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December
December
is the twelfth and final month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian Calendars and is the seventh and last of seven months to have a length of 31 days.

December, from the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry

December
December
got its name from the Latin word decem (meaning ten) because it was originally the tenth month of the year in the Roman calendar, which began in March. The winter days following December
December
were not included as part of any month. Later, the months of January
January
and February
February
were created out of the monthless period and added to the beginning of the calendar, but December
December
retained its name.[1] In Ancient Rome, as one of the four Agonalia, this day in honor of Sol Indiges was held on December
December
11, as was Septimontium. Dies natalis (birthday) was held at the temple of Tellus on December
December
13, Consualia was held on December
December
15, Saturnalia
Saturnalia
was held December
December
17–23, Opiconsivia was held on December
December
19, Divalia was held on December
December
21, Larentalia was held on December
December
23, and the dies natalis of Sol Invictus was held on December
December
25. These dates do not correspond to the modern Gregorian calendar. The Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
referred to December– January
January
as Ġēolamonaþ (modern English: " Yule
Yule
month"). The French Republican Calendar contained December
December
within the months of Frimaire
Frimaire
and Nivôse.

Contents

1 Astronomy 2 Astrology 3 December
December
symbols 4 Observances 5 Non-Gregorian observances: 2018
2018
dates

5.1 Month-long observances 5.2 Movable observances: 2017 dates 5.3 Fixed observances

6 References 7 See also

Astronomy[edit] December
December
contains the winter solstice in the Northern Hemisphere, the day with the fewest daylight hours, and the summer solstice in the Southern Hemisphere, the day with the most daylight hours (excluding polar regions in both cases). December
December
in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
is the seasonal equivalent to June
June
in the Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
and vice versa. In the Northern hemisphere, the beginning of the astronomical winter is traditionally 21 December
December
or the date of the solstice. Meteor showers occurring in December
December
are the Andromedids
Andromedids
( September
September
25 – December
December
6, peaking around November
November
9), the Canis-Minorids ( December 4 December
December
15, peaking around December
December
10–11), the Coma Berenicids ( December 12 to December
December
23, peaking around December 16), the Delta Cancrids ( December 14 to February
February
14, the main shower from January
January
1 to January
January
24, peaking on January
January
17), the Geminids ( December
December
13–14), the Monocerotids ( December 7 to December
December
20, peaking on December
December
9. This shower can also start in November), the Phoenicids ( November
November
29 to December
December
9, with a peak occurring around 5/6 December), the Quadrantids
Quadrantids
(typically a January
January
shower but can also start in December), the Sigma Hydrids ( December
December
4–15), and the Ursids ( December
December
17-to December
December
25/26, peaking around December
December
22). Astrology[edit]

The zodiac signs for the month of December
December
are Sagittarius (until December
December
21) and Capricorn ( December 22 onwards).[2]

December
December
symbols[edit]

December's birth flower is the narcissus. December's birthstones are the turquoise, zircon, and tanzanite.

Observances[edit] This list does not necessarily imply either official status or general observance. Non-Gregorian observances: 2018
2018
dates[edit] (Please note that all Baha'i, Islamic, and Jewish observances begin at sundown prior to the date listed, and end at sundown of the date in question unless otherwise noted.)

December
December
22: Poya
Poya
(Buddhism, public holiday in Sri Lanka)

Month-long observances[edit]

In Catholic tradition, December
December
is the Month of the Advent
Advent
of Christ. National Egg Nog Month (United States) National Impaired Driving Prevention Month (United States) National Fruit Cake Month (United States) National Pear Month (United States) No Gender December
December
(International)

Movable observances: 2017 dates[edit]

Small Business Saturday UK: December
December
2 Chalica (Unitarian Universalism): December
December
4–11 Human Rights and Peace Day (Kiribati): December
December
9

Last Week of November: November
November
26 – December
December
3

AIDS Awareness Week (Canada)

First Friday: December
December
1

Farmer's Day (Ghana) Gospel Day (Marshall Islands)

First Sunday: December
December
3

First Presidency's Christmas Devotional (The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints) Good Neighborliness Day (Turkmenistan) Sindhi Cultural Day
Sindhi Cultural Day
(Sindhi diaspora)

Fourth Sunday before Christmas
Christmas
Day: December
December
3

Advent Sunday
Advent Sunday
(start of Advent, Western Christianity)

Second Monday: December
December
11

Green Monday National Tree Planting Day (Malawi)

Sunday two weeks before Christmas: December
December
12

Detinjci (Serbia)

December
December
15, unless the date falls on a Sunday, then December
December
16: December
December
15

Koninkrijksdag
Koninkrijksdag
(Kingdom of the Netherlands)

Second-final Sunday before Christmas
Christmas
Day: December
December
17

Gaudete Sunday
Gaudete Sunday
(Western Christianity)

Thursday before Christmas: December
December
21

Chewidden Thursday
Chewidden Thursday
(Cornwall) (Thursday of the last full week before Christmas) National Regifting Day (United States)

Winter
Winter
Solstice: December
December
21

Blue Christmas
Christmas
(holiday) Brumalia (Ancient Rome) Dongzhi Festival
Dongzhi Festival
(Asia) Global Orgasm Korochun (Slavic) Midsummer
Midsummer
in the Southern Hemisphere. (Contemporary Paganism) Sanghamitta Day ( Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism) Shalako (Zuni) Yaldā
Yaldā
(Iran) Yule
Yule
in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
(Contemporary Paganism) Ziemassvētki
Ziemassvētki
(Latvia)

Last Friday before Christmas: December
December
22

Black Friday (partying) (United Kingdom)

December
December
22, unless that date is a Sunday, in which case it's moved to the 23rd: December
December
22

Forefathers' Day (Plymouth, Massachusetts)

Last Saturday before Christmas: December
December
23

Super Saturday (United States)

Sunday before Christmas: December
December
24

Honesty Day (Italy)

December
December
26, unless that day is a Sunday, in which case the 27th: December
December
26

Boxing Day
Boxing Day
(Commonwealth of Nations)

Day of Good Will
Day of Good Will
(South Africa and Namibia) Family Day (Vanuatu) Thanksgiving (Solomon Islands) Start of Boxing Week ( December 26
December 26
December
December
31)

Sunday after Christmas: December
December
31

Christmas Sunday
Christmas Sunday
(Western Christianity) Feast of the Holy Family
Holy Family
(Roman Catholicism) (Celebrated on Friday 30th if New Year falls on Sunday)

Fixed observances[edit]

A Christmas market
Christmas market
in Dresden

November
November
25 – December
December
10: 16 Days of Activism against Gender-based Violence December
December
1

Battle of the Sinop Day (Russia) Bifocals at the Monitor Day (unofficial) Damrong Rajanubhab Day
Damrong Rajanubhab Day
(Thailand) Day of Restoration of Independence (Portugal) Eat A Red Apple Day (United States) Feast for Death of Aleister Crowley
Feast for Death of Aleister Crowley
(Thelema) First President Day
First President Day
(Kazakhstan) Freedom and Democracy Day (Chad) Great Union Day
Great Union Day
(Romania) Military Abolition Day
Military Abolition Day
(Costa Rica) National Day
National Day
(Myanmar) Republic Day (Central African Republic) Restoration of Independence Day
Independence Day
(Portugal) Rosa Parks Day
Rosa Parks Day
( Ohio
Ohio
and Oregon, United States) Self-governance Day (Iceland) Teachers' Day
Teachers' Day
(Panama) World AIDS Day

Day Without Art

December
December
2

Armed Forces Day (Cuba) International Day for the Abolition of Slavery National Day
National Day
(Laos) National Day
National Day
(United Arab Emirates) National Fritters Day (United States)

December
December
3

Advocate's Day (India) Doctors' Day (Cuba) United Nations' International Day of Persons with Disabilities

December
December
4

National Cookie Day (United States) Navy Day (India) Saint Barbara's Day-related observances:

Barbórka
Barbórka
(Poland) Eid il-Burbara
Eid il-Burbara
(Russia, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, Syria, Turkey)

Thai Environment Day
Thai Environment Day
(Thailand) Tupou I Day
Tupou I Day
(Tonga)

December
December
5

Bathtub Party Day (unofficial) Children's Day
Children's Day
(Suriname) Day of the Ninja (unofficial) Day of Military Honour – Battle of Moscow (Russia) Discovery Day ( Haiti
Haiti
and Dominican Republic) International Volunteer Day
International Volunteer Day
for Economic and Social Development Klozum (Schiermonnikoog, Netherlands) Saint Nicholas
Saint Nicholas
Eve (Belgium, Czech Republic, Slovakia, the Netherlands, Hungary, Romania, Germany, Poland
Poland
and the UK)

Krampusnacht
Krampusnacht
(Austria)

King's Birthday (Thailand) Repeal Day (United States) World Soil Day

December
December
6

Anniversary of the Founding of Quito (Ecuador) Armed Forces Day (Ukraine) Constitution Day (Spain) Day of the Ministry of Communications and Information Technologies of Azerbaijan Independence Day
Independence Day
of Finland National Day
National Day
of Remembrance and Action on Violence Against Women (Canada) St Nicholas Day
St Nicholas Day
(Western Christianity)

December
December
7

Armed Forces Flag Day (India Eve of the Immaculate Conception
Eve of the Immaculate Conception
(Western Christianity) and related observances:

Day of the Little Candles, begins after sunset (Colombia) Quema del Diablo, begins after sunset. (Guatemala)

Flag Land Base Day (Scientology) International Civil Aviation Day National Heroes Day (East Timor) National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day
National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day
(United States) Spitak Remembrance Day (Armenia)

December
December
8

Battle Day
Battle Day
(Falkland Islands) Bodhi Day
Bodhi Day
(Japan) CARICOM– Cuba
Cuba
Day ( Caribbean Community
Caribbean Community
(CARICOM) and Cuba) Constitution Day (Romania) Constitution Day (Uzbekistan) Day of Finnish Music (Finland) Feast of the Immaculate Conception
Feast of the Immaculate Conception
(public holiday in several countries, a holy day of obligation in others), and its related observances:

Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary (Anglican Communion), lesser commemoration Christmas on Campus
Christmas on Campus
(University of Dayton) Mother's Day
Mother's Day
(Panama) Festa da Conceição da Praia, celebrating Yemanjá, Queen of the Ocean (Salvador, Bahia) Festival of Lights (Lyon)

Pansexual/Panromantic Pride Day Saint Clement of Ohrid Day (Macedonia) National Brownie Day (United States) National Youth Day (Albania)

December
December
9

Anna's Day ( Sweden
Sweden
and Finland) Feast of the Conception of the Most Holy Theotokos by St. Anne (Eastern Orthodox) Independence Day
Independence Day
(Tanzania) International Anti-Corruption Day National Heroes Day (Antigua and Barbuda) National Pastry Day (United States) Navy Day (Sri Lanka) Remembrance for Egill Skallagrímsson (The Troth) Yuri's Day in the Autumn
Yuri's Day in the Autumn
(Russian Orthodox Church)

December
December
10

Alfred Nobel Day
Alfred Nobel Day
(Sweden) Constitution Day (Thailand) Human Rights Day
Human Rights Day
(International)

December
December
11

Human Rights and Peace Day (Kiribati) Indiana Day
Indiana Day
(Indiana, United States) National Have a Bagel Day (United States) National Noodle Ring Day (United States) National Tango Day
National Tango Day
(Argentina) Pampanga Day
Pampanga Day
( Pampanga
Pampanga
province, Philippines) Republic Day (Burkina Faso)

December
December
12

Constitution Day (Russia) Croatian Air Force Day (Croatia) Day of Neutrality (Turkmenistan) Feast of the Apparition of Our Lady of Guadalupe (Mexico) Feast of Masá'il Bahá'í calendar (only if Bahá'í Naw-Rúz
Bahá'í Naw-Rúz
falls on March
March
21, which it does for 2015) Kanji Day (Japan) Jamhuri Day (Kenya)

December
December
13

Acadian Remembrance Day
Acadian Remembrance Day
(Acadians) National Day
National Day
(Saint Lucia) National Ice Cream Day (United States) Pick a Pathologist Pal Day Republic Day (Malta) Sailor's Day (Brazil) Saint Lucy's Day
Saint Lucy's Day
(mainly Scandinavia, some regions of Italy)

December
December
14

Alabama Day (Alabama) Forty-seven Ronin
Forty-seven Ronin
Remembrance Day (Sengaku-ji, Tokyo) Martyred Intellectuals Day
Martyred Intellectuals Day
(Bangladesh) Monkey Day
Monkey Day
(International)

December
December
15

Bill of Rights Day (United States)

2nd Amendment Day (South Carolina)

Cat Herders Day Homecoming Day (Alderney) International Tea Day National Cupcake Day (United States) Remembrance Day of Journalists Killed in the Line of Duty (Russia) Zamenhof Day (International Esperanto Community)

December
December
16

Barbie and Barney Backlash Day National Day
National Day
(Kingdom of Bahrain) Victory day of Bangladesh Day of Reconciliation in South Africa

December
December
17

Accession Day (Bahrain) International Day to End Violence Against Sex Workers National Day
National Day
(Bhutan) National Maple Syrup Day (United States) Pan American Aviation Day (United States) Wright Brothers Day (United States)

December
December
18

National Muffin Day (Brazil)

December
December
19

Goa
Goa
Liberation Day
Liberation Day
(Goa, India) National Heroes and Heroines Day (Anguilla)

December
December
20

National Sangria Day (United States)

December
December
21

First day of winter
First day of winter
(some cultures) Humbug Day National Hamburger Day (United States)

December
December
22

Armed Forces Day (Vietnam) Mother's Day
Mother's Day
(Indonesia) National Date Nut Bread Day (United States) National Mathematics Day (India) Teachers' Day
Teachers' Day
(Cuba) Unity Day (Zimbabwe)

December
December
23

The Emperor's Birthday, a national holiday in Japan Festivus HumanLight
HumanLight
(Humanism)

December
December
24

Christmas
Christmas
Eve

Aðfangadagskvöld, the day when the 13th and the last Yule
Yule
Lad arrives to towns. (Iceland) Feast of the Seven Fishes
Feast of the Seven Fishes
(Italy) Juleaften (Denmark)/Julaften (Norway)/ Julafton
Julafton
(Sweden) Nittel Nacht (certain Orthodox Jewish denominations) Nochebuena
Nochebuena
(Spain and Spanish-speaking countries) The Declaration of Christmas Peace
Declaration of Christmas Peace
(Old Great Square of Turku, Finland's official Christmas
Christmas
City)

Day of Military Honour – Siege of Ismail (Russia) Independence Day
Independence Day
(Libya) Mōdraniht (Anglo-Saxon paganism) National Eggnog Day (United States)

December
December
25

Children's Day
Children's Day
(Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gabon, Republic of Congo) Christmas
Christmas
(Christianity)

Constitution Day (Taiwan) Good Governance Day (India) Malkh-Festival ( Nakh peoples
Nakh peoples
of Chechnya
Chechnya
and Ingushetia) Newtonmas
Newtonmas
( Atheist
Atheist
community) Quaid-e-Azam's Day (Pakistan) Takanakuy (Chumbivilcas Province, Peru)

National Pumpkin Pie Day (United States)

December
December
26

Boxing Day Saint Stephen's Day Day of Goodwill Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
( December 26
December 26
to January
January
1) Independence Day
Independence Day
in Slovenia – Independence and Unity Day

December
December
27

Independence and Unity Day (Slovenia) Mauro Hamza Day (Houston, Texas) Mummer's Day
Mummer's Day
(Padstow, Cornwall) St. Stephen's Day
St. Stephen's Day
(public holiday in Alsace, Austria, Catalonia, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Hong Kong, Italy, Ireland, Luxembourg, Poland, Slovakia
Slovakia
and Switzerland)

Father's Day
Father's Day
(Bulgaria)

Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
December 27 January
January
1 ( African-American
African-American
community, United States) The first day of Junkanoo
Junkanoo
street parade, the second day is on the New Year's Day (The Bahamas) National Fruitcake Day (United States) Wren Day
Wren Day
(Ireland, Isle of Man) Zartosht No-Diso (Zoroastrianism)

December
December
28

Proclamation Day
Proclamation Day
in South Australia

December
December
29

Tick Tock Day

December
December
30

Day of the Declaration of Slovakia
Slovakia
as an Independent Ecclesiastic Province (Slovakia) Falling Needles Family Fest Freedom Day (Church of Scientology) National Bicarbonate of Soda Day (United States) Rizal Day
Rizal Day
(Philippines)

December
December
31

International Solidarity Day
International Solidarity Day
(Azerbaijan) National Champagne Day (United States) New Year's Eve Bisperás ng Bagong Taón
Bisperás ng Bagong Taón
(Philippines) Ōmisoka
Ōmisoka
(Japan) Start of Hogmanay
Hogmanay
(Scotland) December 31 January
January
1, in some cases until January
January
2.

References[edit]

^ Macrobius, Saturnalia, tr. Percival Vaughan Davies (New York: Columbia University Press, 1969), book I, chapters 12–13, pp. 89–95. ^ " Zodiac
Zodiac
signs and date ranges used in astrology". 

See also[edit]

Historical anniversaries Undecimber

Wikiquote has quotations related to: December

Look up December
December
in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to December.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for December.

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