalayan goral
Himalayan goral
(N. goral) Chinese goral
Chinese goral
(N. griseus)

Oreamnos

Mountain goat
Mountain goat
(O. americanus)

Ovibos

Muskox
Muskox
(O. moschatus)

Ovis

Argali
Argali
(O. ammon) Domestic sheep
Domestic sheep
(O. aries) Bighorn sheep
Bighorn sheep
(O. canadensis) Dall sheep
Dall sheep
(O. dalli) Mouflon
Mouflon
(O. musimon) Snow sheep
Snow sheep
(O. nivicola) Urial
Urial
(O. orientalis)

Pseudois

Bharal
Bharal
(P. nayaur) Dwarf blue sheep
Dwarf blue sheep
(P. schaeferi)

Rupicapra

Pyrenean chamois
Pyrenean chamois
(R. pyrenaica) Chamois
Chamois
(R. rupicapra)

Family Bovidae
Bovidae
(subfamily Bovinae)

Boselaphini

Tetracerus

Four-horned antelope
Four-horned antelope
(T. quadricornis)

Boselaphus

Nilgai
Nilgai
(B. tragocamelus)

Bovini

Bubalus

Water buffalo
Water buffalo
(B. bubalis) Wild Water Buffalo (B. arnee) Lowland anoa (B. depressicornis) Mountain anoa (B. quarlesi) Tamaraw
Tamaraw
(B. mindorensis)

Bos

Banteng
Banteng
(B. javanicus) Gaur
Gaur
(B. gaurus) Gayal
Gayal
(B. frontalis) Domestic yak
Domestic yak
(B. grunniens) Wild yak
Wild yak
(B. mutus) Cattle
Cattle
(B. taurus) Kouprey
Kouprey
(B. sauveli)

Pseudonovibos

Kting voar (P. spiralis)

Pseudoryx

Saola
Saola
(P. nghetinhensis)

Syncerus

African buffalo
African buffalo
(S. caffer)

Bison

American bison
American bison
(B. bison) European bison
European bison
(B. bonasus)

Tragelaphini

Tragelaphus (including kudus)

Sitatunga
Sitatunga
(T. spekeii) Nyala
Nyala
(T. angasii) Kéwel
Kéwel
(T. scriptus) Cape bushbuck
Cape bushbuck
(T. sylvaticus) Mountain nyala
Mountain nyala
(T. buxtoni) Lesser kudu
Lesser kudu
(T. imberbis) Greater kudu
Greater kudu
(T. strepsiceros) Bongo (T. eurycerus)

Taurotragus

Common eland
Common eland
(T. oryx) Giant eland
Giant eland
(T. derbianus)

Family Bovidae
Bovidae
(subfamily Antilopinae)

Antilopini

Ammodorcas

Dibatag
Dibatag
(A. clarkei)

Antidorcas

Springbok
Springbok
(A. marsupialis)

Antilope

Blackbuck
Blackbuck
(A. cervicapra)

Eudorcas

Mongalla gazelle
Mongalla gazelle
(E. albonotata) Red-fronted gazelle
Red-fronted gazelle
(E. rufifrons) Thomson's gazelle
Thomson's gazelle
(E. thomsonii) Heuglin's gazelle
Heuglin's gazelle
(E. tilonura)

Gazella

Mountain gazelle
Mountain gazelle
(G. gazella) Neumann's gazelle (G. erlangeri) Speke's gazelle
Speke's gazelle
(G. spekei) Dorcas gazelle
Dorcas gazelle
(G. dorcas) Chinkara
Chinkara
(G. bennettii) Cuvier's gazelle
Cuvier's gazelle
(G. cuvieri) Rhim gazelle
Rhim gazelle
(G. leptoceros) Goitered gazelle
Goitered gazelle
(G. subgutturosa)

Litocranius

Gerenuk
Gerenuk
(L. walleri)

Nanger

Dama gazelle
Dama gazelle
(N. dama) Grant's gazelle
Grant's gazelle
(N. granti) Soemmerring's gazelle
Soemmerring's gazelle
(N. soemmerringii)

Procapra

Mongolian gazelle
Mongolian gazelle
(P. gutturosa) Goa (P. picticaudata) Przewalski's gazelle
Przewalski's gazelle
(P. przewalskii)

Saigini

Pantholops

Tibetan antelope
Tibetan antelope
(P. hodgsonii)

Saiga

Saiga antelope
Saiga antelope
(S. tatarica)

Neotragini

Dorcatragus

Beira (D. megalotis)

Madoqua

Günther's dik-dik
Günther's dik-dik
(M. guentheri) Kirk's dik-dik
Kirk's dik-dik
(M. kirkii) Silver dik-dik
Silver dik-dik
(M. piacentinii) Salt's dik-dik
Salt's dik-dik
(M. saltiana)

Neotragus

Bates's pygmy antelope
Bates's pygmy antelope
(N. batesi) Suni
Suni
(N. moschatus) Royal antelope
Royal antelope
(N. pygmaeus)

Oreotragus

Klipspringer
Klipspringer
(O. oreotragus)

Ourebia

Oribi
Oribi
(O. ourebi)

Raphicerus

Steenbok
Steenbok
(R. campestris) Cape grysbok
Cape grysbok
(R. melanotis) Sharpe's grysbok
Sharpe's grysbok
(R. sharpei)

Suborder Suina

Suidae

Babyrousa

Buru babirusa
Buru babirusa
(B. babyrussa) North Sulawesi babirusa
North Sulawesi babirusa
(B. celebensis) Togian babirusa
Togian babirusa
(B. togeanensis)

Hylochoerus

Giant forest hog
Giant forest hog
(H. meinertzhageni)

Phacochoerus

Desert warthog
Desert warthog
(P. aethiopicus) Common warthog
Common warthog
(P. africanus)

Porcula

Pygmy hog
Pygmy hog
(P. salvania)

Potamochoerus

Bushpig
Bushpig
(P. larvatus) Red river hog
Red river hog
(P. porcus)

Sus (Pigs)

Palawan bearded pig
Palawan bearded pig
(S. ahoenobarbus) Bornean bearded pig
Bornean bearded pig
(S. barbatus) Indo-chinese warty pig (S. bucculentus) Visayan warty pig
Visayan warty pig
(S. cebifrons) Celebes warty pig
Celebes warty pig
(S. celebensis) Flores warty pig (S. heureni) Oliver's warty pig
Oliver's warty pig
(S. oliveri) Philippine warty pig
Philippine warty pig
(S. philippensis) Wild boar
Wild boar
(S. scrofa) Timor warty pig (S. timoriensis) Javan warty pig
Javan warty pig
(S. verrucosus)

Tayassuidae

Tayassu

White-lipped peccary
White-lipped peccary
(T. pecari)

Catagonus

Chacoan peccary
Chacoan peccary
(C. wagneri)

Pecari

Collared peccary
Collared peccary
(P. tajacu) Giant peccary (P. maximus)

Suborder Tylopoda

Camelidae

Lama

Llama
Llama
(L. glama) Guanaco
Guanaco
(L. guanicoe)

Vicugna

Vicuña
Vicuña
(V. vicugna) Alpaca
Alpaca
(V. pacos)

Camelus

Dromedary
Dromedary
(C. dromedarius) Bactrian camel
Bactrian camel
(C. bactrianus) Wild Bactrian camel
Bactrian camel
(C. ferus)

Whippomorpha
Whippomorpha
(unranked clade)

Hippopotamidae

Hippopotamus

Hippopotamus
Hippopotamus
(H. amphibius)

Choeropsis

Pygmy hippopotamus
Pygmy hippopotamus
(C. liberiensis)

v t e

Heraldry

Armiger Law of heraldic arms Grant of arms Blazon

Officers and officials

Authorities Officers of arms

King of Arms, Herald, Pursuivant

Private Officer of Arms

Conventional elements of coats of arms

Escutcheon Chief Field (Tincture) Division Supporter Supporter Slogan (battle cry) Crest Torse Mantling Helmet/Galero Crown/Coronet Compartment Order Ordinaries Charges Motto Dexter Sinister (right) (left)

Types of coats of arms

National coat of arms Ecclesiastical heraldry Burgher arms Civic heraldry Canting arms Attributed arms

Heraldic achievement

Escutcheon (shield)

Field

Divisions Variations

Charge Chief Lines Ordinary Augmentation of honour Cadency Marshalling

Quartering Impalement

Pale Bar Bend Bordure Canton Chevron Cross Fess Flaunch Gyron Label Lozenge Orle Pall Roundel Saltire

Creatures

Beasts

Bear Boar Bull/Ox Dog/Hound Camelopard (giraffe) Hind/Stag (deer) Kangaroo Leopard Lion Wolf

Birds

Cock Dove Eagle Martlet Pelican Rook

Sea creatures

Dolphin Ged Seahorse Lucy (esox) Scallop

Legendary creatures

Allocamelus Alphyn Basilisk Biscione Chollima Cockatrice Dragon Enfield Garuda Griffin/Keythong Harpy Konrul Lampago Lindworm Manticore Mermaid Pantheon Panther Pegasus Phoenix Salamander Hippocampus Hippogriff Sea-lion Turul Tyger Unicorn Wyvern Yale

Others

Bat Bee Crapaudy (toad) Emmet (ant) Serpent

Knots

Bourchier knot Bowen knot Cavendish knot Dacre knot Harrington knot Hastings knot Heneage knot Hinckaert knot Hungerford knot Lacy knot Medici knot Morvillier knot Ormonde knot Savoy knot Shakespeare knot Stafford knot Trafford knot Tristram knot Wake knot

Tinctures Rules Tricking Hatching

Metals

     Argent
Argent
(white)      Or (gold)

Colours

     Gules (red)      Sable (black)      Azure (blue)      Vert (green)      Purpure (purple)

Furs

Ermines

Erminois Erminites Pean

Vair

Potent

Stains

     Murrey
Murrey
(mulberry)      Sanguine (blood red)      Tenné

Non-traditional1

Metals

     Copper

Colours

     Bleu-celeste      Carnation      Cendrée      Orange      Rose

External

Crowns and coronets Crest Compartment Helmet Mantling Motto Supporter Torse Mantle and pavilion

See also

List of oldest heraldry Heraldic flag
Heraldic flag
(Banner of arms) Heraldic badge Women in heraldry Socialist heraldry Vexillology

1 Non-traditional, rarely used traditions in italic (typically regional or modern, considered unheraldic by some) Heraldry
Heraldry
portal Portal:Heraldry/Web resources

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q23390 ADW: Cervidae EoL: 7685 EPPO: 1CERVF Fauna Europaea: 12647 Fossilworks: 42652 GBIF: 5298 ITIS: 180693 MSW: 14200205 NCBI:

.