Death row is a special section of a prison that houses inmates who are awaiting execution after being sentenced to death for the conviction of capital crimes. The term is also used figuratively to describe the state of awaiting execution ("being on death row"), even in places where no special facility or separate unit for condemned inmates exists. After a person is found guilty of a capital offense, the judge will give the jury the option of imposing a death sentence or life imprisonment without the possibility of parole. It is then up to a jury to decide whether to give the death sentence; this usually has to be a unanimous decision. If the jury agrees on death, the defendant will remain on death row during appeal and habeas corpus procedures, which can drag on for many years.
Opponents of capital punishment claim that a prisoner's isolation and uncertainty over his or her fate constitute a form of mental cruelty and that especially long-time death row inmates are liable to become mentally ill, if they are not already. This is referred to as the death row phenomenon. In extreme cases some inmates may attempt to commit suicide.
In the United States, prisoners may wait many years before execution can be carried out due to the complex and time-consuming appeals procedures mandated in the jurisdiction. The time between sentencing and execution has increased relatively steadily between 1977 and 2010, including a 22% jump between 1989 and 1990 and a similar jump between 2008 and 2009. In 2010, a death row inmate waited an average of 178 months (roughly 15 years) between sentencing and execution. Nearly a quarter of inmates on death row in the U.S. die of natural causes while awaiting execution.
There were 3,125 people on death row in the United States on January 1, 2013. Since 1977, the states of Texas (464), Virginia (108) and Oklahoma (94) have executed the most death row inmates. As of 2010, California (683), Florida (390), Texas (330) and Pennsylvania (218) housed more than half of all inmates pending on death row. As of 2008, the longest-serving prisoner on death row in the US who has been executed was Jack Alderman who served over 33 years. He was executed in Georgia in 2008. However, Alderman only holds the distinction of being the longest-serving executed inmate so far. A Florida inmate, Gary Alvord, arrived on Florida's death row in 1974. On April 9, 2013, Alvord had been on death row for exactly 39 years, he died on May 19, 2013, from a brain tumor, having been longer on death row than any other United States inmate. The oldest prisoner on death row in the United States was Leroy Nash, age 94, in Arizona. He died of natural causes on February 12, 2010.
|Men's death row||Women's death row|
|Civilian Federal||United States Penitentiary, Terre Haute, Terre Haute, Indiana||Federal Medical Center, Carswell, Fort Worth, Texas|
|Military||United States Disciplinary Barracks, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas||Naval Consolidated Brig, Miramar, San Diego, California1|
|State||Men's death row||Women's death row|
|Alabama||Holman Correctional Facility, Atmore and William E. Donaldson Correctional Facility, Bessemer ||Julia Tutwiler Prison for Women|
|Arizona||Arizona State Prison Complex - Eyman||Arizona State Prison Complex - Perryville|
|Arkansas||Varner Unit||McPherson Unit|
|California||San Quentin State Prison||Central California Women’s Facility|
|Colorado||No designated death row
Currently all DR prisoners are at Sterling Correctional Facility
|Colorado Women's Correctional Facility|
|Delaware||James T. Vaughn Correctional Center||Delores J. Baylor Women's Correctional Institution|
|Florida||Union Correctional Institution and Florida State Prison||Lowell Correctional Institution Annex|
|Georgia||Georgia Diagnostic and Classification Prison, Butts County||Arrendale State Prison, Habersham County|
|Idaho||Idaho Maximum Security Institution, Boise||Pocatello Women's Correctional Center, Pocatello|
|Indiana||Indiana State Prison, Michigan City||Indiana Women's Prison, Indianapolis|
|Kansas||El Dorado Correctional Facility, El Dorado||Topeka Correctional Facility, Topeka|
|Kentucky||Kentucky State Penitentiary, Eddyville||Kentucky Correctional Institute for Women, Peewee Valley|
|Louisiana||Louisiana State Penitentiary, unincorporated West Feliciana Parish||Louisiana Correctional Institute for Women, St. Gabriel|
|Mississippi||Mississippi State Penitentiary, Sunflower County||Central Mississippi Correctional Facility|
|Missouri||Potosi Correctional Center||Women's Eastern Reception, Diagnostic and Correctional Center|
|Montana||Montana State Prison, Deer Lodge||Montana Women's Prison, Billings|
|Nebraska||Tecumseh State Correctional Institution, Tecumseh||Nebraska Correctional Center for Women, York|
|Nevada||Ely State Prison, Ely||Florence McClure Women's Correctional Center, North Las Vegas|
|New Hampshire||New Hampshire State Prison for Men, Concord||New Hampshire State Prison for Women, Goffstown|
|New Mexico||Penitentiary of New Mexico, Santa Fe County||New Mexico Women's Correctional Facility, Grants|
|North Carolina||Central Prison, Raleigh||North Carolina Correctional Institution for Women, Raleigh|
|Ohio||Chillicothe Correctional Institution, Chillicothe, Ohio State Penitentiary, Youngstown and Franklin Medical Center, Columbus||Ohio Reformatory for Women, Marysville|
|Oklahoma||Oklahoma State Penitentiary, McAlester||Mabel Bassett Correctional Center, Oklahoma City|
|Oregon||Oregon State Penitentiary, Salem||Coffee Creek Correctional Facility, Wilsonville|
|Pennsylvania||SCI-Greene, Franklin Township
and Skippack Township (SCI Graterford)
|SCI-Muncy, Clinton Township|
|South Carolina||Lieber Correctional Institution, Ridgeville||Camille Griffin Graham Correctional Institution, Columbia|
|South Dakota||South Dakota State Penitentiary, Sioux Falls||South Dakota Women's Prison, Pierre|
|Tennessee||Riverbend Maximum Security Institution, Nashville and Morgan County Correctional Complex, Wartburg||Tennessee Prison for Women, Nashville|
|Texas||Polunsky Unit, West Livingston||Mountain View Unit, Gatesville|
|Utah||Utah State Prison, Draper||Central Utah Correctional Facility, Gunnison|
|Virginia||Sussex I State Prison, Sussex County||Fluvanna Correctional Center for Women, Troy|
|Washington||Washington State Penitentiary, Walla Walla||Washington Corrections Center for Women, Gig Harbor|
|Wyoming||Wyoming State Penitentiary, Rawlins||Wyoming Women's Center, Lusk|
Notes: 1Naval Consolidated Brig, Miramar is the only facility in the United States Department of Defense designated to house female Level III inmates.
When the United Kingdom had capital punishment, sentenced inmates were given one appeal. If that appeal was found to involve an important point of law it was taken up to the House of Lords, and if the appeal was successful, at that point the sentence was changed to life in prison. The Home Secretary in the United Kingdom had the power to exercise the Sovereign's royal prerogative of mercy to grant a reprieve on execution and change the sentence to life imprisonment.
In some Caribbean countries that still authorize execution, the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is the ultimate court of appeals. It has upheld appeals by prisoners who have spent several years under sentence of death, stating that it does not desire to see the death row phenomenon emerge in countries under its jurisdiction.