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Debswana Diamond Company Limited, or simply Debswana, is a
mining Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the Earth, usually from an ore body, lode, vein, seam, reef, or placer deposit. These deposits form a mineralized commodity that is of economic interest to t ...
company located in
Botswana Botswana (, also ), officially the Republic of Botswana ( tn, Lefatshe la Botswana, label= Setswana; Kalanga: ''Hango yeBotswana''), is a landlocked country in Southern Africa Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African ...
, and is the world's leading producer of
diamond Diamond is a solid form of the element carbon with its atoms arranged in a crystal structure called diamond cubic The diamond cubic crystal structure is a repeating pattern of 8 atoms that certain materials may adopt as they solidify. Wh ...

diamond
s by value. Debswana operates four diamond mines in eastern and central Botswana, as well as a
coal Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock, formed as stratum, rock strata called coal seams. Coal is mostly carbon with variable amounts of other Chemical element, elements; chiefly hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen. ...

coal
mine. Debswana is a
joint venture A joint venture is a business entity created by two or more parties, generally characterized by shared ownership, shared returns and economic risk, risks, and shared governance. Companies typically pursue joint ventures for one of four reasons: t ...
between the government of Botswana and the
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of South Africa, 59 million people, it is the world's List of countries by population, 23rd-most populous nation a ...
n diamond company
De Beers De Beers Group is an international corporation that specialises in diamond mining, diamond exploitation, diamond retail, diamond trading and industrial diamond manufacturing sectors. The company is active in open-pit, large-scale alluvial and c ...
; each party owns 50 percent of the company.


Mines

The mines owned and operated by Debswana are: *Diamond mines: ** Orapa diamond mine, opened in 1971 ** Letlhakane diamond mine, opened in 1975 **Jwaneng diamond mine, opened in 1982 **Damtshaa diamond mine, opened in 2003 *Coal mine: **Morupule Colliery, opened in 1973


History

Image:Debswana HQ.jpg, 200px, Debswana offices in downtown Gaborone Debswana was formed as the De Beers Botswana Mining Company on 23 June 1969, after De Beers geologists identified diamond-bearing deposits at Orapa in the 1960s. Over the next five years, the government of Botswana increased its ownership stake from an original 15 percent to 50 percent. On March 25, 1992, the name of the company was changed to Debswana Diamond Company (Proprietary) Limited. The company’s primary objective is diamond mining and associated processes. Debswana operates the Orapa, Letlhakane, Jwaneng and Damtshaa Mines. The four mines have contributed significantly to Botswana’s socio-economic growth through diamond revenue, transforming the country from an agriculturally based economy in the 1960s to a country that has consistently displayed one of the highest economic growth rates in the world.


Production

All diamond mining in Botswana is controlled by Debswana; there are no private diamond mining operations in the country. Combined production of the company's four mines totaled 30 million Carat (unit), carats , nearly a quarter of the world's annual production of around 130 million carats . The high value per weight of diamonds mined by Debswana has made the company the leading producer of diamonds by value in the world. Debswana is also the second largest producer by volume.


Income and profits


Economic impact

Diamond mining activities have fuelled much of the growth in Botswana's economy, allowing it to grow from one of the poorest countries in the world when it became independent in 1966 to a "middle income" nation, with $9,200 per capita income in 2004. The country has an agenda of becoming a "high-income" country by 2036. Largely because of this, Botswana is considered by two major investment services to be the safest credit risk in Africa. Diamonds account for approximately one third of the nation's Gross domestic product, GDP and over 80 percent of earnings from exports, as of 2019. Debswana is the largest non-government employer in the country, employing approximately 6,400 people, of whom over 93 percent are Batswana.


Criticism


Human rights

Debswana has been criticised by the international indigenous rights organisation, Survival International, for not respecting the human rights of the Bushmen living in Botswana. Since the mid-eighties, Survival International has published reports that the Botswana government has conducted a campaign of harassment to drive them out and give way to mining exploration. Louis Goodwill Nchindo, Louis Nchindo, Former Managing Director of Debswana, has said: "The Government was justified in removing the Bushmen, Basarwa from the Reserve… It is sensible of Government to take such action. Otherwise who would always want to remain in the Dark Ages while others move forward?". According to Stephen Corry, Director of Survival International, the Bushmen are not backward or primitive, and their human and cultural rights must be respected. The government of Botswana, Botswana government has consistently refuted Survival's claims as exaggerated. There is still no evidence of Debswana mining in the Central Kalahari Game Reserve as the company operates mines elsewhere, at Jwaneng, Orapa, Letlhakane and Damtshaa.


See also

* Diamonds as an investment * Economy of Botswana * Louis Goodwill Nchindo


References


External links


Official website

The De Beers Group of Companies

Debswana profile on the Business & Human Rights Resource Centre
*https://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Publications/anrc/DEBSWANA_ENG__HR_PAGES.pdf *http://debswana-sp.cloudapp.net/About-Us/Lists/Fast%20Facts/AllItems.aspx *https://www.angloamerican.com/~/media/Files/A/Anglo-American-Group/PLC/media/presentations/2016pres/debswana-nov-2016.pdf *http://data.unaids.org/publications/irc-pub02/jc769-debswana_en.pdf {{Anglo American plc Companies of Botswana Diamond mining companies Coal companies of Botswana Companies established in 1969 1969 establishments in Botswana Gaborone Botswana companies