, a small local port]]
Port of Duluth-Superior">File:Duluth canal.jpg|thumb|right|The Port of Duluth-Superior
, the largest
A_port_is_a_[[maritime_law.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="freshwater
port in the world
A port is a maritime
_facility_which_may_comprise_one_or_more_[[Wharf">wharves_where_ships_may_dock_to_load_and_discharge_passengers_and_[[Affreightment.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Wharf.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="maritime law">maritime facility which may comprise one or more wharves
_where_ships_may_dock_to_load_and_discharge_passengers_and_[[Affreightment">cargo._Although_usually_situated_on_a_sea_coast_or_estuary,_some_ports,_such_as_[[Port_of_Hamburg.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Wharf">wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo
._Although_usually_situated_on_a_sea_coast_or_estuary,_some_ports,_such_as_[[Port_of_Hamburg">Hamburg,_[[Port_of_Manchester.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Affreightment">cargo. Although usually situated on a sea coast or estuary, some ports, such as Hamburg
,_[[Port_of_Manchester">Manchester_and_[[Duluth.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Port of Hamburg">Hamburg, [[Port of Manchester">Manchester and [[Duluth">Port of Hamburg">Hamburg, [[Port of Manchester">Manchester and [[Duluth, are many miles inland, with access to the sea via [[river]] or [[canal]]. Because of their roles as a port of entry for immigrants many port cities such as London, New York, Shanghai, Los Angeles, Singapore and Vancouver have experienced dramatic multi-ethnic and multicultural changes.
Ports are extremely important to the global economy, responsible for 70% of global merchandise trade by value.
For this reason, ports are often high-concentrations of the global population—providing the labor for processing and handling the goods and related services for the ports. Today, by far the greatest growth in port development is in Asia, the continent with some of the world's largest and busiest ports
, such as Singapore
and the Chinese
ports of Shanghai
. As of 2020, the busiest passenger port in the world
is the Port of Helsinki
. However, ports can also be very small and only serve local fishing or tourism.
Ports are responsible for a number of environmental impacts on local ecologies and water ways, for example direct effects on water quality, caused by dredging, spills and other pollution. Ports are heavily effected by the changing environmental factors caused by climate change
. Importantly most port infrastructure is extremely vulnerable to sea level rise
, due to its low-lying nature, making it vulnerable to extreme weather
and coastal flooding
Internationally, global ports are beginning to identify ways to improve coastal management
practices and integrate climate change adaptation
practices into their construction.
Whenever ancient civilisations engaged in maritime trade, they tended to develop sea ports. One of the world's oldest known artificial harbors is at Wadi al-Jarf
on the Red Sea
Along with the finding of harbor structures, ancient anchors have also been found.
Other ancient ports include Guangzhou
during Qin Dynasty
China and Canopus
, the principal Egyptian port for Greek trade before the foundation of Alexandria
. In ancient Greece, Athens' port of Piraeus
was the base for the Athenian fleet which played a crucial role in the Battle of Salamis
against the Persians in 480 BCE. In ancient India from 3700 BCE, Lothal
was a prominent city of the Indus valley civilisation, located in the Bhāl region of the modern state of Gujarāt
. Ostia Antica
was the port of ancient Rome with Portus
established by Claudius
and enlarged by Trajan
to supplement the nearby port of Ostia. In Japan, during the Edo period
, the island of Dejima
was the only port open for trade with Europe and received only a single Dutch ship per year, whereas Osaka
was the largest domestic port and the main trade hub for rice.
Post-classical Swahili kingdoms
are known to have had trade port islands and trade routes with the Islamic world and Asia. They were described by Greek historians as "metropolises". Famous African trade ports such as Mombasa
were known to Chinese sailors such as Zheng He
and medieval Islamic historians such as the Berber Islamic voyager Abu Abdullah ibn Battuta
Nowadays, many of these ancient sites no longer exist or function as modern ports. Even in more recent times, ports sometimes fall out of use. Rye, East Sussex
, was an important English port in the Middle Ages, but the coastline changed and it is now from the sea, while the ports of Ravenspurn
have been lost to coastal erosion
Whereas early ports tended to be just simple harbours, modern ports tend to be multimodal
, with transport links using sea, river, canal, road, rail and air routes. Successful ports are located to optimize access to an active hinterland
, such as the London Gateway
. Ideally, a port will grant easy navigation
to ships, and will give shelter from wind and waves. Ports are often on estuaries, where the water may be shallow and may need regular dredging
. Deep water ports such as Milford Haven
are less common, but can handle larger ships with a greater draft, such as super tankers
, Post-Panamax vessels
and large container ship
s. Other businesses such as regional distribution centre
s, warehouses and freight-forwarders, canneries
and other processing facilities find it advantageous to be located within a port or nearby. Modern ports will have specialised cargo
-handling equipment, such as gantry cranes
, reach stacker
s and forklift trucks
Ports usually have specialised functions: some tend to cater mainly for passenger ferries
and cruise ship
s; some specialise in container
traffic or general cargo; and some ports play an important military role for their nation's navy. Some third world countries and small islands such as Ascension
and St Helena
still have limited port facilities, so that ships must anchor off while their cargo and passengers are taken ashore by barge
In modern times, ports survive or decline, depending on current economic trends. In the UK, both the ports of Liverpool
were once significant in the transatlantic passenger liner business. Once airliner traffic decimated that trade, both ports diversified to container cargo and cruise ships. Up until the 1950s the Port of London
was a major international port on the River Thames
, but changes in shipping and the use of containers and larger ships, have led to its decline. Thamesport
, a small semi-automated container port (with links to the Port of Felixstowe
, the UK's largest container port) thrived for some years, but has been hit hard by competition from the emergent London Gateway port and logistics hub.
In mainland Europe, it is normal for ports to be publicly owned, so that, for instance, the ports of Rotterdam
are owned partly by the state and partly by the cities themselves. By contrast, in the UK all ports are in private hands, such as Peel Ports
who own the Port of Liverpool, John Lennon Airport
and the Manchester Ship Canal
Even though modern ships tend to have bow-thrusters and stern-thrusters, many port authorities still require vessels to use pilot
s and tugboat
s for manoeuvering large ships in tight quarters. For instance, ships approaching the Belgian port of Antwerp
, an inland port on the River Scheldt
, are obliged to use Dutch pilots when navigating on that part of the estuary that belongs to the Netherlands.
Ports with international traffic have customs
The terms "port" and "seaport" are used for different types of port facilities that handle ocean-going vessels, and river port is used for river traffic, such as barge
s and other shallow-draft vessels.
A seaport is a port located on the shore of a sea or ocean. It is further categorized as a "cruise port" or a "cargo port". Additionally, "cruise ports" are also known as a "home port" or a "port of call". The "cargo port" is also further categorized into a "bulk" or "break bulk port" or as a "container port".
Cargo ports, on the other hand, are quite different from cruise ports, because each handles very different cargo, which has to be loaded and unloaded by very different mechanical means. The port may handle one particular type of cargo or it may handle numerous cargoes, such as grains, liquid fuels, liquid chemicals, wood, automobiles, etc. Such ports are known as the "bulk" or "break bulk ports". Those ports that handle containerized cargo are known as container ports. Most cargo ports handle all sorts of cargo, but some ports are very specific as to what cargo they handle. Additionally, the individual cargo ports are divided into different operating terminals which handle the different cargoes, and are operated by different companies, also known as terminal operators or stevedore
Cruise home port
A cruise home port is the port where cruise ship passengers board (or embark
) to start their cruise and disembark
the cruise ship at the end of their cruise. It is also where the cruise ship's supplies are loaded for the cruise, which includes everything from fresh water and fuel to fruits, vegetables, champagne, and any other supplies needed for the cruise. "Cruise home ports" are very busy places during the day the cruise ship is in port, because off-going passengers debark their baggage and on-coming passengers board the ship in addition to all the supplies being loaded. Cruise home ports tend to have large passenger terminals
to handle the large number of passengers passing through the port. The busiest cruise home port in the world is the Port of Miami
A smart port uses technologies, including the Internet of Things
(IoT), artificial intelligence
(AI) and blockchain to be more efficient at handling goods. Smart ports usually deploy cloud-based software as part of the process of greater automation to help generate the operating flow that helps the port work smoothly. At present, most of the world's ports have somewhat embedded technology, if not for full leadership. However, thanks to global government initiatives and exponential growth in maritime trade, the amount of intelligent ports has gradually increased. This latest report by business intelligence provider Visiongain assesses that Smart Ports Market spending will reach $1.5 bn in 2019.
Port of call
A port of call is an intermediate stop for a ship on its sailing itinerary. At these ports, cargo ships may take on supplies or fuel, as well as unloading and loading cargo while cruise liners have passengers get on or off ship.
A fishing port is a port or harbor
for landing and distributing fish. It may be a recreational facility, but it is usually commercial. A fishing port is the only port that depends on an ocean product, and depletion of fish may cause a fishing port to be uneconomical.
An inland port is a port on a navigable lake, river (fluvial port), or canal with access to a sea or ocean, which therefore allows a ship to sail from the ocean inland to the port to load or unload its cargo. An example of this is the St. Lawrence Seaway
which allows ships to travel from the Atlantic Ocean several thousand kilometers inland to Great Lakes ports like Toronto
, and Chicago
. The term "inland port" is also used for dry port
A warm-water port is one where the water does not freeze in wintertime. Because they are available year-round, warm-water ports can be of great geopolitical or economic interest. Such settlements as Dalian
in China, Vostochny Port
in Russia, Odessa
in Ukraine, Kushiro
in Japan and Valdez
at the terminus of the Alaska Pipeline
owe their very existence to being ice-free ports. The Baltic Sea and similar areas have ports available year-round beginning in the 20th century thanks to icebreaker
s, but earlier access problems prompted Russia to expand its territory to the Black Sea
A dry port is an inland intermodal
terminal directly connected by road
to a seaport and operating as a centre for the transshipment
of sea cargo to inland destinations.
Ports and their operation are often both the cause of environmental issues, such as sediment contamination and spills from ships and are susceptible to larger environmental issues, such as human caused climate change and its effects.
Every year 100 million cubic metrics of marine sediment are dredged to improve waterways around ports. Dredging, in its practice, disturbs local ecosystems, brings sediments into the water column, and can stir up pollutants captured in the sediments.
are often spread by the bilge water
and species attached to the hulls of ships.
Ports are also a source of increased air pollution both because of the ships and land transportation at the port. Transportation corridors around ports have higher exhaust and emissions and this can have related health effects on the local communities.
Water quality around ports is often lower because of both direct and indirect pollution from the shipping, and other challenges caused by the port's community, such as trash washing into the ocean.
Spills, pollution and contamination
Sewage from ships, and leaks of oil and chemicals from shipping vessels can contaminate local water, and cause other effects like nutrient pollution in the water.
Climate change and sea level rise
Ports and their infrastructure are very vulnerable to climate change
and sea level rise, because many of them are in low-lying areas designed for status quo water levels.
Variable weather, coastal erosion, and sea level rise all put pressure on existing infrastructure, resulting in subsidence
, coastal flooding
and other direct pressures on the port.
There are several initiatives to decrease negative environmental impacts of ports.
The World Port Sustainability Program
points to all of the Sustainable Development Goals as potential ways of addressing port sustainability. These include SIMPYC
, the World Ports Climate Initiative
, the African Green Port Initiative
and Green Marine
World's major ports
*The port of Tangier Med
is the largest port on the Mediterranean and in Africa by capacity and went into service in July 2007.
*The busiest port in Africa is Port Said
The port of Shanghai
is the largest port in the world in both cargo tonnage
and activity. It regained its position as the world's busiest port by cargo tonnage
and the world's busiest container port
in 2009 and 2010, respectively. It is followed by the ports of Singapore
, Hong Kong
, all of which are in East
and Southeast Asia
Europe's busiest container port and biggest port by cargo tonnage by far is the Port of Rotterdam
, in the Netherlands. It is followed by the Belgian Port of Antwerp
or the German Port of Hamburg
, depending on which metric is used. In turn, the Spanish Port of Valencia
is the busiest port in the Mediterranean basin.
The largest ports include the Port of New York and New Jersey
, Los Angeles
and South Louisiana
in the U.S., Manzanillo
in Mexico and Vancouver
in Canada. Panama
also has the Panama Canal
that connects the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean, and is a key conduit for international trade.
The largest port in Australia is the Port of Melbourne
According to ECLAC
's "Maritime and Logistics Profile of Latin America and the Caribbean", the largest ports in South America are the Port of Santos
in Brazil, Cartagena
in Colombia, Callao
in Peru, Guayaquil
in Ecuador, and the Port of Buenos Aires
- port for recreational boating
Other logistics hubs
*Port of entry
*Lists of ports
*List of busiest cruise ports by passengers
Port Industry Statistics, American Association of Port AuthoritiesInformation on yachting facilities at ports around the world from Noonsite.comSocial & Economic Benefits of PORTS
from "NOAA Socioeconomics" website initiative
* Antunes, Cátia''Early Modern Ports, 1500-1750'' European History Online
, Mainz: Institute of European History
, 2011, retrieved: November 2, 2011.