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Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls (also Qumran Caves
Qumran Caves
Scrolls) are ancient Jewish religious, mostly Hebrew, manuscripts found in the Qumran Caves
Qumran Caves
near the Dead Sea.[1]

Contents

1 Overview 2 Discovery

2.1 Initial discovery (1946–1947) 2.2 Search for the Qumran
Qumran
caves (1948–1949) 2.3 Qumran
Qumran
caves rediscovery and new scroll discoveries (1949–1951) 2.4 Excavations of Qumran
Qumran
and new cave discoveries (1951–1956, 2017)

3 Scrolls and fragments

3.1 Caves 4a and 4b 3.2 Cave
Cave
5 3.3 Cave
Cave
6 3.4 Cave
Cave
7 3.5 Cave
Cave
8 3.6 Cave
Cave
9 3.7 Cave
Cave
10 3.8 Cave
Cave
11 3.9 Cave
Cave
12 3.10 Fragments with unknown provenance

4 Origin

4.1 Qumran–Essene theory 4.2 Qumran–Sectarian theory

4.2.1 Qumran–Sadducean theory

4.3 Christian origin theory 4.4 Jerusalem
Jerusalem
origin theory

5 Physical characteristics

5.1 Age

5.1.1 Radiocarbon dating 5.1.2 Paleographic dating

5.2 Ink and parchment 5.3 Deterioration, storage, and preservation

6 Photography and assembly

6.1 First photographs by the American Schools of Oriental Research (1948) 6.2 Infrared photography
Infrared photography
and plate assembly by the Palestine Archaeological Museum (1952–1967) 6.3 Israel Antiquities Authority
Israel Antiquities Authority
and NASA
NASA
digital infrared imaging (1993–2012) 6.4 Israel Antiquities Authority
Israel Antiquities Authority
and DNA
DNA
scroll assembly (2006–2012) 6.5 Israel Museum
Israel Museum
of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and Google
Google
digitization project (2011–2016)

7 Scholarly examination

7.1 Early study by scholars 7.2 Language and script

8 Publication

8.1 Physical publication and controversy

8.1.1 Controversy 8.1.2 Physical description 8.1.3 Discoveries in the Judaean Desert
Judaean Desert
(1955–2009) 8.1.4 A Preliminary Edition of the Unpublished Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls (1991) 8.1.5 A Facsimile Edition of the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls (1991) 8.1.6 The Facsimile Edition by Facsimile Editions Ltd, London, England (2007–2008)

8.2 Digital publication

8.2.1 Olive Tree Bible Software (2000–2011) 8.2.2 The Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls Reader (2005) 8.2.3 Israel Antiquities Authority
Israel Antiquities Authority
and Google
Google
digitization project (2010–2016)

9 Biblical significance

9.1 Biblical books found 9.2 Non-biblical books

10 Museum exhibitions and displays

10.1 Temporary public exhibitions 10.2 Long-term museum exhibitions

10.2.1 Display at the Shrine of the Book
Shrine of the Book
at the Israel
Israel
Museum, Jerusalem 10.2.2 Display at The Jordan
Jordan
Museum, Amman, Jordan

11 Ownership

11.1 Past ownership 11.2 Current ownership 11.3 Ownership disputes 11.4 Copyright
Copyright
disputes

11.4.1 Copyright
Copyright
of the original scrolls and translations, Qimron v. Shanks (1992)

12 See also 13 Notes 14 References

14.1 Bibliography 14.2 Other sources

15 Further reading 16 External links

Overview[edit]

Caves at Qumran

Many thousands of written fragments have been discovered in the Dead Sea area. They represent the remnants of larger manuscripts damaged by natural causes or through human interference, with the vast majority only holding small scraps of text. However, a small number of well-preserved, almost intact manuscripts have survived — fewer than a dozen among those from the Qumran
Qumran
Caves.[2] Researchers have assembled a collection of some 981 different manuscripts – discovered in 1946/47 and in 1956 – from 11 caves.[3] The 11 Qumran Caves lie in the immediate vicinity of the Hellenistic-period Jewish settlement at Khirbet Qumran
Khirbet Qumran
in the eastern Judaean Desert, in the West Bank.[4] The caves are located about one mile (1.6 kilometres) west of the northwest shore of the Dead Sea, whence they derive their name.[5] Scholarly consensus dates the Qumran Caves
Qumran Caves
Scrolls from the last three centuries BCE
BCE
and from the first century CE.[2] Bronze coins found at the same sites form a series beginning with John Hyrcanus (in office 135–104 BCE) and continuing until the period of the First Jewish–Roman War
First Jewish–Roman War
(66–73 CE), supporting the radiocarbon and paleographic dating of the scrolls.[6] In the larger sense, the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls include manuscripts from additional Judaean Desert
Judaean Desert
sites, dated as early as the 8th century BCE and as late as the 11th century CE.[1] The texts have great historical, religious, and linguistic significance because they include the second-oldest known surviving manuscripts of works later included in the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible canon, along with deuterocanonical and extra-biblical manuscripts which preserve evidence of the diversity of religious thought in late Second Temple Judaism. (Biblical texts older than the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls have been discovered only in two silver scroll-shaped amulets containing portions of the Priestly Blessing
Priestly Blessing
from the Book of Numbers, excavated in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
at Ketef Hinnom
Ketef Hinnom
and dated c. 600 BCE. The third-oldest surviving known piece of the Torah (the En-Gedi Scroll) consists of a portion of Leviticus
Leviticus
found in the Ein Gedi
Ein Gedi
synagogue, burnt in the 6th century CE and analyzed in 2015. Research has dated it palaeographically to the 1st or 2nd century CE, and using the C14 method to sometime between the 2nd and 4th centuries CE.[7]) Most of the texts use Hebrew, with some written in Aramaic
Aramaic
(for example the Son of God
Son of God
text; in different regional dialects, including Nabataean), and a few in Greek.[8] Discoveries from the Judaean Desert add Latin
Latin
(from Masada) and Arabic
Arabic
(from Khirbet al-Mird) texts.[9] Most of the texts are written on parchment, some on papyrus, and one on copper.[10] Archaeologists have long associated the scrolls with the ancient Jewish
Jewish
sect called the Essenes, although some recent interpretations have challenged this connection and argue that priests in Jerusalem, or Zadokites, or other unknown Jewish
Jewish
groups wrote the scrolls.[11][12] Robert Eisenman
Robert Eisenman
vigorously posits his theory that the later, non-biblical "sectarian" scrolls must be viewed in the context of a wider first-century CE “Opposition Movement,” including Essenes, Zealots, Sicarii, and/or Nazoreans, and particularly the early Judeo-Christian community of Jerusalem, the Ebionites, whose leader, James, the brother of Jesus, was acknowledged by the entire “Opposition Movement,” and who is no other than the Scrolls' Teacher of Righteousness. He thus creates a strong link between the Scrolls and the pre-Pauline Jewish
Jewish
Christian community. Owing to the poor condition of some of the scrolls, scholars have not identified all of their texts. The identified texts fall into three general groups:

Some 40% are copies of texts from the Hebrew
Hebrew
Scriptures. Approximately another 30% are texts from the Second Temple Period which ultimately were not canonized in the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible, like the Book of Enoch, the Book of Jubilees, the Book of Tobit, the Wisdom of Sirach, Psalms
Psalms
152–155, etc. The remainder (roughly 30%) are sectarian manuscripts of previously unknown documents that shed light on the rules and beliefs of a particular group (sect) or groups within greater Judaism, like the Community Rule, the War Scroll, the Pesher
Pesher
on Habakkuk, and The Rule of the Blessing.[13][need quotation to verify]

Discovery[edit] See also: Qumran

Qumran
Qumran
cave 4, where ninety percent of the scrolls were found

The Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls were discovered in a series of twelve caves around the site known as Wadi Qumran
Qumran
near the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
in the West Bank (of the Jordan
Jordan
River) between 1946 and 1956 by Bedouin
Bedouin
shepherds and a team of archeologists.[14] The practice of storing worn-out sacred manuscripts in earthenware vessels buried in the earth or within caves is related to the ancient Jewish
Jewish
custom of Genizah. Initial discovery (1946–1947)[edit] The initial discovery, by Bedouin
Bedouin
shepherd Muhammed edh-Dhib, his cousin Jum'a Muhammed, and Khalil Musa, took place between November 1946 and February 1947.[15][16] The shepherds discovered seven scrolls (See Scrolls and fragments) housed in jars in a cave near what is now known as the Qumran
Qumran
site. John C. Trever reconstructed the story of the scrolls from several interviews with the Bedouin. Edh-Dhib's cousin noticed the caves, but edh-Dhib himself was the first to actually fall into one. He retrieved a handful of scrolls, which Trever identifies as the Isaiah Scroll, Habakkuk Commentary, and the Community Rule, and took them back to the camp to show to his family. None of the scrolls were destroyed in this process, despite popular rumor.[17] The Bedouin
Bedouin
kept the scrolls hanging on a tent pole while they figured out what to do with them, periodically taking them out to show it to their people. At some point during this time, the Community Rule was split in two. The Bedouin
Bedouin
first took the scrolls to a dealer named Ibrahim 'Ijha in Bethlehem. 'Ijha returned them, saying they were worthless, after being warned that they might have been stolen from a synagogue. Undaunted, the Bedouin
Bedouin
went to a nearby market, where a Syrian Christian offered to buy them. A sheikh joined their conversation and suggested they take the scrolls to Khalil Eskander Shahin, "Kando", a cobbler and part-time antiques dealer. The Bedouin and the dealers returned to the site, leaving one scroll with Kando and selling three others to a dealer for 7 Jordanian pounds (approximately $28, or $307 in 2017 dollars).[17][18]:5 The original scrolls continued to change hands after the Bedouin
Bedouin
left them in the possession of a third party until a sale could be arranged. (See Ownership.) In 1947 the original seven scrolls caught the attention of Dr. John C. Trever, of the American Schools of Oriental Research (ASOR), who compared the script in the scrolls to that of The Nash Papyrus, the oldest biblical manuscript then known, and found similarities between them. In March the 1948 Arab-Israeli War
1948 Arab-Israeli War
prompted the move of some of the scrolls to Beirut, Lebanon, for safekeeping. On 11 April 1948, Millar Burrows, head of the ASOR, announced the discovery of the scrolls in a general press release. Search for the Qumran
Qumran
caves (1948–1949)[edit] Early in September 1948, Metropolitan bishop
Metropolitan bishop
Mar Samuel brought some additional scroll fragments that he had acquired to Professor Ovid R. Sellers, the new Director of ASOR. By the end of 1948, nearly two years after their discovery, scholars had yet to locate the original cave where the fragments had been found. With unrest in the country at that time, no large-scale search could be undertaken safely. Sellers tried to get the Syrians to assist in the search for the cave, but he was unable to pay their price. In early 1948, the government of Jordan gave permission to the Arab Legion
Arab Legion
to search the area where the original Qumran
Qumran
cave was thought to be. Consequently, Cave
Cave
1 was rediscovered on 28 January 1949, by Belgian United Nations
United Nations
observer Captain Phillipe Lippens and Arab Legion
Arab Legion
Captain Akkash el-Zebn.[19] Qumran
Qumran
caves rediscovery and new scroll discoveries (1949–1951)[edit]

A view of the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
from a cave at Qumran
Qumran
in which some of the Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered.

The rediscovery of what became known as " Cave
Cave
1" at Qumran
Qumran
prompted the initial excavation of the site from 15 February to 5 March 1949 by the Jordanian Department of Antiquities led by Gerald Lankester Harding and Roland de Vaux.[20] The Cave
Cave
1 site yielded discoveries of additional Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scroll
Scroll
fragments, linen cloth, jars, and other artifacts.[21] Excavations of Qumran
Qumran
and new cave discoveries (1951–1956, 2017)[edit] In November 1951, Roland de Vaux and his team from the ASOR began a full excavation of Qumran.[22] By February 1952, the Bedouin
Bedouin
had discovered 30 fragments in what was to be designated Cave
Cave
2.[23] The discovery of a second cave eventually yielded 300 fragments from 33 manuscripts, including fragments of Jubilees
Jubilees
and the Wisdom of Sirach written in Hebrew.[21][22] The following month, on 14 March 1952, the ASOR team discovered a third cave with fragments of Jubilees
Jubilees
and the Copper
Copper
Scroll.[23] Between September and December 1952 the fragments and scrolls of Caves 4, 5, and 6 were subsequently discovered by the ASOR teams.[22] With the monetary value of the scrolls rising as their historical significance was made more public, the Bedouins and the ASOR archaeologists accelerated their search for the scrolls separately in the same general area of Qumran, which was over 1 kilometer in length. Between 1953 and 1956, Roland de Vaux led four more archaeological expeditions in the area to uncover scrolls and artifacts.[21] Cave
Cave
11 was discovered in 1956 and yielded the last fragments to be found in the vicinity of Qumran.[24] Caves 4–10 are clustered in an area lying in relative proximity 160 yards (ca. 150 metres) from Khirbet Qumran, while caves 1, 2, 3 and 11 are located 1 mile (1–2 kilometres) North, with Cave
Cave
3 being the most remote.[25] [26] In February 2017, Hebrew
Hebrew
University archaeologists announced the discovery of a new, 12th cave.[27] There was one blank parchment found in a jar, however, broken and empty scroll jars and pickaxes suggest that the cave was looted in the 1950s.[28] Scrolls and fragments[edit] See also: List of the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (May 2012)

The Isaiah scroll
Isaiah scroll
(1QIsaa) contains almost the whole Book of Isaiah.

The War Scroll, found in Qumran
Qumran
Cave
Cave
1.

A portion of the second discovered copy of the Isaiah scroll, 1QIsab.

Part of Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scroll
Scroll
28a from Qumran
Qumran
Cave
Cave
1. The Jordan
Jordan
Museum, Amman

Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scroll, Pesher
Pesher
Isaiah, from Qumran
Qumran
Cave
Cave
4. The Jordan
Jordan
Museum, Amman

Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scroll
Scroll
175, Testimonia, from Qumran
Qumran
Cave
Cave
4. The Jordan Museum, Amman

Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scroll
Scroll
109, Qohelet or Ecclesiastes, from Qumran
Qumran
Cave
Cave
4. The Jordan
Jordan
Museum, Amman

The 972 manuscripts found at Qumran
Qumran
were found primarily in two separate formats: as scrolls and as fragments of previous scrolls and texts. In the fourth cave the fragments were torn into up to 15,000 pieces. These small fragments created somewhat of a problem for scholars. G.L. Harding, director of the Jordanian Department of Antiquities, began working on piecing the fragments together and after forty years of work he was still not finished.[29] The original seven scrolls from Cave
Cave
1 at Qumran
Qumran
are the Great Isaiah Scroll
Scroll
(1QIsaa), a second copy of Isaiah (1QIsab), the Community Rule Scroll
Scroll
(4QSa-j), the Pesher
Pesher
on Habakkuk (1QpHab), the War Scroll (1QM), the Thanksgiving Hymns (1QH), and the Genesis Apocryphon (1QapGen).[30] Caves 4a and 4b[edit] Cave
Cave
4 was discovered in August 1952, and was excavated from 22–29 September 1952 by Gerald Lankester Harding, Roland de Vaux, and Józef Milik.[23] [31] Cave
Cave
4 is actually two hand-cut caves (4a and 4b), but since the fragments were mixed, they are labeled as 4Q. Cave
Cave
4 is the most famous of Qumran
Qumran
caves both because of its visibility from the Qumran
Qumran
plateau and its productivity. It is visible from the plateau to the south of the Qumran
Qumran
settlement. It is by far the most productive of all Qumran
Qumran
caves, producing ninety percent of the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls and scroll fragments (approx. 15,000 fragments from 500 different texts), including 9–10 copies of Jubilees, along with 21 tefillin and 7 mezuzot.

The Damascus Document
Damascus Document
Scroll, 4Q271Df, found in Cave
Cave
4

Fragment/ Scroll
Scroll
# Fragment/ Scroll
Scroll
Name KJV Bible Association Description

4QGen-Exoda

Genesis and the Exodus = 4Q1

4QGenb

Genesis = 4Q2

4QGenc

Genesis = 4Q3

4QGend

Genesis 1:18–27 = 4Q4

4QGene

Genesis = 4Q5

4QGenf

Genesis 48:1–11 = 4Q6

4QGeng

Genesis 48:1–11 = 4Q7

4QGenh1

Genesis 1:8–10 = 4Q8

4QGenh2

Genesis 2:17–18 = 4Q8a

4QGenh-para

A paraphrase of Genesis 12:4–5 = 4Q8b

4QGenh-title The title of a Genesis manuscript

= 4Q8c

4QGenj

Genesis = 4Q9

4QGenk

Genesis = 4Q10

4QpaleoGen-Exodl

Genesis and the Exodus Written in palaeo- Hebrew
Hebrew
script = 4Q11

4QpaleoGenm

Genesis Written in palaeo- Hebrew
Hebrew
script = 4Q12

4QExodb

Exodus = 4Q13

4QExodc

Exodus = 4Q14

4QExodd

Exodus = 4Q15

4QExode

Exodus 13:3–5 = 4Q16

4QExodf

Exodus and Leviticus = 4Q17

4QExodg

Exodus 14:21–27 = 4Q18

4QExodh

Exodus 6:3–6 = 4Q19

4QExodj

Exodus = 4Q20

4QExodk

Exodus 36:9–10 = 4Q21

4QExodm

Exodus Written in palaeo- Hebrew
Hebrew
script = 4Q22

4QLev-Numa

Leviticus
Leviticus
and Numbers = 4Q23

4QLev-Numb

Leviticus = 4Q24

4QLev-Numc

Leviticus = 4Q25

4QLev-Numd

Leviticus = 4Q26

4QLev-Nume

Leviticus = 4Q26a

4QLev-Numg

Leviticus = 4Q26b

4QNumb

Numbers = 4Q27

4QDeutn "All Souls Deuteronomy" Deuteronomy
Deuteronomy
8:5–10, 5:1–6:1 = 4Q41

4QCanta Pesher
Pesher
on Canticles or Pesher
Pesher
on the Song of Songs Song of Songs Written in Hebrew
Hebrew
= 4Q107

4QCantb Pesher
Pesher
on Canticles or Pesher
Pesher
on the Song of Songs Song of Songs Written in Hebrew
Hebrew
= 4Q107

4QCantc Pesher
Pesher
on Canticles or Pesher
Pesher
on the Song of Songs Song of Songs = 4Q108

4Q112

Daniel

4Q123 "Rewritten Joshua"

4Q127 "Rewritten Exodus"

4Q128-148 Various tefillin

4Q156 Targum
Targum
of Leviticus

4QtgJob Targum
Targum
of Job

= 4Q157

4QRPa Rewritten Pentateuch

= 4Q158

4Q161-164 Pesher
Pesher
on Isaiah

4QpHos The Hosea Commentary Scroll,[32] a Pesher
Pesher
on Hosea

= 4Q166

4Q167 Pesher
Pesher
on Hosea

4Q169 Pesher
Pesher
on Nahum or Nahum Commentary

4Q174 Florilegium or Midrash on the Last Days

4Q175 Messianic Anthology or Testimonia Contains Deuteronomy
Deuteronomy
5:28–29, 18:18–19, 33:8–11; Joshua 6:26 Written in Hasmonean
Hasmonean
script.

4Q179 Lamentations

cf. 4Q501

4Q196-200 Tobit

cf. 4Q501

4Q201a The Enoch Scroll[32]

4Q213-214 Aramaic
Aramaic
Levi

4Q4Q215 Testament of Naphtali

4QCanta Pesher
Pesher
on Canticles or Pesher
Pesher
on the Song of Songs

= 4Q240

4Q246 Aramaic
Aramaic
Apocalypse
Apocalypse
or The Son of God
Son of God
Text

4Q252 Pesher
Pesher
on Genesis

4Q258 Serekh ha-Yahad or Community Rule

cf. 1QSd

4Q265-273 The Damascus Document

cf. 4QDa/g = 4Q266/272, 4QDa/e = 4Q266/270, 5Q12, 6Q15, 4Q265-73

4Q285 Rule of War

cf. 11Q14

4QRPb Rewritten Pentateuch

= 4Q364

4QRPc Rewritten Pentateuch

= 4Q365

4QRPc Rewritten Pentateuch

= 4Q365a (=4QTemple?)

4QRPd Rewritten Pentateuch

= 4Q366

4QRPe Rewritten Pentateuch

= 4Q367

4QInstruction Sapiential Work A

= 4Q415-418

4QParaphrase Paraphrase of Genesis and Exodus

4Q415-418

4Q434 Barkhi Nafshi – Apocryphal Psalms

15 fragments: likely hymns of thanksgiving praising God for his power and expressing thanks

4QMMT Miqsat Ma'ase Ha-Torah or Some Precepts of the Law or the Halakhic Letter

cf. 4Q394-399

4Q400-407 Songs of Sabbath Sacrifice or the Angelic Liturgy

cf. 11Q5-6

4Q448 Hymn to King Jonathan or The Prayer For King Jonathan Scroll Psalms
Psalms
154 In addition to parts of Psalms
Psalms
154 it contains a prayer mentioning King Jonathan.

4Q510-511 Songs of the Sage

4Q521 Messianic Apocalypse

Made up of two fragments

4Q523 MeKleine Fragmente, z.T. gesetzlichen Inhalts

Fragment is legal in content. PAM number, 41.944.[33]

4Q539 Testament of Joseph

4Q541 Testament of Levid

Aramaic
Aramaic
frag. also called "4QApocryphon of Levib ar"

4Q542 Testament of Qahat

4Q554-5 New Jerusalem

cf. 1Q32, 2Q24, 5Q15, 11Q18

Unnumbered

Nine unopened fragments recently rediscovered in storage[34]

Cave
Cave
5[edit] Cave
Cave
5 was discovered alongside Cave
Cave
6 in 1952, shortly after the discovery of Cave
Cave
4. Cave
Cave
5 produced approximately 25 manuscripts.[23]

Fragment/ Scroll
Scroll
# Fragment/ Scroll
Scroll
Name KJV Bible Association Description

5QDeut

Deuteronomy = 5Q1

5QKgs

1 Kings
1 Kings
= 5Q2Joshua = 5Q9

5Q10 Apocryphon of Malachi

5Q11 Rule of the Community

5Q12 Damascus Document

5Q13 Rule

5Q14 Curses

5Q15 New Jerusalem

5Q16-25 Unclassified

5QX1 Leather fragment

Cave
Cave
6[edit] Cave
Cave
6 was discovered alongside Cave
Cave
5 in 1952, shortly after the discovery of Cave
Cave
4. Cave
Cave
6 contained fragments of about 31 manuscripts.[23] List of groups of fragments collected from Wadi Qumran
Qumran
Cave
Cave
6:[35][36]

Fragment/ Scroll
Scroll
# Fragment/ Scroll
Scroll
Name KJV Bible Association Description

6QpaleoGen

Genesis 6:13–21 Written in palaeo- Hebrew
Hebrew
script = 6Q1

6QpaleoLev

Leviticus
Leviticus
8:12–13 Written in palaeo- Hebrew
Hebrew
script = 6Q2

6Q3

A few letters of Deuteronomy
Deuteronomy
26:19

6QKings

1 Kings
1 Kings
3:12–14; 2 Kings 7:8–10; 1 Kings
1 Kings
12:28–31; 2 Kings 7:20–8:5; 1 Kings
1 Kings
22:28–31; 2 Kings 9:1–2; 2 Kings 5:26; 2 Kings 10:19–21; 2 Kings 6:32 Made up of 94 Fragments. = 6Q4

6Q5

Possibly Psalms
Psalms
78:36–37

6QCant

Song of Songs
Song of Songs
1:1–7 Written in Hebrew
Hebrew
= 6Q6

6QDaniel

Daniel 11:38; 10:8–16; 11:33–36 13 Fragments. =6Q7

6QGiants ar Book of Giants from Enoch

= 6Q8

6QApocryphon on Samuel-Kings Apocryphon on Samuel-Kings

Written on papyrus. = 6Q9

6QProphecy Unidentified prophetic fragment

Written in Hebrew
Hebrew
papyrus. = 6Q10

6QAllegory of the Vine Allegory of the Vine

= 6Q11

6QapocProph An apocryphal prophecy

= 6Q12

6QPriestProph Priestly Prophecy

= 6Q13

6QD Damascus Document

= 6Q15

6QBenediction Benediction

= 6Q16

6QCalendrical Document Calendrical Document

= 6Q17

6QHymn Hymn

= 6Q18

6Q19

Possibly from Genesis

6Q20

Possibly from Deuteronomy

6Q21 Possibly prophetic text

Fragment containing 5 words.

6Q22 Unclassified fragments

6Q23 Unclassified fragments

6Q24-25 Unclassified fragments

6Q26 Accounts or contracts

6Q27-28 Unclassified fragments

6QpapProv

Parts of Proverbs 11:4b-7a; 10b Single six-line fragment. = 6Q30

6Q31 Unclassified fragments

Cave
Cave
7[edit] Cave
Cave
7 yielded fewer than 20 fragments of Greek documents, including 7Q2 (the "Letter of Jeremiah" = Baruch 6), 7Q5
7Q5
(which became the subject of much speculation in later decades), and a Greek copy of a scroll of Enoch.[37][38][39] Cave
Cave
7 also produced several inscribed potsherds and jars.[40]

Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scroll
Scroll
fragments 7Q4, 7Q5, and 7Q8 from Cave
Cave
7 in Qumran, written on papyrus.

A view of part of the Temple Scroll
Scroll
that was found in Qumran
Qumran
Cave
Cave
11.

Lists of groups of fragments collected from Wadi Qumran
Qumran
Cave 7:[35][36]

Fragment/ Scroll
Scroll
# Fragment/ Scroll
Scroll
Name KJV Bible Association Description

7QLXXExod gr

Exodus 28:4–7 = 7Q1

7QLXXEpJer

Jeremiah 43–44 = 7Q2

7Q3-4 Unknown biblical text

7Q5 Unknown biblical text

7Q6-18 Unidentified fragments

Very tiny fragments written on papyrus.

7Q19 Unidentified papyrus imprint

Very tiny fragments written on papyrus.

Cave
Cave
8[edit] Cave
Cave
8, along with caves 7 and 9, was one of the only caves that are accessible by passing through the settlement at Qumran. Carved into the southern end of the Qumran
Qumran
plateau, cave 8 was excavated by archaeologists in 1957. Cave
Cave
8 produced five fragments: Genesis (8QGen), Psalms
Psalms
(8QPs), a tefillin fragment (8QPhyl), a mezuzah (8QMez), and a hymn (8QHymn).[41] Cave
Cave
8 also produced several tefillin cases, a box of leather objects, tons of lamps, jars, and the sole of a leather shoe.[40] List of groups of fragments collected from Wadi Qumran
Qumran
Cave
Cave
8:[35][36]

Fragment/ Scroll
Scroll
# Fragment/ Scroll
Scroll
Name KJV Bible Association Description

8QGen

Genesis 17:12–19; 18:20–25 = 8Q1

8QPs

Psalms
Psalms
17:5–9; 17:14; 18:6–9; 18:10–13 = 8Q2

8QPhyl Fragments from a "Phylactery" Exodus 12:43–51 13:1–16; 20:11; Deuteronomy
Deuteronomy
5:1–14; 6:1–9; 11:13; 10:12–22; 11:1–12 = 8Q3

8QMez

Deuteronomy
Deuteronomy
10:12–11:21 from a Mezuzah = 8Q4

8QHymn Unidentified hymn

= 8Q5

Cave
Cave
9[edit] Cave
Cave
9, along with caves 7 and 8, was one of the only caves that are accessible by passing through the settlement at Qumran. Carved into the southern end of the Qumran
Qumran
plateau, Cave
Cave
9 was excavated by archaeologists in 1957. There was only one fragment found in Cave
Cave
9:

Fragment/ Scroll
Scroll
# Fragment/ Scroll
Scroll
Name KJV Bible Association Description

9Qpap Unidentified fragment

=9Q1 Written on papyrus.

Cave
Cave
10[edit] In Cave
Cave
10 archaeologists found two ostraca with some writing on them, along with an unknown symbol on a grey stone slab:

Fragment/ Scroll
Scroll
# Fragment/ Scroll
Scroll
Name KJV Bible Association Description

10QOstracon Ostracon

=10Q1 Two letters written on a piece of pottery.[16]

Cave
Cave
11[edit] Cave
Cave
11 was discovered in 1956 and yielded 21 texts, some of which were quite lengthy. The Temple Scroll, so called because more than half of it pertains to the construction of the Temple of Jerusalem, was found in Cave
Cave
11, and is by far the longest scroll. It is now 26.7 feet (8.15 m) long. Its original length may have been over 28 feet (8.75 m). The Temple Scroll
Scroll
was regarded by Yigael Yadin
Yigael Yadin
as "The Torah According to the Essenes". On the other hand, Hartmut Stegemann, a contemporary and friend of Yadin, believed the scroll was not to be regarded as such, but was a document without exceptional significance. Stegemann notes that it is not mentioned or cited in any known Essene writing.[42] Also in Cave
Cave
11, an eschatological fragment about the biblical figure Melchizedek
Melchizedek
(11Q13) was found. Cave
Cave
11 also produced a copy of Jubilees. According to former chief editor of the DSS editorial team John Strugnell, there are at least four privately owned scrolls from Cave 11, that have not yet been made available for scholars. Among them is a complete Aramaic
Aramaic
manuscript of the Book of Enoch.[43] List of groups of fragments collected from Wadi Qumran
Qumran
Cave
Cave
11:

Fragment/ Scroll
Scroll
# Fragment/ Scroll
Scroll
Name KJV Bible Association Description

11QpaleoLeva

Leviticus
Leviticus
4:24–26; 10:4–7; 11:27–32; 13:3–9; 13:39–43; 14:16–21; 14:52-!5:5; 16:2–4; 16:34–17:5; 18:27–19:4; 20:1–6; 21:6–11; 22:21–27; 23:22–29; 24:9–14; 25:28–36; 26:17–26; 27:11–19 Written in palaeo- Hebrew
Hebrew
script. = 11Q1

11QpaleoLevb

Leviticus Written in palaeo- Hebrew
Hebrew
script. = 11Q2

11QDeut

Deuteronomy = 11Q3

11QEz

Ezekiel = 11Q4

11QPsa

Psalms = 11Q5

11QPsb

Psalms
Psalms
77:18–21; 78:1; 109:3–4; 118:1; 118:15–16; 119:163–165; 133:1–3; 141:10; 144:1–2 = 11Q6

11QPsc

Psalms
Psalms
2:1–8; 9:3–7; 12:5–9; 13:1–6; 14:1–6; 17:9–15; 18:1–12; 19:4–8; 25:2–7 = 11Q7

11QPsd

Psalms
Psalms
6:2–4; 9:3–6; 18:26–29; 18:39–42; 36:13; 37:1–4; 39:13–14; 40:1; 43:1–3; 45:6–8; 59:5–8; 68:1–5; 68:14–18; 78:5–12; 81:4–9; 86:11–14; 115:16–18; 116:1 = 11Q8

11QPse

Psalms
Psalms
50:3–7 = 11Q9

11QtgJob

Targum
Targum
of Job = 11Q10

11QapocrPs

Apocryphal paraphrase of Psalms
Psalms
91 = 11Q11

11QJub Ethiopic text of Jubilees
Jubilees
4:6–11; 4:13–14; 4:16–17; 4:29–31; 5:1–2; 12:15–17; 12:28–29

= 11Q12

11QMelch "Heavenly Prince Melchizedek"

= 11Q13

11QSM "The Book of War"

= 11Q14

11QHymnsa

= 11Q15

11QHymnsb

= 11Q16

11QShirShabb Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice

= 11Q17

11QNJ ar "New Jerusalem"

Written in Aramaic
Aramaic
= 11Q18

11QTa "Temple Scroll"

= 11Q19

11QTb "Temple Scroll"

= 11Q20

11QTc "Temple Scroll"

= 11Q21

11Q22-28 Unidentified fragments

11Q29

Serekh ha-Yahad related

11Q30 Unidentified fragments

11Q31 Unidentified wads

Cave
Cave
12[edit] Cave
Cave
12 was discovered in February 2017 on cliffs west of Qumran, near the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea.[27] Archaeological examination found pickaxes and empty broken scroll jars, indicating that the cave had been discovered and looted in the 1950s. One of the joint Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and Liberty University of Virginia project’s lead researchers, Dr. Oren Gutfeld, stated, "Although at the end of the day no scroll was found, and instead we 'only' found a piece of parchment rolled up in a jug that was being processed for writing, the findings indicate beyond any doubt that the cave contained scrolls that were stolen."[28] Fragments with unknown provenance[edit] Some fragments of scrolls have neither significant archaeological provenance nor records that reveal in which designated Qumran
Qumran
cave area they were found. They are believed to have come from Wadi Qumran caves, but are just as likely to have come from other archaeological sites in the Judaean Desert
Judaean Desert
area.[44] These fragments have therefore been designated to the temporary "X" series.

Fragment/ Scroll
Scroll
# Fragment/ Scroll
Scroll
Name KJV Bible Association Description

XQ1-3 " Tefillin
Tefillin
from Qumran" Deuteronomy
Deuteronomy
5:1 – 6:3; 10:12 – 11:12.[44] First published in 1969; Phylacteries

XQ4 " Tefillin
Tefillin
from Qumran"

Phylacteries

XQ5a Jubilees
Jubilees
7:4–5

XQ5b Hymn

XQ6 Offering

Small fragment with only one word in Aramaic.

XQ7 Unidentified fragment

Strong possibility that it is part of 4QInstruction.

XQpapEn Book of Enoch
Book of Enoch
9:1

One small fragment written in Hebrew. = XQ8

Origin[edit] There has been much debate about the origin of the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls. The dominant theory remains that the scrolls were the product of a sect of Jews living at nearby Qumran
Qumran
called the Essenes, but this theory has come to be challenged by several modern scholars. Qumran–Essene theory[edit] Main article: Qumran
Qumran
§ Qumran-Essene hypothesis The view among scholars, almost universally held until the 1990s, is the "Qumran–Essene" hypothesis originally posited by Roland Guérin de Vaux[45] and Józef Tadeusz Milik,[46] though independently both Eliezer Sukenik
Eliezer Sukenik
and Butrus Sowmy of St Mark's Monastery connected scrolls with the Essenes
Essenes
well before any excavations at Qumran.[47] The Qumran–Essene theory holds that the scrolls were written by the Essenes, or by another Jewish
Jewish
sectarian group, residing at Khirbet Qumran. They composed the scrolls and ultimately hid them in the nearby caves during the Jewish
Jewish
Revolt sometime between 66 and 68 CE. The site of Qumran
Qumran
was destroyed and the scrolls never recovered. A number of arguments are used to support this theory.

There are striking similarities between the description of an initiation ceremony of new members in the Community Rule and descriptions of the Essene initiation ceremony mentioned in the works of Flavius Josephus
Josephus
– a Jewish–Roman historian of the Second Temple Period. Josephus
Josephus
mentions the Essenes
Essenes
as sharing property among the members of the community, as does the Community Rule. During the excavation of Khirbet Qumran, two inkwells and plastered elements thought to be tables were found, offering evidence that some form of writing was done there. More inkwells were discovered nearby. De Vaux called this area the "scriptorium" based upon this discovery. Several Jewish
Jewish
ritual baths (Hebrew: miqvah = מקוה) were discovered at Qumran, offering evidence of an observant Jewish presence at the site. Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
(a geographer writing after the fall of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in 70 CE) describes a group of Essenes
Essenes
living in a desert community on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
near the ruined town of 'Ein Gedi.

Qumran–Sectarian theory[edit] Qumran–Sectarian theories are variations on the Qumran–Essene theory. The main point of departure from the Qumran–Essene theory is hesitation to link the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls specifically with the Essenes. Most proponents of the Qumran–Sectarian theory understand a group of Jews living in or near Qumran
Qumran
to be responsible for the Dead Sea Scrolls, but do not necessarily conclude that the sectarians are Essenes. Qumran–Sadducean theory[edit] A specific variation on the Qumran–Sectarian theory that has gained much recent popularity is the work of Lawrence H. Schiffman, who proposes that the community was led by a group of Zadokite priests (Sadducees).[48] The most important document in support of this view is the "Miqsat Ma'ase Ha-Torah" (4QMMT), which cites purity laws (such as the transfer of impurities) identical to those attributed in rabbinic writings to the Sadducees. 4QMMT
4QMMT
also reproduces a festival calendar that follows Sadducee
Sadducee
principles for the dating of certain festival days. Christian origin theory[edit] Spanish Jesuit José O'Callaghan Martínez argued in the 1960s that one fragment (7Q5) preserves a portion of text from the New Testament Gospel of Mark
Gospel of Mark
6:52–53.[49] This theory was falsified in the year 2000 by paleographic analysis of the particular fragment.[50] Robert Eisenman
Robert Eisenman
has advanced the theory that some scrolls describe the early Christian community. Eisenman also argued that the careers of James the Just and Paul the Apostle
Paul the Apostle
correspond to events recorded in some of these documents.[51] Jerusalem
Jerusalem
origin theory[edit] Some scholars have argued that the scrolls were the product of Jews living in Jerusalem, who hid the scrolls in the caves near Qumran while fleeing from the Romans during the destruction of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in 70 CE.[52] Karl Heinrich Rengstorf first proposed that the Dead Sea Scrolls originated at the library of the Jewish
Jewish
Temple in Jerusalem.[53] Later, Norman Golb suggested that the scrolls were the product of multiple libraries in Jerusalem, and not necessarily the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Temple library.[54] [55] Proponents of the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Origin theory point to the diversity of thought and handwriting among the scrolls as evidence against a Qumran
Qumran
origin of the scrolls. Several archaeologists have also accepted an origin of the scrolls other than Qumran, including Yizhar Hirschfeld[56] and most recently Yizhak Magen and Yuval Peleg,[57] who all understand the remains of Qumran
Qumran
to be those of a Hasmonean
Hasmonean
fort that was reused during later periods. Physical characteristics[edit] Age[edit] Radiocarbon dating[edit] Main article: Carbon dating the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls Parchment
Parchment
from a number of the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls has been carbon dated. The initial test performed in 1950 was on a piece of linen from one of the caves. This test gave an indicative dating of 33 CE plus or minus 200 years, eliminating early hypotheses relating the scrolls to the medieval period.[58] Since then two large series of tests have been performed on the scrolls themselves. The results were summarized by VanderKam and Flint, who said the tests give "strong reason for thinking that most of the Qumran
Qumran
manuscripts belong to the last two centuries BCE
BCE
and the first century CE."[18]:32 Paleographic dating[edit] Analysis of letter forms, or palaeography, was applied to the texts of the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls by a variety of scholars in the field. Major linguistic analysis by Cross and Avigad dates fragments from 225  BCE
BCE
to 50 CE.[59] These dates were determined by examining the size, variability, and style of the text.[60] The same fragments were later analyzed using radiocarbon dating and were dated to an estimated range of 385  BCE
BCE
to 82 CE with a 68% accuracy rate.[59] Ink and parchment[edit] The scrolls were analyzed using a cyclotron at the University of California, Davis, where it was found that all black ink was carbon black.[61] The red ink on the scrolls was found to be made with cinnabar (HgS, mercury sulfide).[62] There are only four uses of this red ink in the entire collection of Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scroll
Scroll
fragments.[62] The black inks found on the scrolls that are made up of carbon soot were found to be from olive oil lamps.[63] Honey, oil, vinegar, and water were often added to the mixture to thin the ink to a proper consistency for writing.[63] In order to apply the ink to the scrolls, its writers used reed pens.[64]

Shown here is a closeup of the ink and text of two of the fragments of the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls. The two fragments, fragments 1 and 2 of 7Q6, are written on papyrus.

The Dead Sea
Dead Sea
scrolls were written on parchment made of processed animal hide known as vellum (approximately 85.5 – 90.5% of the scrolls), papyrus (estimated at 8.0 – 13.0% of the scrolls), and sheets of bronze composed of about 99.0% copper and 1.0% tin (approximately 1.5% of the scrolls).[64][65] For those scrolls written on animal hides, scholars with the Israeli Antiquities Authority, by use of DNA
DNA
testing for assembly purposes, believe that there may be a hierarchy in the religious importance of the texts based on which type of animal was used to create the hide. Scrolls written on goat and calf hides are considered by scholars to be more significant in nature, while those written on gazelle or ibex are considered to be less religiously significant in nature.[66] In addition, tests by the National Institute of Nuclear Physics in Sicily, Italy, have suggested that the origin of parchment of select Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scroll
Scroll
fragments is from the Qumran
Qumran
area itself, by using X-ray
X-ray
and Particle Induced X-ray
X-ray
emission testing of the water used to make the parchment that were compared with the water from the area around the Qumran
Qumran
site.[67] Deterioration, storage, and preservation[edit]

Two examples of the pottery that held some of the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls documents found at Qumran.

Two Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls Jars at the Jordan
Jordan
Museum, Amman

The Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls that were found were originally preserved by the dry, arid, and low humidity conditions present within the Qumran
Qumran
area adjoining the Dead Sea.[68] In addition, the lack of the use of tanning materials on the parchment of the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls and the very low airflow in the Qumran
Qumran
caves also contributed significantly to their preservation.[69] Some of the scrolls were found stored in clay jars within the Qumran
Qumran
caves, further helping to preserve them from deterioration. The original handling of the scrolls by archaeologists and scholars was done inappropriately, and, along with their storage in an uncontrolled environment, they began a process of more rapid deterioration than they had experienced at Qumran.[70] During the first few years in the late 1940s and early 1950s, adhesive tape used to join fragments and seal cracks caused significant damage to the documents.[70] The Government of Jordan
Jordan
had recognized the urgency of protecting the scrolls from deterioration and the presence of the deterioration among the scrolls.[71] However, the government did not have adequate funds to purchase all the scrolls for their protection and agreed to have foreign institutions purchase the scrolls and have them held at their museum in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
until they could be "adequately studied".[71] In early 1953, they were moved to the Palestine Archaeological Museum (commonly called the Rockefeller Museum)[72] in East Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and through their transportation suffered more deterioration and damage.[18]:63–65 The museum was underfunded and had limited resources with which to examine the scrolls, and, as a result, conditions of the "scrollery" and storage area were left relatively uncontrolled by modern standards.[18] The museum had left most of the fragments and scrolls lying between window glass, trapping the moisture in with them, causing an acceleration in the deterioration process. During a portion of the conflict during the 1956 war waged by Israel, Britain and France
France
against Egypt, the scrolls collection of the Palestine Archaeological Museum was stored in the vault of the Ottoman Bank
Ottoman Bank
in Amman, Jordan.[73] Damp conditions from temporary storage of the scrolls in the Ottoman Bank vault
Bank vault
from 1956 to the Spring of 1957 led to a more rapid rate of deterioration of the scrolls. The conditions caused mildew to develop on the scrolls and fragments, and some of the fragments were partially destroyed or made illegible by the glue and paper of the manila envelopes in which they were stored while in the vault.[73] By 1958 it was noted that up to 5% of some of the scrolls had completely deteriorated.[71] Many of the texts had become illegible and many of the parchments had darkened considerably.[70][18] Until the 1970s, the scrolls continued to deteriorate because of poor storage arrangements, exposure to different adhesives, and being trapped in moist environments.[70] Fragments written on parchment (rather than papyrus or bronze) in the hands of private collectors and scholars suffered an even worse fate than those in the hands of the museum, with large portions of fragments being reported to have disappeared by 1966.[74] In the late 1960s, the deterioration was becoming a major concern with scholars and museum officials alike. Scholars John Allegro and Sir Francis Frank were some of the first to strongly advocate for better preservation techniques.[18] Early attempts made by both the British and Israel
Israel
Museums to remove the adhesive tape ended up exposing the parchment to an array of chemicals, including "British Leather Dressing," and darkening some of them significantly.[18] In the 1970s and 1980s, other preservation attempts were made that included removing the glass plates and replacing them with cardboard and removing pressure against the plates that held the scrolls in storage; however, the fragments and scrolls continued to rapidly deteriorate during this time.[70] In 1991, the Israeli Antiquities Authority established a temperature-controlled laboratory for the storage and preservation of the scrolls. The actions and preservation methods of Rockefeller Museum staff were concentrated on the removal of tape, oils, metals, salt, and other contaminants.[70] The fragments and scrolls are preserved using acid-free cardboard and stored in solander boxes in the climate-controlled storage area.[70] Nine tiny phylactery slips were rediscovered by the Israel
Israel
Antiquities Authority (IAA) in 2014, after they had been stored unopened for six decades following their excavation in 1952. The IAA is preparing to unroll the phylacteries or tefillin once a safe procedure has been decided upon.[75][76] Photography and assembly[edit] Since the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls were initially held by different parties during and after the excavation process, they were not all photographed by the same organization. First photographs by the American Schools of Oriental Research (1948)[edit] The first individual person to photograph a portion of the collection was John C. Trever (1916–2006), a Biblical scholar and archaeologist, who was a resident for the American Schools of Oriental Research.[18]:68 He photographed three of the scrolls discovered in Cave
Cave
1 on 21 February 1948, both on black-and-white and standard color film.[18]:26[77][78] Although an amateur photographer, the quality of his photographs often exceeded the visibility of the scrolls themselves as, over the years, the ink of the texts quickly deteriorated after they were removed from their linen wrappings. Infrared photography
Infrared photography
and plate assembly by the Palestine Archaeological Museum (1952–1967)[edit] A majority of the collection from the Qumran
Qumran
caves was acquired by the Palestine Archaeological Museum. The Museum had the scrolls photographed by Najib Albina, a local Arab photographer trained by Lewis Larsson
Lewis Larsson
of the American Colony in Jerusalem,[79] Between 1952 and 1967, Albina documented the five-stage process of the sorting and assembly of the scrolls, done by the curator and staff of the Palestine Archaeological Museum, using infrared photography. Using a process known today as broadband fluorescence infrared photography, or NIR photography, Najib and the team at the Museum produced over 1,750 photographic plates of the scrolls and fragments.[80][81][82][18]:68 The photographs were taken with the scrolls laid out on animal skin, using large format film, which caused the text to stand out, making the plates especially useful for assembling fragments.[18]:68 These are the earliest photographs of the museum's collection, which was the most complete in the world at the time, and they recorded the fragments and scrolls before their further decay in storage, so they are often considered the best recorded copies of the scrolls.[83] Israel Antiquities Authority
Israel Antiquities Authority
and NASA
NASA
digital infrared imaging (1993–2012)[edit]

A previously unreadable fragment of the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls photographed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory at NASA
NASA
in the early 1990s using digital infrared technology. The fragment, translated into English, reads "he wrote the words of Noah."

Beginning in 1993, the United States
United States
National Aeronautics and Space Administration used digital infrared imaging technology to produce photographs of Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls fragments.[84] In partnership with the Ancient Biblical Manuscript Center and West Semitic Research, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory successfully worked to expand on the use of infrared photography previously used to evaluate ancient manuscripts by expanding the range of spectra at which images are photographed.[85] NASA
NASA
used this multi-spectral imaging technique, adapted from its remote sensing and planetary probes, in order to reveal previously illegible text on fragments of the Dead Sea Scrolls.[85] The process uses a liquid crystal tunable filter in order to photograph the scrolls at specific wavelengths of light and, as a result, image distortion is significantly diminished.[84] This method was used with select fragments of the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls to reveal text and details that cameras that take photographs using a larger light spectrum could not reveal.[84] The camera and digital imaging assembly was developed specifically for the purpose of photographing illegible ancient texts.[86] On December–18-2012[87] the first output of this project was launched together with Google
Google
on the dedicated site Deadseascrolls.org.il.[88] The site contains both digitizations of old images taken in the 1950s and about 1000 new images taken with the new NASA
NASA
technology.[89] Israel Antiquities Authority
Israel Antiquities Authority
and DNA
DNA
scroll assembly (2006–2012)[edit] Scientists with the Israeli Antiquities Authority have used DNA
DNA
from the parchment on which the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls fragments were written, in concert with infrared digital photography, to assist in the reassembly of the scrolls. For scrolls written on parchment made from animal hide and papyrus, scientists with the museum are using DNA
DNA
code to associate fragments with different scrolls and to help scholars determine which scrolls may hold greater significance based on the type of material that was used.[66] Israel Museum
Israel Museum
of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and Google
Google
digitization project (2011–2016)[edit] In partnership with Google, the Museum of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
is working to photograph the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls and make them available to the public digitally, although not placing the images in the public domain.[90] The lead photographer of the project, Ardon Bar-Hama, and his team are utilizing the Alpa
Alpa
12 MAX camera accompanied with a Leaf Aptus-II back in order to produce ultra-high resolution digital images of the scrolls and fragments.[91] With photos taken at 1,200 megapixels, the results are digital images that can be used to distinguish details that are invisible to the naked eye. In order to minimize damage to the scrolls and fragments, photographers are using a 1/4000th of a second exposure time and UV-protected flash tubes.[90] The digital photography project was estimated in 2011 to cost approximately 3.5 million U.S. dollars.[91] Scholarly examination[edit]

Scholar Eleazar Sukenik
Eleazar Sukenik
examining one of the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls in 1951.

Early study by scholars[edit] After most of the scrolls and fragments were moved to the Palestine Archaeological Museum in 1953, scholars began to assemble them and log them for translation and study in a room that became known as the "Scrollery".[92] Language and script[edit] The text of the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls is written in four different languages: Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek, and Nabataean.

Language Script Percentage of Documents Centuries of Known Use

Hebrew Assyrian block script[93] Estimated 76.0–79.0% 3rd century BCE
BCE
to present

Hebrew Cryptic scripts "A" "B" and "C"[94][95][96] Estimated 0.9%–1.0%[97] Unknown

Biblical Hebrew Paleo- Hebrew
Hebrew
script[98] Estimated 1.0–1.5%[96] 10th century BCE
BCE
to the 2nd century CE

Biblical Hebrew Paleo- Hebrew
Hebrew
scribal script[98]

Aramaic Aramaic
Aramaic
square script Estimated 16.0–17.0%[99] 8th century BCE
BCE
to present

Greek Greek uncial script[98] Estimated 3.0%[96] 3rd century CE to 8th centuries CE

Nabataean Nabataean script[100] Estimated 0.2%[100] 2nd century BCE
BCE
to the 4th century CE

Publication[edit]

Scholars assembling and examining the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls fragments in what became known as the "Scrollery" room of the Palestine Archaeological Museum.

Physical publication and controversy[edit] Some of the fragments and scrolls were published early. Most of the longer, more complete scrolls were published soon after their discovery. All the writings in Cave
Cave
1 appeared in print between 1950 and 1956; those from eight other caves were released in 1963; and 1965 saw the publication of the Psalms
Psalms
Scroll
Scroll
from Cave
Cave
11. Their translations into English soon followed. Controversy[edit] Publication of the scrolls has taken many decades, and delays have been a source of academic controversy. The scrolls were controlled by a small group of scholars headed by John Strugnell, while a majority of scholars had access neither to the scrolls nor even to photographs of the text. Scholars such as Hershel Shanks, Norman Golb, and many others argued for decades for publishing the texts, so that they become available to researchers. This controversy only ended in 1991, when the Biblical Archaeology
Archaeology
Society was able to publish the "Facsimile Edition of the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls", after an intervention of the Israeli government and the Israeli Antiquities Authority (IAA).[101] In 1991 Emanuel Tov
Emanuel Tov
was appointed as the chairman of the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls Foundation, and publication of the scrolls followed in the same year. Physical description[edit] The majority of the scrolls consist of tiny, brittle fragments, which were published at a pace considered by many to be excessively slow. During early assembly and translation work by scholars through the Rockefeller Museum
Rockefeller Museum
from the 1950s through the 1960s, access to the unpublished documents was limited to the editorial committee. Discoveries in the Judaean Desert
Judaean Desert
(1955–2009)[edit]

Emanuel Tov
Emanuel Tov
(1941–) who was Editor-in-Chief of the Dead Seas Scrolls Publication Project and, as a result, responsible for the publication of 32 volumes of the Discoveries in the Judaean Desert
Judaean Desert
series. He also worked to publish a six-volume printed edition with a majority of the non-Biblical Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls and make the same volumes available electronically on CD in a collection titled "The Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls Reader".

The content of the scrolls was published in a 40 volume series by Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
published between 1955 and 2009 known as Discoveries in the Judaean Desert.[102] In 1952 the Jordanian Department of Antiquities assembled a team of scholars to begin examining, assembling, and translating the scrolls with the intent of publishing them.[103] The initial publication, assembled by Dominique Barthélemy and Józef Milik, was published as Qumran
Qumran
Cave
Cave
1 in 1955.[102] After a series of other publications in the late 1980s and early 1990s and with the appointment of the respected Dutch-Israeli textual scholar Emanuel Tov
Emanuel Tov
as Editor-in-Chief of the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls Publication Project in 1990 publication of the scrolls accelerated. Tov's team had published five volumes covering the Cave
Cave
4 documents by 1995. Between 1990 and 2009, Tov helped the team produce 32 volumes. The final volume, Volume XL, was published in 2009. A Preliminary Edition of the Unpublished Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls (1991)[edit] In 1991, researchers at Hebrew
Hebrew
Union College in Cincinnati, Ohio, Ben Zion Wacholder and Martin Abegg, announced the creation of a computer program that used previously published scrolls to reconstruct the unpublished texts.[104] Officials at the Huntington Library
Huntington Library
in San Marino, California, led by Head Librarian William Andrew Moffett, announced that they would allow researchers unrestricted access to the library's complete set of photographs of the scrolls. In the fall of that year, Wacholder published 17 documents that had been reconstructed in 1988 from a concordance and had come into the hands of scholars outside of the International Team; in the same month, there occurred the discovery and publication of a complete set of facsimiles of the Cave
Cave
4 materials at the Huntington Library. Thereafter, the officials of the Israel Antiquities Authority
Israel Antiquities Authority
agreed to lift their long-standing restrictions on the use of the scrolls.[105] A Facsimile Edition of the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls (1991)[edit] After further delays, attorney William John Cox
William John Cox
undertook representation of an "undisclosed client", who had provided a complete set of the unpublished photographs, and contracted for their publication. Professors Robert Eisenman
Robert Eisenman
and James Robinson indexed the photographs and wrote an introduction to A Facsimile Edition of the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls, which was published by the Biblical Archaeology Society in 1991.[106] Following the publication of the Facsimile Edition, Professor Elisha Qimron
Elisha Qimron
sued Hershel Shanks, Eisenman, Robinson and the Biblical Archaeology
Archaeology
Society for copyright infringement for publishing, without authorization or attribution, his decipherment of one of the scrolls, MMT. The District Court of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
found in favor of Qimron in September 1993.[107] The Court issued a restraining order, which prohibited the publication of the deciphered text, and ordered defendants to pay Qimron NIS 100,000 for infringing his copyright and the right of attribution. Defendants appealed the Supreme Court of Israel, which approved the District Court's decision, in August 2000. The Supreme Court further ordered that the defendants hand over to Qimron all the infringing copies.[108] The decision met Israeli and international criticism from copyright law scholars.[109][110][111][112][113] The Facsimile Edition by Facsimile Editions Ltd, London, England (2007–2008)[edit] In November 2007 the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls Foundation commissioned the London
London
publisher, Facsimile Editions Limited, to produce a facsimile edition of The Great Isaiah Scroll
Scroll
(1QIsa), The Order of the Community (1QS), and The Pesher
Pesher
to Habakkuk (1QpHab).[114][115] The facsimile was produced from 1948 photographs, and so more faithfully represents the condition of the Isaiah scroll
Isaiah scroll
at the time of its discovery than does the current condition of the real Isaiah scroll.[114] Of the first three facsimile sets, one was exhibited at the Early Christianity and the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls exhibition in Seoul, South Korea, and a second set was purchased by the British Library in London. A further 46 sets including facsimiles of three fragments from Cave
Cave
4 (now in the collection of the National Archaeological Museum in Amman, Jordan) Testimonia (4Q175), Pesher
Pesher
Isaiahb (4Q162) and Qohelet (4Q109) were announced in May 2009. The edition is strictly limited to 49 numbered sets of these reproductions on either specially prepared parchment paper or real parchment. The complete facsimile set (three scrolls including the Isaiah scroll
Isaiah scroll
and the three Jordanian fragments) can be purchased for $60,000.[114] The facsimiles have since been exhibited in Qumrân. Le secret des manuscrits de la mer Morte at the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, France
France
(2010)[116] and Verbum Domini at the Vatican, Rome, Italy (2012).[117] Digital publication[edit] Olive Tree Bible Software (2000–2011)[edit] The text of nearly all of the non-biblical scrolls has been recorded and tagged for morphology by Dr. Martin Abegg, Jr., the Ben Zion Wacholder Professor of Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scroll
Scroll
Studies at Trinity Western University located in Langley, British Columbia, Canada.[118] It is available on handheld devices through Olive Tree Bible Software - BibleReader, on Macs and Windows via emulator through Accordance with a comprehensive set of cross references, and on Windows through Logos Bible Software and BibleWorks. The Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls Reader (2005)[edit] The text of almost all of the non-Biblical texts from the Dead Sea Scrolls was released on CD-ROM by publisher E.J. Brill in 2005.[119] The 2400 page, 6 volume series, was assembled by an editorial team led by Donald W. Parry and Emanuel Tov.[120] Unlike the text translations in the physical publication, Discoveries in the Judaean Desert, the texts are sorted by genres that include religious law, parabiblical texts, calendrical and sapiental texts, and poetic and liturgical works.[119] Israel Antiquities Authority
Israel Antiquities Authority
and Google
Google
digitization project (2010–2016)[edit] High-resolution images, including infrared photographs, of some of the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
scrolls are now available online on two dedicated websites. On 19 October 2010, it was announced[121] that Israeli Antiquities Authority (IAA) would scan the documents using multi-spectral imaging technology developed by NASA
NASA
to produce high-resolution images of the texts, and then, through a partnership with Google, make them available online free of charge,[122] on a searchable database and complemented by translation and other scholarly tools. The project is scheduled for completion within five years. On 25 September 2011 the Israel Museum
Israel Museum
Digital Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls site went online.[123][124] It gives users access to searchable, high-resolution images of the scrolls, as well as short explanatory videos and background information on the texts and their history. As of May 2012, five complete scrolls from the Israel Museum
Israel Museum
have been digitized for the project and are now accessible online: the Great Isaiah Scroll, the Community Rule Scroll, the Commentary on Habakkuk Scroll, the Temple Scroll, and the War Scroll. Biblical significance[edit] See also: Biblical canon
Biblical canon
and Biblical manuscript Before the discovery of the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls, the oldest Hebrew-language manuscripts of the Bible were Masoretic texts dating to the 10th century CE, such as the Aleppo Codex.[125] Today, the oldest known extant manuscripts of the Masoretic Text date from approximately the 9th century. The biblical manuscripts found among the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls push that date back a full thousand years, to the 2nd century BCE.[126] These Hebrew-language manuscripts containing fragments of the Jewish
Jewish
Bible should not be confused with Greek-language Christian Bible codices, which include the New Testament books and of which the earliest extant manuscripts are the Codex Vaticanus Graecus 1209
Codex Vaticanus Graecus 1209
and Codex Sinaiticus, both dating from the 4th century CE. According to The Oxford Companion to Archaeology:

The biblical manuscripts from Qumran, which include at least fragments from every book of the Old Testament, except perhaps for the Book of Esther, provide a far older cross section of scriptural tradition than that available to scholars before. While some of the Qumran
Qumran
biblical manuscripts are nearly identical to the Masoretic, or traditional, Hebrew
Hebrew
text of the Old Testament, some manuscripts of the books of Exodus and Samuel found in Cave
Cave
Four exhibit dramatic differences in both language and content. In their astonishing range of textual variants, the Qumran
Qumran
biblical discoveries have prompted scholars to reconsider the once-accepted theories of the development of the modern biblical text from only three manuscript families: of the Masoretic text, of the Hebrew
Hebrew
original of the Septuagint, and of the Samaritan Pentateuch. It is now becoming increasingly clear that the Old Testament scripture was extremely fluid until its canonization around A.D. 100.[127]

Biblical books found[edit] There are 225 Biblical texts included in the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scroll documents, or around 22% of the total, and with deuterocanonical books the number increases to 235.[128][129] The Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls contain parts of all but one of the books of the Tanakh
Tanakh
of the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible and the Old Testament
Old Testament
protocanon. They also include four of the deuterocanonical books included in Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Bibles: Tobit, Ben Sirach, Baruch 6 (also known as the Letter or Epistle of Jeremiah), and Psalm 151.[128] The Book of Esther
Book of Esther
has not yet been found and scholars believe Esther is missing because, as a Jew, her marriage to a Persian king may have been looked down upon by the inhabitants of Qumran,[130] or because the book has the Purim festival which is not included in the Qumran
Qumran
calendar.[18]:180 Listed below are the most represented books, along with the deuterocanonicals, of the Bible found among the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls, including the number of translatable Dead Sea
Dead Sea
texts that represent a copy of scripture from each Biblical book:[131][132]

Book Number found

Psalms 39

Deuteronomy 33

1 Enoch 25

Genesis 24

Isaiah 22

Jubilees 21

Exodus 18

Leviticus 17

Numbers 11

Minor Prophets 10[notes 1]

Daniel 8

Jeremiah 6

Ezekiel 6

Job 6

Tobit 5[134]

1 & 2 Kings 4

1 & 2 Samuel 4

Judges 4[135]

Song of Songs
Song of Songs
(Canticles) 4

Ruth 4

Lamentations 4

Sirach 3

Ecclesiastes 2

Joshua 2

Non-biblical books[edit] The majority of the texts found among the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls are non-biblical in nature and were thought to be insignificant for understanding the composition or canonization of the Biblical books, but a different consensus has emerged which sees many of these works as being collected by the Essene community instead of being composed by them.[136] Scholars now recognize that some of these works were composed earlier than the Essene period, when some of the Biblical books were still being written or redacted into their final form.[136] Museum exhibitions and displays[edit] Temporary public exhibitions[edit] Small portions of the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls collections have been put on temporary display in exhibitions at museums and public venues around the world. The majority of these exhibitions took place in 1965 in the United States
United States
and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and from 1993 to 2011 in locations around the world. Many of the exhibitions were co-sponsored by either the Jordanian government (pre-1967) or the Israeli government (post-1967). Exhibitions were discontinued after 1965 due to the Six-days War conflicts and have slowed down in post-2011 as the Israeli Antiquities Authority works to digitize the scrolls and place them in permanent cold storage. A list of major temporary public exhibitions can be found on antiquities.org[137]

Exhibition Place Exhibition City Exhibition Name Exhibition Dates Description Picture

The National Museum of Natural History Washington, D.C., United States "The Torch" 27 February 1965 – 21 March 1965 The exhibition took place in the Foyer Gallery of the Natural History Building. The exhibit, sponsored by the Government of Jordan, drew 209,643 visitors.[138]

The University of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Museum Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States

3 April 1965 – 25 April 1965 Part of a Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
Traveling Exhibition Service exhibit.[138]

The British Museum London, England, United Kingdom "The Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls of Jordan" December 1965 The exhibition aroused great public interest and attracted large attendances. The exhibition involved cooperation between the Palestine Archaeological Museum, the Smithsonian Institution, and the Government of the Heshemite Kingdom of Jordan[139]

The Library of Congress Washington, D.C., United States "Scrolls from the Dead Sea: The Ancient Library of Qumran
Qumran
and Modern Scholarship" 29 April 1993 – June 1993 The exhibition featured 12 scrolls and 88 artifacts displayed in the library's Madison Gallery.[140]

The New York Public Library New York, New York, United States "The Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls: Ancient Civilization-Modern Scholarship" October 1993 – January 1994 This exhibition featured 12 fragments of the Israel
Israel
Antiquities Authority Collection and 200 pieces in all.[141]

The Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco San Francisco, California, United States "Highlights from the Israel
Israel
Antiquities Authority: The Dead Sea Scrolls and 5,000 Years of Treasures" 26 February 1994 – 29 May 1994 Among others, the exhibition included the Book of Psalms
Book of Psalms
and included 50 total artifacts on display.[142]

Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana Vatican City

4 July 1994 – 16 October 1994

Israel Museum
Israel Museum
Jerusalem Jerusalem, Israel

February 1995 – May 1995

Kelvingrove[143] Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom

1 May 1998 – 30 August 1998

Romisch-Germanisches Museum Koln, Germany

12 November 1998 – 18 April 1999

Austellungssaal des Regeirungsgebaudes St. Gallen, Switzerland

7 May 1999 – 8 August 1999

Field Museum of Chicago Chicago, Illinois, United States

4 February 2000 – 18 June 2000 This exhibit included the Psalms
Psalms
Scroll.[144]

The Art Gallery of New South Wales Sydney, Australia " Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls" 14 July 2000 – 15 October 2000 The exhibition featured parts of the War Scroll
Scroll
and other fragments along with related artifacts.[145]

The Public Museum of Grand Rapids Grand Rapids, Michigan, United States

15 February 2003 – 31 May 2003

Museu Historic Nacional Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

1 August 2004 – 10 October 2004

Houston
Houston
Museum of Natural Science Houston, Texas, United States

1 October 2004 – 2 January 2005

Museu Brasileiro da Escultura Marilisa Rathsman São Paulo, Brazil

27 October 2004 – 15 February 2005

Discovery Place Charlotte, North Carolina, United States

17 February 2006 – 29 May 2006

Pacific Science Center Seattle, Washington, United States

23 September 2006 – 7 January 2007

Union Station Kansas City, Missouri, United States

8 February 2007 – 13 May 2007 Not exclusively a museum exhibition.

San Diego
San Diego
Natural History Museum San Diego, California, United States " Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls" 29 June 2007 – 6 January 2008 The museum claimed that the exhibition "was the largest and most comprehensive exhibition of Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls ever assembled." The exhibition displayed 24 sets of fragments, including some from the Copper
Copper
Scroll.[146]

Museum of Natural Sciences Raleigh, North Carolina, United States "The Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls" 28 June 2008 – 28 December 2008 The exhibition featured 12 sets of scroll fragments on loan from the IAA.[147]

Jewish
Jewish
Museum New York New York, New York, United States "The Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls: Mysteries of the Ancient World" 21 September 2008 – 4 January 2009 The exhibition featured six sets of scroll fragments.[148]

Royal Ontario Museum Toronto, Canada "Words that Changed the World" 27 June 2009 – 3 January 2010 On 24 September 2008 it was announced that the Royal Ontario Museum would be hosting an exhibition of the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls.[149] From 27 June 2009, to 3 January 2010, a collection of over 200 manuscripts of the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls were displayed at the Royal Ontario Museum
Royal Ontario Museum
in Toronto, Canada.[149] The exhibition was a joint venture between the Israel Antiquities Authority
Israel Antiquities Authority
and the Royal Ontario Museum.[149]

Science Museum of Minnesota St. Paul, Minnesota, United States "Words that Changed the World" 12 March 2010 – 24 October 2010 The exhibition featured three sets of five fragments from scrolls.[150]

The Franklin Institute Philadelphia, PA " Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls: Life and Faith in Ancient Times" 12 May 2012 – 14 October 2012 The exhibition features a total of twenty scrolls, displayed ten at a time, including the oldest known copies of the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible and four never-before-seen scrolls. With more than 600 items on display, visitors will experience firsthand the traditions, beliefs and iconic objects from everyday life, more than 2000 years ago.[151]

Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary Fort Worth, Texas, United States " Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls and the Bible" 2 July 2012 – 13 January 2013 A landmark endeavor, Southwestern Seminary's exhibit marks the first time a private institution has hosted a display of the Dead Sea Scrolls. With over 21 scroll pieces, the exhibition includes a never-before-seen Genesis fragment on loan from the Kando family (the largest piece held in any private collection) and one of only five existing laser-facsimiles of the Great Isaiah Scroll. The exhibit focuses on the unique relationship between the 1947 discovery and its implications for biblical textual criticism and historicity.[152]

Museum of Science Boston, Massachusetts, United States " Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls: Life in Ancient Times" 19 May 2013 – 20 October 2013

California
California
Science Center Los Angeles, California, United States " Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls: The Exhibition" 10 March – 7 September 2015 A rebranding of the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls: Life and Faith in Ancient Times seen in other US Cities.[153]

Individuals examining part of the Israeli Antiquities Authority's Dead Sea Scrolls collection on display at the Shrine of the Book, a wing of the Israel Museum
Israel Museum
in Jerusalem.

Long-term museum exhibitions[edit] Display at the Shrine of the Book
Shrine of the Book
at the Israel
Israel
Museum, Jerusalem[edit] The majority of the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls collection was moved to Jerusalem's Shrine of the Book
Shrine of the Book
(a part of the Israel
Israel
Museum) after the building's completion in April 1965.[154] The museum falls under the auspices of the Israel
Israel
Antiquities Authority, an official agency of the Israeli government. The permanent Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls exhibition at the museum features a reproduction of the Great Isaiah Scroll, surrounded by reproductions of other famous fragments that include Community Rule, the War Scroll, and the Thanksgiving Psalms Scroll.[155][156] Display at The Jordan
Jordan
Museum, Amman, Jordan[edit]

Strip of the Copper
Copper
Scroll
Scroll
from Qumran
Qumran
Cave
Cave
3 written in the Hebrew Mishnaic dialect, on display at the Jordan
Jordan
Museum, Amman

Some of the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls collection held by the Jordanian government prior to 1967 was stored in Amman rather than at the Palestine Archaeological Museum in East Jerusalem. As a consequence, that part of the collection remained in Jordanian hands under their Department of Antiquities. In 2013 parts of this collection have been put on display at The Jordan Museum
The Jordan Museum
in Amman, to which they were moved from the Jordan
Jordan
Archaeological Museum.[157] Among the display items are artifacts from the Qumran
Qumran
site and the Copper
Copper
Scroll.[158] Ownership[edit] Past ownership[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (May 2012)

Advertisement in the Wall Street Journal
Wall Street Journal
dated 1 June 1954 for four of the " Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls."

Arrangements with the Bedouin
Bedouin
left the scrolls in the hands of a third party until a profitable sale of them could be negotiated. That third party, George Isha'ya, was a member of the Syriac Orthodox Church, who soon contacted St Mark's Monastery in the hope of getting an appraisal of the nature of the texts. News of the find then reached Metropolitan Athanasius Yeshue Samuel, better known as Mar Samuel. After examining the scrolls and suspecting their antiquity, Mar Samuel expressed an interest in purchasing them. Four scrolls found their way into his hands: the now famous Isaiah Scroll
Scroll
(1QIsaa), the Community Rule, the Habakkuk Pesher
Pesher
(a commentary on the book of Habakkuk), and the Genesis Apocryphon. More scrolls soon surfaced in the antiquities market, and Professor Eleazer Sukenik
Eleazer Sukenik
and Professor Benjamin Mazar, Israeli archaeologists at Hebrew
Hebrew
University, soon found themselves in possession of three, The War Scroll, Thanksgiving Hymns, and another, more fragmented, Isaiah scroll
Isaiah scroll
(1QIsab). Four of the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls eventually went up for sale in an advertisement in the 1 June 1954, Wall Street Journal.[159] On 1 July 1954, the scrolls, after delicate negotiations and accompanied by three people including the Metropolitan, arrived at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel
Waldorf-Astoria Hotel
in New York. They were purchased by Professor Mazar and the son of Professor Sukenik, Yigael Yadin, for $250,000, approximately 2.14 million in 2012-equivalent dollars, and brought to Jerusalem.[160] Recently, forgeries of alleged Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls have appeared on black markets.[161] Current ownership[edit] Almost all of the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls collection is currently under the ownership of the Government of the state of Israel, and housed in the Shrine of the Book
Shrine of the Book
on the grounds of the Israel
Israel
Museum. This ownership is contested by both Jordan
Jordan
and by the Palestinian Authority. A list of known ownership of Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scroll
Scroll
fragments:

Claimed Owner Year Acquired Number of Fragments/Scrolls Owned

Azusa Pacific University[162] 2009 5

Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago[163] 1956 1

Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary[164] 2009; 2010; 2012 8

Rockefeller Museum
Rockefeller Museum
– Government of Israel[165][166] 1967 > 15,000

The Schøyen Collection owned by Martin Schøyen[167] 1980; 1994; 1995 115[168]

The Jordan Museum
The Jordan Museum
– Government of Jordan[157] 1947–1956 > 25

Museum of the Bible
Museum of the Bible
aka Green Collection
Green Collection
– Green Family[169] 2009–2014[168] >13

Syrian Orthodox Church's eastern U.S. archdiocese[170]

1

Ashland Theological Seminary[170]

1

Lanier Theological Library[170]

1

Pasadena Private Collection[170]

1

Ownership disputes[edit] The official ownership of the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls is disputed among the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, the State of Israel, and the Palestinian Authority. The debate over the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls stems from a more general Israeli–Palestinian conflict
Israeli–Palestinian conflict
over land and state recognition.

Parties Involved Party Role Explanation of Role

 Jordan Disputant; Minority Owner Alleges that the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls were stolen from the Palestine Archaeological Museum (now the Rockefeller Museum) operated by Jordan from 1966 until the Six-Day War
Six-Day War
when advancing Israeli forces took control of the Museum, and that therefore they fall under the rules of the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict.[171] Jordan
Jordan
regularly demands their return and petitions third-party countries that host the scrolls to return them to Jordan
Jordan
instead of to Israel, claiming they have legal documents that prove Jordanian ownership of the scrolls.[172]

 Israel Disputant; Current Majority Owner After the Six-Day War
Six-Day War
Israel
Israel
seized the scrolls and moved them to the Shrine of the Book
Shrine of the Book
in the Israel
Israel
Museum. Israel
Israel
disputes Jordan's claim and states that Jordan
Jordan
never lawfully possessed the scrolls since it was an unlawful occupier of the museum and region.[173][174][175]

 Palestinian Authority Disputant The Palestinian Authority
Palestinian Authority
also holds a claim to the scrolls.[176]

 Canada Neutral Exhibition Host In 2009, a part of the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls collection held by the Israeli Antiquities Authority was moved and displayed at the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto, Canada. Both the Palestinian Authority
Palestinian Authority
and Jordan petitioned the international community, including the United Nations,[177] for the scrolls to be seized under disputed international law. Ottawa dismissed the demands and the exhibit continued, with the scrolls returning to Israel
Israel
upon its conclusion.[178] A planned exhibition in Germany
Germany
was cancelled, as the German government could not guarantee a return of the scrolls to Israel
Israel
[1]

Copyright
Copyright
disputes[edit]

This section needs attention from an expert in Law. The specific problem is: Complexity of copyright law surrounding historical documents in the United States
United States
and other nations. WikiProject Law may be able to help recruit an expert. (June 2012)

There are three types of documents relating to the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls in which copyright status can be considered ambiguous; the documents themselves, images taken of the documents, and reproductions of the documents. This ambiguity arises from differences in copyright law across different countries and the variable interpretation of such law. Copyright
Copyright
of the original scrolls and translations, Qimron v. Shanks (1992)[edit] In 1992 a copyright case Qimron v. Shanks was brought before the Israeli District court by scholar Elisha Qimron
Elisha Qimron
against Hershel Shanks of the Biblical Archaeology
Archaeology
Society for violations of United States copyright law regarding his publishing of reconstructions of Dead Sea Scroll
Scroll
texts done by Qimron in A Facsimile Edition of the Dead Sea Scrolls which were included without his permission. Qimron's suit against the Biblical Archaeology
Archaeology
Society was done on the grounds that the research they had published was his intellectual property as he had reconstructed about 40% of the published text. In 1993, the district court Judge Dalia Dorner
Dalia Dorner
ruled for the plaintiff, Elisha Qimron, in context of both United States
United States
and Israeli copyright law and granted the highest compensation allowed by law for aggravation in compensation against Hershel Shanks and others.[179] In an appeal in 2000 in front of Judge Aharon Barak, the verdict was upheld in Israeli Supreme Court in Qimron's favor.[180] The court case established the two main principles from which facsimiles are examined under copyright law of the United States
United States
and Israel: authorship and originality. The courts ruling not only affirms that the "deciphered text" of the scrolls can fall under copyright of individuals or groups, but makes it clear that the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls themselves do not fall under this copyright law and scholars have a degree of, in the words of U.S. copyright law professor David Nimmer, "freedom" in access. Nimmer has shown how this freedom was in the theory of law applicable, but how it did not exist in reality as the Israeli Antiquities Authority tightly controlled access to the scrolls and photographs of the scrolls.[179] See also[edit]

Ancient Hebrew
Hebrew
writings Reclaiming the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls Cairo Geniza École Biblique – from which came one of the initial translation teams Nag Hammadi library Oxyrhynchus Papyri Teacher of Righteousness The Book of Mysteries Jordan
Jordan
Lead Codices

Notes[edit]

^ 10 Scrolls containing fragments of all 12 of the "Minor Prophets" were found in Cave
Cave
4, although no fragment contains portions of more than three prophets.[133]

References[edit]

^ a b "The Digital Library: Introduction". Leon Levy Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls Digital Library. Retrieved 2014-10-13.  ^ a b "The Digital Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls: Nature and Significance". Israel Museum Jerusalem. Retrieved 2014-10-13.  ^ " Hebrew
Hebrew
University Archaeologists Find 12th Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls Cave". The Hebrew
Hebrew
University of Jerusalem. Retrieved 2017-06-07.  ^ New Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scroll
Scroll
Find May Help Detect Forgeries (National Geographic News, Feb. 10, 2017) Newly-excavated skeletons could help to reveal who wrote the ancient Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls (the Independent, November 18, 2017) ^ Down, David. Unveiling the Kings of Israel. p. 160. 2011. ^ ARC Leaney, Fom Judaean Caves, p.27, Religious Education Press, 1961. ^ Michael Segal, Emanuel Tov, William Brent Seales, Clifford Seth Parker, Pnina Shor, Yosef Porath; with an Appendix by Ada Yardeni (2016). "An Early Leviticus
Leviticus
Scroll
Scroll
from En-Gedi: Preliminary Publication" (PDF). Textus 26: 1–29. Retrieved 22 January 2017. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Vermes, Geza (1977). The Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls. Qumran
Qumran
in Perspective. London: Collins. p. 15. ISBN 0-00-216142-7.  ^ "Languages and Scripts". Leon Levy Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls Digital Library. Retrieved 2014-10-13.  ^ "From papyrus to cyberspace". The Guardian. 27 August 2008.  ^ Ofri, Ilani (13 March 2009). "Scholar: The Essenes, Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scroll 'authors,' never existed". Ha'aretz.  ^ Golb, Norman (5 June 2009). "On the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Origin of the Dead Sea Scrolls" (PDf). University of Chicago
Chicago
Oriental Institute.  ^ Abegg, Jr., Martin, Peter Flint, and Eugene Ulrich, The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible: The Oldest Known Bible Translated for the First Time into English, San Francisco: Harper, 2002. ^ " Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls". virtualreligion.net.  ^ Humphries, Mark. Early Christianity. 2006. ^ a b Evans, Craig. Guide to the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls. 2010. ^ a b John C. Trever. The Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls. Gorgias Press LLC, 2003. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l James VanderKam; Peter Flint (10 July 2005). The Meaning of the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls: Their Significance For Understanding the Bible, Judaism, Jesus, and Christianity. A&C Black. ISBN 978-0-567-08468-2. Retrieved 15 March 2013.  ^ "The Archaeological Site OF Qumran
Qumran
and the Personality Of Roland De Vaux" (PDF). Retrieved 22 May 2012.  ^ VanderKam, James C., The Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls Today, Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1994. p. 9. ^ a b c S.S.L. Frantisek Trstensky. "The Archaeological Site Of Qumran and the Personality Of Roland De Vaux" (PDF). Retrieved 22 May 2012.  ^ a b c " Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls: Timetable". The Gnostic Society Library. Retrieved 23 May 2012.  ^ a b c d e VanderKam, James C., The Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls Today, Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1994. pp. 10–11. ^ "Digital Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls at the Israel
Israel
Museum, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
– Discovery". imj.org.il.  ^ Yizhar Hirschfeld
Yizhar Hirschfeld
(2002). " Qumran
Qumran
in the Second Temple Period: Reassessing the Archaeological Evidence" (PDF). Liber Annuus. Jerusalem: Studium Biblicum Franciscanum. 52: 279–281. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 May 2006. Retrieved 23 January 2016. Some of these caves, such as 4 and 5, are located ca. 160 yd from the site, while others, such as 1, 2, 3 and 11, are at a distance of 1 mile to it's north (Fig. 12)  ^ Martinez/Tigchelaar (1999). The Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls Edition, Caves 1 to 11 & more (Enoch Aramaic
Aramaic
fragments and translation by Milik: Hénoc au pays des aromates, pp.413,425,430) ^ a b " Hebrew
Hebrew
University Archaeologists Find 12th Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls Cave" (Press release). Hebrew
Hebrew
University of Jerusalem. February 8, 2017.  ^ a b McKernan, Bethan (2017). "New Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls cave filled with ancient artefacts discovered for first time in 60 years". The Independent=.  ^ Wise, Michael; Abegg Jr., Martin; Cook, Edward (2005). The Dead Sea Scrolls. New York, New York: Harper San Franscisco. pp. 5, 6. ISBN 0-06-076662-X.  Les manuscrits de la Mer Morte avec textes originaux traduits en français par I. Fortunato) ^ Vermes, Geza, The Complete Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls in English, London: Penguin, 1998. ISBN 0-14-024501-4. ^ Milik (1957). Dix ans de découverte dans le désert de Juda Discoveries in the Judaean Desert; Milik (1976). The Books of Enoch: Aramaic
Aramaic
Fragments Qumran
Qumran
Cave
Cave
4 with the collaboration of Black M. ^ a b "THE QUMRAN LIBRARY: SCROLLS".  ^ Buitenwerf, Rieuwerd, The Gog and Magog Tradition in Revelation 20:8, in, H. J. de Jonge, Johannes Tromp, eds., The book of Ezekiel and its influence, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2007, p.172; scheduled to be published in Charlesworth's edition, volume 9 ^ "Uncovered in Jerusalem, 9 tiny unopened Dead Sea
Dead Sea
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Bibliography[edit]

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Scrolls and the First Christians, Shaftesbury: Element, 1996. Eisenman, Robert H., and Michael O. Wise. The Dead Sea
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Scrolls Uncovered: The First Complete Translation and Interpretation of 50 Key Documents Withheld for Over 35 Years, Shaftesbury: Element, 1992. Eisenman, Robert H. and James Robinson, A Facsimile Edition of the Dead Sea
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Scrolls 2 vol., Washington, D.C.: Biblical Archaeology Society, 1991. Fitzmyer, Joseph A., Responses to 101 Questions on the Dead Sea Scrolls, Paulist Press 1992, ISBN 0-8091-3348-2 Galor, Katharina, Jean-Baptiste Humbert, and Jürgen Zangenberg. Qumran: The Site of the Dead Sea
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Scrolls Study Edition, Brill, 1999 Gaster, Theodor H., The Dead Sea
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Dead Sea
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Scrolls, Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2002. Maier, Johann, The Temple Scroll, [German edition was 1978], (Sheffield:JSOT Press [Supplement 34], 1985). Milik, Józef Tadeusz, Ten Years of Discovery in the Wilderness of Judea, London: SCM, 1959. Muro, E. A., "The Greek Fragments of Enoch from Qumran
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Cave
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7 (7Q4, 7Q8, &7Q12 = 7QEn gr = Enoch 103:3–4, 7–8)." Revue de Qumran 18, no. 70 (1997): 307, 12, pl. 1. O'Callaghan-Martínez, Josep, Cartas Cristianas Griegas del Siglo V, Barcelona: E. Balmes, 1963. Qimron, Elisha, The Hebrew
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Scrolls, Harvard Semitic Studies, 1986. (This is a serious discussion of the Hebrew language
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of the scrolls.) Rengstorf, Karl Heinrich, Hirbet Qumran
Qumran
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Union in Late Second Temple Times." Pages 83–166 in The Madrid Qumran
Qumran
Congress: Proceedings of the International Congress on the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls, Madrid, 18–21 March 1991, Edited by J. Trebolle Barrera and L. Vegas Mountainer. Vol. 11 of Studies on the Texts of the Desert of Judah. Leiden: Brill, 1992. Thiede, Carsten Peter, The Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls and the Jewish
Jewish
Origins of Christianity, PALGRAVE 2000, ISBN 0-312-29361-5 Thiering, Barbara, Jesus the Man, New York: Atria, 2006. Thiering, Barbara, Jesus and the Riddle of the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls (ISBN 0-06-067782-1), New York: Harper Collins, 1992 VanderKam, James C., The Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls Today, Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1994. Vermes, Geza, The Complete Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls in English, London: Penguin, 1998. ISBN 0-14-024501-4 (good translation, but complete only in the sense that he includes translations of complete texts, but neglects fragmentary scrolls and more especially does not include biblical texts.) (7th ed. 2011 ISBN 978-0-14-119731-9) Wise, Michael O., Martin Abegg, Jr., and Edward Cook, The Dead Sea Scrolls: A New Translation, (1996), HarperSanFrancisco paperback 1999, ISBN 0-06-069201-4, (contains the non-biblical portion of the scrolls, including fragments) Yadin, Yigael. The Temple Scroll: The Hidden Law of the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Sect, New York: Random House, 1985.

Other sources[edit]

Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls Study Vol 1: 1Q1-4Q273, Vol. 2: 4Q274-11Q31, (compact disc), Logos Research Systems, Inc., (contains the non-biblical portion of the scrolls with Hebrew
Hebrew
and Aramaic
Aramaic
transcriptions in parallel with English translations) Comprehensive Cross Reference interactive module for Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls, Josephus, Philo, Nag Hammadi Library, Pseudepigrapha, Old Testament Apocrypha, New Testament
New Testament
Apocrypha, Plato, Pythagoras, Dhammapada, Egyptian Book of the Dead, Tacitus, Talmud, New and Old Testaments, Apostolic and Early Church Fathers

Further reading[edit]

Harrison, R.K., The Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls: an Introduction, in series, The Cloister Library, New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1961.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls

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The Leon Levy Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls Digital Library hosted by the Israel Antiquities Authority Jerusalem The Digital Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls hosted by the Israel
Israel
Museum, Jerusalem Shrine of the Book, home of the physical scrolls at the Israel
Israel
Museum, Jerusalem The Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls: Mysteries of the Ancient World (2009) at The Jewish
Jewish
Museum (New York) Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls facsimile of 1QIsa 1Qs and 1QpHab, Facsimile-editions.com Qumran
Qumran
Visualization Project, UCLA Timetable of the Discovery and Debate about the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls, VirtualReligion.net The Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls Collection at the Gnostic Society Library Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scroll
Scroll
Exhibit at Azusa Pacific University
Azusa Pacific University
displays five Dead Sea Scrolls fragments in Azusa, California Scrolls From the Dead Sea: The Ancient Library of Qumran
Qumran
and Modern Scholarship at the Library of Congress Library of Congress
Library of Congress
On-line Exhibit, ibiblio.org The Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls Project at the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago
Chicago
features several articles by Norman Golb, some of which take issue with statements made in popular museum exhibits of the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls The Orion Center for the Study of the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls and Associated Literature, Hebrew
Hebrew
University of Jerusalem, includes bibliography Ancient Treasures and the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls at the Canadian Museum of Civilization " Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls collected news and commentary". The New York Times.  The Importance of the Discoveries in the Judean Desert Israel Antiquities Authority What Are the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls?. Chabad.org interview with Dr. Lawrence Schiffman, reviewed by him. Pesher
Pesher
Technique: Dr. Barbara Thiering's Writings Barbara Thiering's (unconventional) theories connecting the scrolls with the Bible The Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls as a source on Palestine History of 1st century CE. Sergey E. Rysev. "Others and Intra- Jewish
Jewish
Polemic as Reflected in Qumran
Qumran
Texts," Stephen Goranson, evidence that English "Essenes" comes from Greek spellings that come from Hebrew
Hebrew
'osey hatorah, a self-designation in some Qumran
Qumran
texts. Searching for the Better Text: How errors crept into the Bible and what can be done to correct them, Biblical Archaeology
Archaeology
Review

v t e

Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls topics

Texts

4Q106 4Q107 4Q108 4Q166 4Q175 4Q240 4Q246 4Q252 4Q400-407 Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice 4Q448 4Q510-511 Songs of the Sage 4Q521 4QMMT 4QInstruction 6Q6 7Q5 11Q13 Melchizedek The Book of Giants The Book of Mysteries (1Q27 and 4Q299-301) Community Rule (1QS) Copper
Copper
Scroll
Scroll
(3Q15) Damascus Document
Damascus Document
(CD) Genesis Apocryphon
Genesis Apocryphon
(1QapGen ar) Habakkuk Commentary
Habakkuk Commentary
(1QpHab) Isaiah scroll
Isaiah scroll
(1QIsaa) Nahum Commentary (4QpNah) The Rule of the Blessing
The Rule of the Blessing
(1QSb) The Rule of the Congregation (1QSa) The Secret of the Way Things Are Temple Scroll
Scroll
(11Q19) Thanksgiving Hymns (1QH) War of the Sons of Light Against the Sons of Darkness
War of the Sons of Light Against the Sons of Darkness
(1QM)

Places

Qumran Qumran
Qumran
Caves Qumran
Qumran
cemetery Ein Feshkha Kohlit Secacah Wadi Murabba'at

Issues

Essenes Sadducees Carbon dating Yahad Ostracon Pesher Dual messiahs Teacher of Righteousness Wicked Priest Calendrical texts

Scholars

Martin G. Abegg John Marco Allegro Joseph M. Baumgarten Pierre Benoit John J. Collins Edward M. Cook Frank Moore Cross Philip R. Davies André Dupont-Sommer Robert Eisenman Hanan Eshel Craig A. Evans Joseph Fitzmyer Peter W. Flint Katharina Galor Jamal-Dominique Hopkins Jean-Baptiste Humbert Florentino García Martínez Norman Golb Jonas C. Greenfield Gerald Lankester Harding Yizhar Hirschfeld Ernest-Marie Laperrousaz Jodi Magness Józef Milik Bargil Pixner Elisha Qimron Lawrence Schiffman Michael Segal Hershel Shanks Solomon H. Steckoll Hartmut Stegemann John Strugnell Eleazar Sukenik Carsten Peter Thiede Emanuel Tov John C. Trever Eugene Ulrich Roland de Vaux Géza Vermes Michael O. Wise Yigael Yadin José O'Callaghan Martínez

Other

Shrine of the Book The Orion Center École Biblique Discoveries in the Judaean Desert Mar Samuel Muhammed edh-Dhib Najib Albina

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 185489183 LCCN: n79071139 GND: 4048098-7 SUDOC: 028200500 BNF:

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