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A declaration of independence or declaration of statehood is an assertion by a defined territory that it is independent and constitutes a state. Such places are usually declared from part or all of the territory of another nation or failed nation, or are breakaway territories from within the larger state. In 2010, the UN's International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
ruled in an advisory opinion in Kosovo that "International law contains no prohibition on declarations of independence",[1] though the state from which the territory wishes to secede may regard the declaration as rebellion, which may lead to a war of independence or a constitutional settlement to resolve the crisis.

Contents

1 List of declarations of independence 2 See also 3 References 4 External links

List of declarations of independence[edit] This incomplete list is not intended to be exhaustive.

Region Declaration Date Year Association Signatories First recognising state

Albania Albanian Declaration of Independence November 28 1912 Ottoman Empire Assembly of Vlorë

Austro-Hungarian Empire

United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata (present day  Argentina  Uruguay  Bolivia) Argentine Declaration of Independence July 9 1816 Spain Congress of Tucumán Kingdom of Hawaii

 Armenia First Republic of Armenia May 28 1918 Russian Empire Armenian National Congress (1917) Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF Dashnak) Russia

 Azerbaijan Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Democratic Republic May 28 1918 Russian Empire Azerbaijani National Council
Azerbaijani National Council
(Hasan bey Aghayev, Fatali Khan Khoyski, Nasib Yusifbeyli, Jamo bey Hajinski, Şefi bey Rustambeyli, Nariman bey Narimanbeyov, Javad Malik-Yeganov, Mustafa Mahmudov) Ottoman Empire

 Azawad Azawadi declaration of independence April 6 2012 Mali National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad

 Bangladesh Proclamation of Bangladeshi Independence March 26 1971 Pakistan Constituent Assembly of Bangladesh Bhutan

 Belarus Third Constituent Charter March 25 1918 Russian SFSR Rada of the Belarusian Democratic Republic

Belarus Announcement of the Declaration of Independence
Independence
of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Byelorussia July 31 1920 Poland Communist Party (bolsheviks) of Byelorussia, trade unions Soviet Russia

 Belarus Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic July 27 1990 Soviet Union Supreme Soviet of the BSSR Turkey

 Belgium Belgian Declaration of Independence October 4 1830 Netherlands Provisional Government of Belgium

 Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian Declaration of Independence March 1 1992 Yugoslavia

Bulgaria

 Empire of Brazil Independence
Independence
of Brazil September 7 1822 Portugal Pedro I of Brazil United States

Bougainville Bougainville Declaration of Independence May 1990 Papua New Guinea Bougainville Interim Government unknown

 Bulgaria Bulgarian Declaration of Independence September 22 1908 Ottoman Empire Ferdinand of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and the Government of Bulgaria Russian Empire
Russian Empire
(5 February 1909)

 Catalonia Declaration of the Catalan Republic as a state of the Iberian Federation April 14 1931 Spain Francesc Macià, Generalitat Government of Catalonia

 Catalonia Declaration of the Catalan state within the Federal Republic of Spain October 6 1934 Spain Lluís Companys, Generalitat Government of Catalonia

 Catalonia Declaration from the representatives of Catalonia
Catalonia
as the Catalan Republic October 27 2017 Spain

Central America Act of Independence
Independence
of Central America September 15 1821 Spain

 Chile Chilean Declaration of Independence February 12 1818 Spain National Congress Portugal

 Colombia Colombian Declaration of Independence July 20 1810 Spain

 Croatia Declaration of the Establishment of the Sovereign and Independent Republic of Croatia June 25 1991 Yugoslavia

Iceland

 Republic of Crimea Declaration of Independence
Independence
of the Republic of Crimea March 11 2014 Ukraine Supreme Council of Crimea Russia

 Czechoslovakia Czechoslovak Declaration of Independence October 18 1918 Austria-Hungary Czechoslovak National Council United States

 Dominican Republic Dominican Declaration of Independence February 27 1844 Haiti

United Kingdom

 East Timor East Timorese declaration of independence November 28 1975 Portugal

Morocco

 Egypt Unilateral Declaration of Egyptian Independence February 28 1922 United Kingdom Unilateral grant of independence by the British government United Kingdom

 Estonia Estonian Declaration of Independence February 24 1918 Russia Salvation Committee Russian SFSR

 Estonia Estonian Reconfirmation of Independence August 20 1991 Soviet Union Congress of Estonia Iceland
Iceland
(reconfirmed earlier recognition)

 Finland Finnish Declaration of Independence December 6 1917 Russia Parliament of Finland Russian SFSR

Florida Florida's Constitution of 1861 January 10 1861 United States Florida
Florida
State Legislature

Galicia Declaration of the Republic of Galicia June 27 1931 Spain

 Georgia Democratic Republic of Georgia May 26 1918 Russian Empire

Germany

Georgia (U.S. state) Georgia's secession declaration January 29 1861 United States

Greece Greek Declaration of Independence January 1 OS 1822 Ottoman Empire First National Assembly Haiti
Haiti
(1822)

 Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau
Guinea-Bissau
Declaration of Independence September 24 1973 Portugal

 Haiti Haitian Declaration of Independence January 1 1804 France Jean-Jacques Dessalines France (April 17, 1825)[2]

Hungary Hungarian Declaration of Independence April 14 1849 Austrian Empire

 Iceland Icelandic Declaration of Independence June 17 1944 Denmark

United States

Iraq Iraq
Iraq
Declaration of Independence October 3 1932 United Kingdom

United Kingdom

 India Declaration of the Independence
Independence
of India January 26 1930 United Kingdom

 Indonesia Proclamation of Indonesian Independence August 17 1945 Netherlands Sukarno
Sukarno
& Mohammad Hatta Egypt
Egypt
or Vatican[3]

Ireland Proclamation of the Irish Republic April 24 (Easter Monday) 1916 United Kingdom Provisional Government of the Irish Republic

Irish Republic Irish Declaration of Independence January 21 1919 United Kingdom Dáil Éireann Russian SFSR

 Israel Israeli Declaration of Independence May 14 1948 United Kingdom Jewish People's Council United States

Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus Northern Epirote Declaration of Independence February 28 1914 Principality of Albania Provisional Government of Northern Epirus

Katanga Katangan Declaration of Independence

1960 Congo (Léopoldville)

Korea Korean Declaration of Independence March 1 1919 Japan

Republic of the North Solomons Declaration of Independence
Independence
of the Republic of the North Solomons September 1 1975 Territory of Papua and New Guinea
Territory of Papua and New Guinea
(Australia) Unknown Catholic Church

 Kosovo Kosovo
Kosovo
declaration of independence February 17 2008 Serbia Assembly of Kosovo Afghanistan, Albania
Albania
and Costa Rica

Republic of Kosova Proclamation of the Republic of Kosova September 22 1992 Serbia Provincial Assembly of Kosovo Albania

 Latvia Latvian Declaration of Independence November 18 1918 Germany, Russia People's Council of Latvia Russian SFSR

 Latvia On the Restoration of Independence
Independence
of the Republic of Latvia May 4 1990 Soviet Union Supreme Soviet of the Latvian SSR Iceland

 Liberia Liberian Declaration of Independence July 16 1847 American Colonization Society Liberian Constitutional Convention United Kingdom

 Lithuania Act of Independence
Independence
of Lithuania February 16 1918 Germany, Russia Council of Lithuania Germany

 Lithuania Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania March 11 1990 Soviet Union Supreme Council of Lithuania Iceland

 Macedonia Independence
Independence
of the Republic of Macedonia September 8 1991 Yugoslavia

Bulgaria

Federation of Malaya (present day Malaysia) Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
Independence
Independence
Act 1957 August 31 1957 United Kingdom Tunku Abdul Rahman, Prime Minister of Malaysia United Kingdom[4]

Mississippi A Declaration of the Immediate Causes which Induce and Justify the Secession of the State of Mississippi
Mississippi
from the Federal Union January 9 1861 United States

First Mexican Empire (present day Mexico) Declaration of Independence
Independence
of the Mexican Empire (real independence) September 28 1821 Spain Supreme Provisional Governmental Board United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(January 4, 1825)[5]

 Moldova Declaration of Independence
Independence
of the Republic of Moldova August 27 1991 Soviet Union Parliament of the Republic of Moldova Romania

Morocco Moroccan Declaration of Independence January 11 1944 France Istiqlal Party

 Montenegro Montenegro
Montenegro
declaration of independence June 3 2006 Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro Assembly of the Republic of Montenegro Iceland

 Netherlands Act of Abjuration July 26 1581 Spanish Empire Union of Utrecht

 New Zealand Declaration of the Independence
Independence
of New Zealand October 28 1835 — Māori chiefs United Kingdom[6]

Northern America (present day Mexico) Solemn Act of the Declaration of Independence
Independence
of Northern America November 6 1813 Spain Congress of Anáhuac

Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus Declaration of Independence
Independence
of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus November 15 1983 Cyprus

Turkey

 Norway (Kingdom of Norway) Declaration of Independence
Independence
of Norway
Norway
(short after, sovereign under the Swedish monarchy), and the Constitution of Norway May 17 1814 Denmark-Norway (As of Treaty of Kiel) Norwegian Constituent Assembly

 Padania Padanian Declaration of Independence September 15 1996 Italy

 Pakistan Pakistan
Pakistan
Resolution March 24 1940 Indian Empire, United Kingdom Muslim League (Pakistan)

 Palestine Palestinian Declaration of Independence November 15 1988 Palestinian territories Palestinian National Council Arab League

Peru Act of the Declaration of Independence
Independence
of Peru July 28 1821 Spain José de San Martín

 Philippines Philippine Declaration of Independence June 12 1898 Spain 98 persons[7] (ratified on September 29, 1898 by the Malolos Congress[8])

 Rhodesia Rhodesian Unilateral Declaration of Independence November 11 1965 United Kingdom Ian Smith
Ian Smith
and the rest of the Cabinet none

 Romania Romanian Declaration of Independence May 22 1877 Ottoman Empire King Carol I

 Russia Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic June 11 1990 Soviet Union First Congress of People's Deputies of Russia

 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Bir Lehlou declaration February 27 1976 Spanish Sahara Polisario Front Madagascar

 Kingdom of Scotland Declaration of Arbroath April 6 1320 Kingdom of England Scottish leaders

Serbia The Proclamation (Proglašenije/Проглашеније) February 1809 Ottoman Empire Karađorđe Petrović
Karađorđe Petrović
and Serbian MPs

Singapore Proclamation of Singapore[9] August 9 1965 Malaysia[10][11] Lee Kuan Yew, Prime Minister of Singapore United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(confirmed earlier recognition)[12]

 Slovakia Slovak National Council's Declaration of Independence
Independence
of the Slovak Nation July 17 1992 Czechoslovakia Slovak National Council

 Slovenia Slovenian Declaration of Independence June 25 1991 Yugoslavia

Croatia

 Somaliland Somaliland
Somaliland
Declaration of Independence May 18 1991 Somalia

none

South Carolina Declaration of the Immediate Causes Which Induce and Justify the Secession of South Carolina
South Carolina
from the Federal Union December 24 1860 United States South Carolinians in Charleston

 Sri Lanka Declaration of Independence
Independence
of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
(Then known as "Ceylon") February 4 1948 United Kingdom

Texas, Republic of Texas
Texas
Declaration of Independence March 2 1836 Mexico

France

Texas A Declaration of the Causes which Impel the State of Texas
Texas
to Secede from the Federal Union February 1 1861 United States Texas
Texas
Legislature

 Tibet Tibet's Declaration of Independence February 13 1913 China 13th Dalai Lama none

 Turkmenistan Declaration of independence   1991 Soviet Union none Turkey

 Ukraine IV Universal January 22 1918 Russia Central Council of Ukraine

 Ukraine Declaration of Independence
Independence
of Ukraine August 24 1991 Soviet Union Verkhovna Rada Poland/Canada[13]

 United States United States
United States
Declaration of Independence July 4 1776 Kingdom of Great Britain Second Continental Congress France

 Uzbekistan Declaration of Independence August 31 1991 Soviet Union Supreme Council of Uzbekistan Turkey

 Venezuela Venezuelan Declaration of Independence July 5 1811 Spain National Congress

Vermont Republic Vermont Declaration of Independence January 15 1777 New York and New Hampshire

United States

 Vietnam Proclamation of Independence
Independence
of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam September 2 1945 France Hồ Chí Minh Soviet Union

Lower Canada Declaration of Independence
Independence
of Lower Canada February 22 1838 United Kingdom Robert Nelson none

See also[edit]

International relations portal

Florida
Florida
and the Declaration of Independence List of countries by Independence
Independence
Day List of sovereign states by date of formation Separatism Independence
Independence
referendum Unilateral declaration of independence

References[edit]

^ "Accordance with International Law of the Unilateral Declaration of Independence
Independence
in Respect of Kosovo" (PDF). Icj-cij.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-07-23. Retrieved 2014-02-14.  ^ Ashmore, Harry S., ed. (1961). "Encyclopædia Britannica: a new survey of universal knowledge, Volume 11". p. 85. Retrieved 11 May 2016.  ^ http://filmindonesia.or.id/article/murti-hadi-sj-soegija-bukan-film-dakwah#.V7mqqqKKDIU ^ Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
Independence
Independence
Act 1957 ^ "Inglaterra: primer país que reconoce la Independencia de México" (in Spanish). Memoria Politica de México. Retrieved September 18, 2011.  ^ The Lord Glenelg (25 May 1836), "EXTRACT of a DESPATCH from Lord GLENELG to Major-General Sir RICHARD BOURKE, New South Wales", written at London, Documents > Declaration of Independence, Christchurch: Waitangi Associates, retrieved 22 May 2010  ^ Philippine History. Rex Bookstore, Inc. 2004. p. 162. ISBN 978-971-23-3934-9.  ^ Tucker, Spencer (2009). The Encyclopedia of the Spanish-American and Philippine-American Wars: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 364. ISBN 978-1-85109-951-1.  ^ Singapore
Singapore
was forced out of Malaysia
Malaysia
by the Malaysian parliament, and the proclamations were then agreed by the two governments. See the Independence
Independence
of Singapore
Singapore
Agreement 1965 (1985 Rev. Ed.) and the Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ^ Agreement relating to the separation of Singapore
Singapore
from Malaysia
Malaysia
as an independent and sovereign state ^ Agreement relating to the separation of Singapore
Singapore
from Malaysia
Malaysia
as an independent and sovereign state/proclamation of singapore ^ Singapore
Singapore
Act 1966 ^ Ukraine
Ukraine
and Russia: The Post-Soviet Transition by Roman Solchanyk, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2000, ISBN 0742510182 (page 100) Canadian Yearbook of International Law, Vol 30, 1992, University of British Columbia Press, 1993, ISBN 9780774804387 (page 371) Szporluk, Roman. Russia, Ukraine
Ukraine
and the Breakup of the Soviet Union. Hoover Press. ISBN 978-0-8179-9543-0. , p. 355

External links[edit]

Media related to Declarations of independence at Wikimedia Commons

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