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The Decameron
The Decameron
(Italian: Decameron [deˈkaːmeron; dekameˈrɔn; dekameˈron] or Decamerone [dekameˈroːne]), subtitled Prince Galehaut (Old Italian: Prencipe Galeotto [ˈprentʃipe ɡaleˈɔtto; ˈprɛntʃipe]), is a collection of novellas by the 14th-century Italian author Giovanni Boccaccio
Giovanni Boccaccio
(1313–1375). The book is structured as a frame story containing 100 tales told by a group of seven young women and three young men sheltering in a secluded villa just outside Florence
Florence
to escape the Black Death, which was afflicting the city. Boccaccio probably conceived of The Decameron
The Decameron
after the epidemic of 1348, and completed it by 1353. The various tales of love in The Decameron
The Decameron
range from the erotic to the tragic. Tales of wit, practical jokes, and life lessons contribute to the mosaic. In addition to its literary value and widespread influence (for example on Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales), it provides a document of life at the time. Written in the vernacular of the Florentine language, it is considered a masterpiece of classical early Italian prose.[1]

Contents

1 Title 2 Frame story 3 Analysis 4 Literary sources 5 Translations into English 6 Table of cities and characters mentioned in the English text 7 Notable early translations 8 Adaptations

8.1 Theatre 8.2 Prose works 8.3 Poems 8.4 Songs 8.5 Opera 8.6 Film and television 8.7 Wrongly considered to be adaptations

9 Collections emulating the Decameron 10 References to the Decameron 11 Boccaccio's drawings 12 See also 13 References 14 External links

Title[edit] The book's primary title exemplifies Boccaccio's fondness for Greek philology: Decameron combines two Greek words, δέκα, déka ("ten") and ἡμέρα, hēméra ("day"), to form a term that means "ten-day [event]".[2] Ten days is the period in which the characters of the frame story tell their tales. Boccaccio's subtitle, Prencipe Galeotto (Prince Galehaut), refers to Galehaut, a fictional king portrayed in the Lancelot-Grail who was sometimes called by the title haut prince ("high prince"). Galehaut was a close friend of Lancelot
Lancelot
and an enemy of King Arthur. When Galehaut learned that Lancelot
Lancelot
loved Arthur's wife, Guinevere, he set aside his own ardor for Lancelot
Lancelot
in order to arrange a meeting between his friend and Guinevere. At this meeting the Queen first kisses Lancelot, and so begins their love affair. In Canto V of Inferno, Dante compares these fictional lovers with the real-life paramours Francesca da Rimini
Francesca da Rimini
and Paolo Malatesta, whose relationship he fictionalises. In Inferno, Francesca and Paolo read of Lancelot
Lancelot
and Guinevere, and the story impassions them to lovemaking. Dante's description of Galehaut's munificence and savoir-faire amidst this intrigue impressed Boccaccio. By invoking the name Prencipe Galeotto in the alternative title to Decameron, Boccaccio alludes to a sentiment he expresses in the text: his compassion for women deprived of free speech and social liberty, confined to their homes and, at times, lovesick. He contrasts this life with that of the menfolk, who enjoy respite in sport, such as hunting, fishing, riding, and falconry.[3] Frame story[edit] Further information: Summary of Decameron tales

Miniature by Taddeo Crivelli
Taddeo Crivelli
in a manuscript of c. 1467 from Ferrara (Bodleian Library, Oxford)[4]

In Italy during the time of the Black Death, a group of seven young women and three young men flee from plague-ridden Florence
Florence
to a deserted villa in the countryside of Fiesole
Fiesole
for two weeks. To pass the evenings, every member of the party tells a story each night, except for one day per week for chores, and the holy days during which they do no work at all, resulting in ten nights of storytelling over the course of two weeks. Thus, by the end of the fortnight they have told 100 stories. Each of the ten characters is charged as King or Queen of the company for one of the ten days in turn. This charge extends to choosing the theme of the stories for that day, and all but two days have topics assigned: examples of the power of fortune; examples of the power of human will; love tales that end tragically; love tales that end happily; clever replies that save the speaker; tricks that women play on men; tricks that people play on each other in general; examples of virtue. Only Dioneo, who usually tells the tenth tale each day, has the right to tell a tale on any topic he wishes, due to his wit.[5][6] Many authors have argued that Dioneo expresses the views of Boccaccio himself.[7] Each day also includes a short introduction and conclusion to continue the frame of the tales by describing other daily activities besides story-telling. These frame tale interludes frequently include transcriptions of Italian folk songs.[8] The interactions among tales in a day, or across days, as Boccaccio spins variations and reversals of previous material, forms a whole and not just a collection of stories. The basic plots of the stories include mocking the lust and greed of the clergy; tensions in Italian society between the new wealthy commercial class and noble families; and the perils and adventures of traveling merchants. Analysis[edit]

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A Tale from the Decameron (1916) by John William Waterhouse.

Lauretta, one of the narrators of the Decameron, painted by Jules Joseph Lefebvre

Throughout the Decameron the mercantile ethic prevails and predominates. The commercial and urban values of quick wit, sophistication, and intelligence are treasured, while the vices of stupidity and dullness are cured, or punished. While these traits and values may seem obvious to the modern reader, they were an emerging feature in Europe with the rise of urban centers and a monetized economic system beyond the traditional rural feudal and monastery systems which placed greater value on piety and loyalty.[citation needed] Beyond the unity provided by the frame narrative, the Decameron provides a unity in philosophical outlook. Throughout runs the common medieval theme of Lady Fortune, and how quickly one can rise and fall through the external influences of the "Wheel of Fortune". Boccaccio had been educated in the tradition of Dante's Divine Comedy, which used various levels of allegory to show the connections between the literal events of the story and the Christian message. However, the Decameron uses Dante's model not to educate the reader but to satirize this method of learning. The Roman Catholic Church, priests, and religious belief become the satirical source of comedy throughout. This was part of a wider historical trend in the aftermath of the Black Death
Black Death
which saw widespread discontent with the church. Many details of the Decameron are infused with a medieval sense of numerological and mystical significance.[citation needed] For example, it is widely believed[by whom?] that the seven young women are meant to represent the Four Cardinal Virtues
Cardinal Virtues
(Prudence, Justice, Temperance, and Fortitude) and the Three Theological Virtues (Faith, Hope, and Charity). It is further supposed[by whom?] that the three men represent the classical Greek tripartite division of the soul (Reason, Spirit, and Appetite, see Book IV of Republic). Boccaccio himself notes that the names he gives for these ten characters are in fact pseudonyms chosen as "appropriate to the qualities of each". The Italian names of the seven women, in the same (most likely significant) order as given in the text, are Pampinea, Fiammetta, Filomena, Emilia, Lauretta, Neifile, and Elissa. The men, in order, are Panfilo, Filostrato, and Dioneo. Boccaccio focused on the naturalness of sex by combining and interlacing sexual experiences with nature. Literary sources[edit]

The Banquet in the Pine Forest (1482/3) is the third painting in Sandro Botticelli's series The Story of Nastagio degli Onesti, which illustrates events from the Eighth Story of the Fifth Day.

Boccaccio borrowed the plots of almost all his stories (just as later writers borrowed from him). Although he consulted only French, Italian and Latin
Latin
sources, some of the tales have their origin in such far-off lands as India, Persia, Spain, and other places. Some were already centuries old. For example, part of the tale of Andreuccio of Perugia (II, 5) originated in 2nd-century Ephesus (in the Ephesian Tale). The frame narrative structure (though not the characters or plot) originates from the Panchatantra, which was written in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
before AD 500 and came to Boccaccio through a chain of translations that includes Old Persian, Arabic, Hebrew, and Latin. Even the description of the central current event of the narrative, the Black Plague (which Boccaccio surely witnessed), is not original, but based on the Historia gentis Langobardorum of Paul the Deacon, who lived in the 8th century. Some scholars have suggested that some of the tales for which there is no prior source may still not have been invented by Boccaccio, but may have been circulating in the local oral tradition, with Boccaccio simply the first person known to have recorded them. Boccaccio himself says that he heard some of the tales orally. In VII, 1, for example, he claims to have heard the tale from an old woman who heard it as a child. The fact that Boccaccio borrowed the storylines that make up most of the Decameron does not mean he mechanically reproduced them. Most of the stories take place in the 14th century and have been sufficiently updated to the author's time that a reader may not know that they had been written centuries earlier or in a foreign culture. Also, Boccaccio often combined two or more unrelated tales into one (such as in II, 2 and VII, 7). Moreover, many of the characters actually existed, such as Giotto di Bondone, Guido Cavalcanti, Saladin
Saladin
and King William II of Sicily. Scholars have even been able to verify the existence of less famous characters, such as the tricksters Bruno and Buffalmacco and their victim Calandrino. Still other fictional characters are based on real people, such as the Madonna Fiordaliso from tale II, 5, who is derived from a Madonna Flora who lived in the red light district of Naples. Boccaccio often intentionally muddled historical (II, 3) and geographical (V, 2) facts for his narrative purposes. Within the tales of The Decameron, the principal characters are usually developed through their dialogue and actions, so that by the end of the story they seem real and their actions logical given their context. Another of Boccaccio's frequent techniques was to make already existing tales more complex. A clear example of this is in tale IX, 6, which was also used by Chaucer
Chaucer
in his "The Reeve's Tale", which more closely follows the original French source than does Boccaccio's version. In the Italian version, the host's wife (in addition to the two young male visitors) occupy all three beds and she also creates an explanation of the happenings of the evening. Both elements are Boccaccio's invention and make for a more complex version than either Chaucer's version or the French source (a fabliau by Jean de Boves). Translations into English[edit] The Decameron's individual tales were translated into English early on (such as poet William Walter's 1525 Here begynneth y[e] hystory of Tytus & Gesyppus translated out of Latyn into Englysshe by Wyllyam Walter, somtyme seruaunte to Syr Henry Marney, a translation of tale X.viii), or served as source material for English authors such as Chaucer
Chaucer
to rework. The table below lists all attempts at a complete English translation of the book. The information on pre-1971 translations is compiled from the G.H. McWilliam's introduction to his own 1971 translation.

Year Translator Completeness/Omissions Comments

1620 Anonymous, attributed to John Florio Omits the Proemio and Conclusione dell’autore. Replaces tale III.x with an innocuous tale taken from François de Belleforest’s “Histoires tragiques”, concluding that it “was commended by all the company, ... because it was free from all folly and obscoeneness.” Tale IX.x is also modified, while tale V.x loses its homosexual innuendo. “Magnificent specimen of Jacobean prose, [but] its high-handed treatment of the original text produces a number of shortcomings” says G.H. McWilliam, translator of the 1971 Penguin edition (see below). Based not on Boccaccio’s Italian original, but on Antoine Le Maçon’s 1545 French translation and Leonardo Salviati's 1582 Italian edition which replaced ‘offensive’ words, sentences or sections with asterisks or altered text (in a different font).

1702 Anonymous, attributed to John Savage Omits Proemio and Conclusione dell’autore. Replaces tale III.x with the tale contained within the Introduction to the Fourth Day. Tale IX.x is bowdlerised, but possibly because the translator was working from faulty sources, rather than deliberately. ---

1741 Anonymous, posthumously identified as Charles Balguy Omits Proemio and Conclusione dell’autore. Explicitly omits tales III.x and IX.x, and removed the homosexual innuendo in tale V.x: “Boccace is so licentious in many places, that it requires some management to preserve his wit and humour, and render him tolerably decent. This I have attempted with the loss of two novels, which I judged incapable of such treatment; and am apprehensive, it may still be thought by some people, that I have rather omitted too little, than too much.” Reissued several times with small or large modifications, sometimes without acknowledgement of the original translator. The 1804 reissue makes further expurgations. The 1822 reissue adds half-hearted renditions of III.x and IX.x, retaining the more objectionable passages in the original Italian, with a footnote to III.x that it is “impossible to render... into tolerable English”, and giving Mirabeau’s French translation instead. The 1872 reissue is similar, but makes translation errors in parts of IX.x. The 1895 reissue (introduced by Alfred Wallis), in four volumes, cites Mr. S. W. Orson as making up for the omissions of the 1741 original, although part of III.x is given in Antoine Le Maçon’s French translation, belying the claim that it is a complete English translation, and IX.x is modified, replacing Boccaccio’s direct statements with innuendo.

1855 W. K. Kelly Omits Proemio and Conclusione dell’autore. Includes tales III.x and IX.x, claiming to be “COMPLETE, although a few passages are in French or Italian”, but as in 1822, leaves parts of III.x in the original Italian with a French translation in a footnote, and omits several key sentences entirely from IX.x. ---

1886 John Payne First truly complete translation in English, with copious footnotes to explain Boccaccio’s double-entendres and other references. Introduction by Sir Walter Raleigh. Published by the Villon Society by private subscription for private circulation. Stands and falls on its “splendidly scrupulous but curiously archaic... sonorous and self-conscious Pre-Raphaelite vocabulary” according to McWilliam, who gives as an example from tale III.x: “Certes, father mine, this same devil must be an ill thing and an enemy in very deed of God, for that it irketh hell itself, let be otherwhat, when he is put back therein.” 1925 Edition by Horace Liveright Inc. US, then reprinted in Oct 1928, Dec 1928, April 1929, Sept 1929, Feb 1930. 1930. Reissued in the Modern Library, 1931. Updated editions have been published in 1982, edited by Charles S. Singleton, and in 2004, edited by Cormac Ó Cuilleanáin.

1896 Anonymous Part of tale III.x again given in French, without footnote or explanation. Tale IX.x translated anew, but Boccaccio’s phrase “l’umido radicale” is rendered “the humid radical” rather than “the moist root”. Falsely claims to be a “New Translation from the Italian” and the “First complete English Edition”, when it is only a reworking of earlier versions with the addition of what McWilliam calls “vulgarly erotic overtones” in some stories.

1903 J. M. Rigg Once more, part of tale III.x is left in the original Italian with a footnote “No apology is needed for leaving, in accordance with precedent, the subsequent detail untranslated”. McWiliam praises its elegant style in sections of formal language, but that it is spoiled by an obsolete vocabulary in more vernacular sections. Reissued frequently, including in Everyman's Library
Everyman's Library
(1930) with introduction by Edward Hutton.

1930a Frances Winwar Omits the Proemio. Introduction by Burton Rascoe. First American translation, and first English-language translation by a female. “Fairly accurate and eminently readable, [but] fails to do justice to those more ornate and rhetorical passages” says McWilliam. Originally issued in expensive 2-volume set by the Limited Editions Club of New York City, and in cheaper general circulation edition only in 1938.

1930b Richard Aldington Complete. Like Winwar, first issued in expensive and lavishly illustrated edition. “Littered with schoolboy errors... plain and threadbare, so that anyone reading it might be forgiven for thinking that Boccaccio was a kind of sub-standard fourteenth-century Somerset Maugham” say McWilliam.

1972 George Henry McWilliam First complete translation into contemporary English, intended for general circulation. Penguin Classics
Penguin Classics
edition. The second edition (1995) includes a 150-page detailed explanation of the historical, linguistic, and nuanced reasoning behind the new translation. Its in-depth study exemplifies the care and consideration given to the original text and meaning. The volume includes a biography of the author and a detailed history of the book's composition and setting.

1977 Peter Bondanella and Mark Musa Complete W. W. Norton & Company

2013 Wayne A. Rebhorn Complete W. W. Norton & Company. Publishers Weekly
Publishers Weekly
called Rebhorn's translation "strikingly modern" and praised its "accessibility".[9] In an interview with The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal
Rebhorn stated that he started translating the work in 2006 after deciding that the translations he was using in his classroom needed improvement. Rebhorn cited errors in the 1977 translation as one of the reasons for the new translation. Peter Bondanella, one of the translators of the 1977 edition, stated that new translations build on previous ones and that the error cited would be corrected in future editions of his translation.[10]

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Table of cities and characters mentioned in the English text[edit]

Story (Day/Story) Narrator Locations Main Characters or Other People Mentioned

Day 01, 1 Panfilo Prato Ser Cepparello, holy friar, Musciatto Franzesi

Day 01, 2 Neifile Rome
Rome
and Paris

Day 01, 3 Filomena Alexandria Melchizedek, Saladin

Day 01, 4 Dioneo Lunigiana A Benedictine
Benedictine
monk, A Young Girl, An Abbot, Jeannot of Chauvigny (mentioned in passing)

Day 01, 5 Fiammetta Genoa The Marquise of Montferrat, King of France, A Lady

Day 01, 6 Emilia Florence

Day 01, 7 Filostrato Scala, Cluny, Paris, Verona

Day 01, 8 Lauretta Genoa

Day 01, 9 Elissa Gascony
Gascony
and Cyprus

Day 01, 10 Pampinea Bologna

Day 02, 1 Neifile Treviso Arigo

Day 02, 2 Filostrato Bologna
Bologna
and Castelguglielmo Rinaldo of Asti (Marquis Azzo of Ferrara)

Day 02, 3 Pampinea Florence, London, Bruges, Rome, Paris, Cornwall Messer Tebaldo, Lamberto, Agolante, Alessandro

Day 02, 4 Lauretta Amalfi Coast, Ravello, Cyprus, Aegean Sea, Cephalonia, Corfu, Brindisi Landolfo Rufolo, Turkish Pirates, A good woman from Corfu

Day 02,5 Fiammetta Perugia, Naples, Palermo Anreuccio of Perugia, A young Sicilian woman, Pietro, Filippo Minutolo

Day 02,6 Emilia Naples, Ponza, Genoa, Magra River Madam Beritola Caracciolo, Guiffredi, Corrado, Messer Gasparino Doria

Day 02, 7 Panfilo Alexandria, Sardinia, Majorca, Corinth, Athens, Chios, Smyrna, Rhodes, Paphos, Aigues-Mortes, Crete, Cyprus Beminedab the Sultan of Babylon, King of the Algarve, Pericon of Visalgo, a servant, ladies, Marato, Duke of Athens, Prince of Morea, Ciuriaci the servant, Constantine, Constantine's son, Constantine's nephew Manuel, Uzbek King of the Turks, Antiochus the servant of Uzbek, Basanus King of Cappadocia, Antigonus of Famagusta the businessman, King of Cyprus, Alatiel the Sultan's daughter, King of Algarve

Day 02, 8 Elissa Paris, London

Day 02, 9 Filomena Alexandria, Paris, Genoa

Day 02, 10 Dioneo Monaco, Pisa

Day 03, 1 Filostrato Lamporecchio

Day 03, 2 Pampinea Pavia

Day 03, 3 Filomena Florence

Day 03, 4 Panfilo Florence

Day 03, 5 Elissa Pistoia

Day 03, 6 Fiammetta Naples

Day 03, 7 Emilia Florence

Day 03, 8 Lauretta Tuscany

Day 03, 9 Neifile Florence, Narbonne, Roussillon Gillette of Narbonne, Count of Roussillon, Master Gerard of Narbonne

Day 03, 10 Dioneo Gafsa

Day 04, 1 Fiammetta Salerno

Day 04, 2 Pampinea Imola, Venice

Day 04, 3 Lauretta Crete, Marseilles

Day 04, 4 Elissa Sicily, Tunisia, Granada, Ustica, Trapani

Day 04, 5 Filomena Messina, Naples

Day 04, 6 Panfilo Brescia

Day 04, 7 Emilia Florence

Day 04, 8 Neifile Paris
Paris
Florence Girolamo, Salvestra

Day 04, 9 Filostrato Roussillon, Provence Messer Guillame of Roussillon, Guillaume of Capestang, Count of Provence

Day 04, 10 Dioneo Provence

Day 05, 1 Panfilo Crete, Rhodes, Cyprus

Day 05, 2 Emilia Lipari Islands, Susa (Sousse), Tunis

Day 05, 3 Elissa Rome, Anagni Pietro Boccamazza, Agnolella, Gigliozzo Saullo

Day 05, 4 Filostrato Romagna Messer Lizio of Valbona, Ricciardo Manardi, Giacomina

Day 05, 5 Neifile Fano, Faenza Guidotto of Cremona, Giacomino of Pavia, Giannole di Severino, Minghino de Mingole

Day 05, 6 Pampinea Ischia, Procida, Scalea, Cape Minerva La Cuba Gianni of Procida, King Frederick, Ruggeria of Lauria

Day 05, 7 Lauretta Sicily, Ayas Messer Amerigo Abate of Trapini, Messer Corrado, Violante, Teodoro, Phineas

Day 05, 8 Filomena Ravenna, Classe, ancient port of Ravenna

Day 05, 9 Fiammetta Florence Federigo degli Alberighi, Coppo di Borghese Domenichi

Day 05, 10 Dioneo Perugia

Day 06, 1 Filomena Florence

Day 06, 2 Pampinea Florence

Day 06, 3 Lauretta Florence

Day 06, 4 Neifile Peretola

Day 06, 5 Panfilo Mugello

Day 06, 6 Fiammetta Montughi Michele Scalza, Neri Vannini, Piero di Fiorentino, Baronci family

Day 06, 7 Filostrato Prato

Day 06, 8 Florence

Day 06, 9 Elissa Florence

Day 06, 10 Dioneo Certaldo

Day 07, 1 Emilia Certaldo

Day 07, 2 Filostrato Naples

Day 07, 3 Elissa Siena

Day 07, 4 Lauretta Arezzo

Day 07, 5 Fiammetta Rimini

Day 07, 6 Pampinea Florence

Day 07, 7 Filomena Bologna

Day 07, 8 Neifile Florence

Day 07, 9 Panfilo Argos

Day 07, 10 Dioneo Siena

Day 08, 1 Neifile Milan, Genoa

Day 08, 2 Panfilo Varlungo

Day 08, 3 Elissa Florence
Florence
(Mugnone Valley)

Day 08, 4 Emilia Fiesole

Day 08, 5 Filostrato Florence

Day 08, 6 Filomena Florence

Day 08, 7 Pampinea Florence

Day 08, 8 Fiammetta Siena

Day 08, 9 Lauretta Florence, Bologna

Day 08, 10 Dioneo Palermo, Naples

Day 09, 1 Filomena Pistoia

Day 09, 2 Elissa Lombardy

Day 09, 3 Filostrato Florence

Day 09, 4 Neifile Siena, Marche, Buonconvento

Day 09, 5 Fiammetta Camerata, Florence Camerata is, or was, a village just north of Florence
Florence
on the road to Fiesole.[11]

Day 09, 6 Panfilo Florence, Mugnone (it) Adriano, Pinuccio

Day 09, 7 Pampinea Florence Talano of Imola

Day 09, 8 Lauretta Florence Ciacco, Biondello, Messer Corso

Day 09, 9 Emilia Ayas, Jerusalem, Goosebridge Melisuss, Solomon, Joseph

Day 09, 10 Dioneo Barletta, Apulia, Bitonto Don Guanni of Barolo, Pietro, Pietro's wife, Zita Carapresa di Guidice Leo

Day 10, 1 Neifile Florence, Spain Messer Ruggieri de' Figiovanni, Alfonso of Spain

Day 10, 2 Elissa Siena

Day 10, 3 Filostrato Cathay

Day 10, 4 Lauretta Bologna

Day 10, 5 Emilia Udine

Day 10, 6 Fiammetta Castellammare di Stabia

Day 10, 7 Pampinea Palermo

Day 10, 8 Filomena Rome, Athens

Day 10, 9 Panfilo Pavia, Alexandria, Digne

Day 10, 10 Dioneo Saluzzo

Notable early translations[edit] It can be generally said that Petrarch's version in Rerum senilium libri XVII, 3, included in a letter he wrote to his friend Boccaccio, was to serve as a source for all the many versions that circulated around Europe, including the translations of the very Decameron into French, Catalan - translated by Bernat Metge - and Spanish. The famous first tale (I, 1) of the notorious Ser Ciappelletto was later translated into Latin
Latin
by Olimpia Fulvia Morata and translated again by Voltaire. Adaptations[edit]

A 1600 edition of The Decameron, printed by Isaac Jaggard

Theatre[edit]

William Shakespeare's 1605 play All's Well That Ends Well
All's Well That Ends Well
is based on tale III, 9. Shakespeare probably first read a French translation of the tale in William Painter's Palace of Pleasure. Posthumus's wager on Imogen's chastity in Cymbeline
Cymbeline
was taken by Shakespeare from an English translation of a 15th-century German tale, "Frederyke of Jennen", whose basic plot came from tale II, 9. Lope de Vega
Lope de Vega
adapted at least twelve stories from the Decameron for the theatre, including:

El ejemplo de casadas y prueba de la paciencia, based on tale X, 10, which was by far the most popular story of the Decameron during the 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries Discreta enamorada, based on tale III, 3 El ruiseñor de Sevilla (They're Not All Nightingales), based on parts of V, 4

Molière's 1661 play L'école des maris is based on tale III, 3. Molière
Molière
borrowed from tale VII, 4 in his play George Dandin ou le Mari confondu (The Confounded Husband). In both stories the husband is convinced that he has accidentally caused his wife's suicide. Thomas Middleton's play The Widow is based on tales II, 2 and III, 3. The ring parable from tale I, 3 is at the heart of Gotthold Ephraim Lessing's 1779 play Nathan the Wise.[12] Alfred, Lord Tennyson
Alfred, Lord Tennyson
used tale V, 9 for his 1879 play The Falcon.

Prose works[edit]

The tale of patient Griselda (X, 10) was the source of Chaucer's "The Clerk's Tale". However, there are some scholars who believe that Chaucer
Chaucer
may not have been directly familiar with The Decameron, and instead derived it from a Latin
Latin
translation/retelling of that tale by Petrarch. Martin Luther
Martin Luther
retells tale I, 2, in which a Jew
Jew
converts to Catholicism after visiting Rome
Rome
and seeing the corruption of the Catholic hierarchy. However, in Luther's version (found in his "Table-talk #1899"), Luther and Philipp Melanchthon
Philipp Melanchthon
try to dissuade the Jew
Jew
from visiting Rome. The story of Griselda (X, 10) was also the basis for the 1694 verse novel Griseldis (fr) by Charles Perrault, later included in his 1697 collection Histoires ou contes du temps passé. Jonathan Swift
Jonathan Swift
used tale I, 3 for his first major published work, A Tale of a Tub (1704). Edgar Allan Poe's short horror story "The Masque of the Red Death" is said to be inspired by this work.[citation needed]

Poems[edit]

John Keats
John Keats
borrowed the tale of Lisabetta and her pot of basil (IV, 5) for his poem, Isabella, or the Pot of Basil. At his death Percy Bysshe Shelley
Percy Bysshe Shelley
had left a fragment of a poem entitled "Ginevra", which he took from the first volume of an Italian book called L'Osservatore Fiorentino. The plot of that book was in turn taken from tale X, 4. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
adapted tale V, 9 for the poem "The Falcon of Ser Federigo", included in his 1863 collection Tales of a Wayside Inn.

Songs[edit]

Tale IV, 1 was the basis for Child ballad
Child ballad
269, "Lady Diamond".[13]

Opera[edit]

The Venetian writer Apostolo Zeno
Apostolo Zeno
wrote a libretto named Griselda in 1701, based in part on tale X, 10, and in part on Lope de Vega's theatrical adaptation of it, El ejemplo de casadas y prueba de la paciencia. Various composers wrote music for the libretto, including Carlo Francesco Pollarolo (Griselda, 1701), Tomaso Albinoni
Tomaso Albinoni
(Griselda, 1703), Antonio Maria Bononcini (Griselda, 1718), Alessandro Scarlatti (Griselda, 1721), Giovanni Bononcini
Giovanni Bononcini
(Griselda, 1722) and Antonio Vivaldi (Griselda, 1735). Giuseppe Petrosinelli in his libretto for Domenico Cimarosa's comic opera The Italian Girl in London
London
uses the story of the heliotrope (bloodstone) in tale VIII, 3.

Film and television[edit]

Decameron Nights
Decameron Nights
(1953) was based on three of the tales and starred Louis Jourdan
Louis Jourdan
as Boccaccio. Pier Paolo Pasolini's The Decameron
The Decameron
(1971) is an anthology film which includes nine of the stories. The 2007 film Virgin Territory
Virgin Territory
is a romantic comedy based on the framing story of The Decameron. The 2017 comedy The Little Hours adapted tales III, 1 and III, 2.

Wrongly considered to be adaptations[edit]

Chaucer's "The Franklin's Tale" shares its plot with tale X, 5, although this is not due to a direct borrowing from Boccaccio. Rather, both authors used a common French source. The motif of the three trunks in The Merchant of Venice
Venice
by Shakespeare is found in tale X, 1. However, both Shakespeare and Boccaccio probably came upon the tale in Gesta Romanorum.

Collections emulating the Decameron[edit]

Marguerite de Navarre's Heptaméron
Heptaméron
is heavily based on The Decameron Christoph Martin Wieland's set of six novellas, Das Hexameron von Rosenhain, is based on the structure of The Decameron.

References to the Decameron[edit]

Christine de Pizan
Christine de Pizan
refers to several of the stories from The Decameron in her work The Book of the City of Ladies
The Book of the City of Ladies
(1405). The title character in George Eliot's historical novel Romola
Romola
emulates Gostanza in tale V, 2, by buying a small boat and drifting out to sea to die, after she realizes that she no longer has anyone on whom she can depend. In the 1994 movie My Summer Story, Ralphie does a book report on The Decameron and gets in trouble with his teacher for doing so. The tales are referenced in The Borgias in season 2, episode 7, when a fictional version of Niccolò Machiavelli
Niccolò Machiavelli
mentions at a depiction of the Bonfire of the Vanities
Bonfire of the Vanities
that he should have brought his friend "the Decameron" who would have told the "one-hundred and first" tale. Season 1, episode 5 (2013) of the American TV series Da Vinci's Demons portrays a theatrical adaptation of stories from The Decameron.

Boccaccio's drawings[edit] Since The Decameron
The Decameron
was very popular among contemporaries, especially merchants, many manuscripts of it survive. The Italian philologist Vittore Branca
Vittore Branca
did a comprehensive survey of them and identified a few copied under Boccaccio's supervision; some have notes written in Boccaccio's hand. Two in particular have elaborate drawings, probably done by Boccaccio himself. Since these manuscripts were widely circulated, Branca thought that they influenced all subsequent illustrations. In 1962 Branca identified Codex Hamilton 90, in Berlin's Staatsbibliothek, as an autograph belonging to Boccaccio's latter years.[14] See also[edit]

Novels portal

Cent Nouvelles nouvelles One Thousand and One Nights

References[edit]

^ "Giovanni Boccaccio: The Decameron.". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 18 December 2013.  ^ The title transliterates to Greek as δεκάμερον (τό) or, classically, δεχήμερον. ^ Boccaccio, "Proem" ^ "MS. Holkham misc. 49: Boccaccio, Decameron, Ferrara, c. 1467; illuminated by Taddeo Crivelli
Taddeo Crivelli
for Teofilo Calcagnini". Bodleian Library, University of Oxford. 2000–2003. Retrieved 18 December 2013.  ^ Lee Patterson Literary practice and social change in Britain, 1380–1530 p.186 ^ Boccaccio, Day the First ^ The origin of the Griselda story p.7 ^ Context, Third Paragraph ^ "The Decameron". Publishers Weekly. Sep 1, 2013. Retrieved 2013-09-09.  ^ Trachtenberg, Jeffrey (Sep 8, 2013). "How Many Times Can a Tale Be Told?". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2013-09-09.  ^ Boccaccio, Giovanni (15 October 2013). Rebhorn, Wayne, ed. The Decameron. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 521. ISBN 978-0393069303. Retrieved 21 March 2018.  ^ In a letter to his brother on August 11, 1778, Lessing says explicitly that he got the story from the Decameron. ^ Helen Child Sargent, ed; George Lyman Kittredge, ed English and Scottish Popular Ballads: Cambridge Edition p 583 Houghton Mifflin Company Boston 1904 ^ Armando Petrucci, Il ms. Berlinese Hamilton 90. Note codicologiche e paleografiche, in G. Boccaccio, Decameron, Edizione diplomatico-interpretativa dell'autografo Hamilton 90 a cura di Charles S. Singleton, Baltimora, 1974.

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: The Decameron

Italian Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Decameron

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Decameron.

Decameron Web, from Brown University The Decameron
The Decameron
– Introduction from the Internet Medieval
Medieval
Sourcebook The Enchanted Garden, a painting by John William Waterhouse

The Decameron, Volume I at Project Gutenberg
Project Gutenberg
(Rigg translation)

The Decameron, Volume II at Project Gutenberg
Project Gutenberg
(Rigg translation)

The Decameron
The Decameron
at Project Gutenberg
Project Gutenberg
(Payne translation) Decameron – English and Italian text for a direct comparison (in Italian) Full text of the Decameron (PDF) The Decameron
The Decameron
public domain audiobook at LibriVox

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Works by Giovanni Boccaccio

Amorosa visione Corbaccio De Casibus Virorum Illustrium De Mulieribus Claris The Decameron Elegia di Madonna Fiammetta The Filocolo Il Filostrato Genealogia Deorum Gentilium Teseida

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 311114624 LCCN: n83800493 GND: 4226218-5 BNF:

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