DAVID KEITH LYNCH (born January 20, 1946) is an American director,
screenwriter, producer, painter, musician, actor, and photographer. He
has been described by
The Guardian as "the most important director of
AllMovie called him "the Renaissance man of modern
American filmmaking", while the success of his films has led to him
being labelled "the first popular
Born to a middle-class family in
Missoula, Montana , Lynch spent his
childhood traveling around the United States, before going on to study
painting at the
Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts
Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in
where he first made the transition to producing short films. He moved
Los Angeles , where he produced his first motion picture, the
surrealist horror film
Eraserhead (1977). After
Eraserhead became a
cult classic on the midnight movie circuit, Lynch was employed to
direct a biographical film about a deformed man,
Joseph Merrick ,
titled The Elephant Man (1980), from which he gained mainstream
success. He was then employed by the De Laurentiis Entertainment Group
and proceeded to make two films: the science-fiction epic Dune (1984),
which proved to be a critical and commercial failure, and then a
neo-noir crime film Blue Velvet (1986), which stirred controversy over
its violence but grew in critical reputation later on.
Next, Lynch created his own television series with
Mark Frost , the
popular murder mystery
Twin Peaks (1990–1991). He also created a
cinematic prequel, Twin Peaks: Fire Walk with Me (1992), a road movie
Wild at Heart (1990) and a family film
The Straight Story
The Straight Story (1999) in
the same period. Turning further towards surrealist filmmaking, three
of his subsequent films operated on "dream logic" non-linear narrative
structures: the psychological thriller Lost Highway (1997), the
neo-noir "love story" Mulholland Drive (2001) and the fragmented
mystery film Inland Empire (2006). Meanwhile, Lynch embraced the
Internet as a medium, producing several web-based shows, such as the
DumbLand (2002) and the surreal sitcom Rabbits (2002). Lynch
and Frost reunited in 2017 for the Showtime limited series Twin Peaks:
The Return , with Lynch co-writing and directing.
Other endeavours of his include: his work as a musician, having
released two solo albums—
Crazy Clown Time (2011) and The Big Dream
(2013)—and music for a variety of his films, including "Ghost of
Love" for Inland Empire; the
David Lynch Foundation , which he founded
to fund the teaching of
Transcendental Meditation in schools; painting
and photography; writing two books—Images (1994) and Catching the
Big Fish (2006); and directing several music videos and
advertisements, including the
Dior promotional film Lady Blue Shanghai
Lynch has received three
Academy Award nominations for Best Director
and a nomination for best screenplay. He has won France's César Award
for Best Foreign Film twice, as well as the Palme d\'Or at the Cannes
Film Festival and a
Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement at
Venice Film Festival
Venice Film Festival . The French government awarded him the
Legion of Honor , the country's top civilian honor, as a Chevalier in
2002 and then an Officier in 2007. Blue Velvet and Mulholland Drive
are widely considered by critics to be among the greatest films of
their respective decades.
* 1 Life and career
* 1.1 Early life: 1946–1965
Philadelphia and short films: 1966–1970
Los Angeles and Eraserhead: 1971–1979
* 1.4 The Elephant Man and mainstream success: 1980–1982
* 1.5 The De Laurentiis films, Dune and Blue Velvet: 1983–1986
* 1.6 Twin Peaks, Wild at Heart and Fire Walk with Me: 1987–1996
* 1.7 Lost Highway,
The Straight Story
The Straight Story and Mulholland Drive:
Internet work and Inland Empire: 2002–2013
* 1.9 Reviving Twin Peaks: 2014–present
* 2 Cinematic influences and themes
* 2.1 Influences
* 2.2 Motifs
* 2.3 Recurring collaborators
* 3 Other work
* 3.1 Painting
* 3.2 Music
* 3.3 Design
* 3.4 Literature
* 4 Personal life
* 4.1 Political views
* 4.3 Website
* 5 Archive
* 6 Solo exhibitions
* 7 Discography
* 8 Filmography
* 8.1 Features
* 9 Awards and nominations
* 10 See also
* 11 References
* 12 Bibliography
* 13 Further reading
* 14 External links
LIFE AND CAREER
EARLY LIFE: 1946–1965
Early life of David Lynch My childhood was elegant
homes, tree-lined streets, the milkman, building backyard forts,
droning airplanes, blue skies, picket fences, green grass, cherry
trees. Middle America as it's supposed to be. But on the cherry tree
there's this pitch oozing out – some black, some yellow, and
millions of red ants crawling all over it. I discovered that if one
looks a little closer at this beautiful world, there are always red
ants underneath. Because I grew up in a perfect world, other things
were a contrast.
Lynch was born in
Missoula, Montana on January 20, 1946. His father,
Donald Walton Lynch (1915–2007), was a research scientist working
U.S. Department of Agriculture
U.S. Department of Agriculture , and his mother, Edwina
"Sunny" Lynch (née Sundholm; 1919–2004), was an English language
tutor. Lynch's maternal great-grandparents were Finnish , and had
immigrated to the
United States from
Finland in the 19th century.
Lynch was raised a
The Lynch family often moved around according to where the USDA
assigned Donald. It was because of this that when he was two months
old, Lynch moved with his parents to
Sandpoint, Idaho , and only two
years after that, following the birth of his brother John, the family
Spokane, Washington . It was here that Lynch's sister Martha
was born. The family then moved to
Durham, North Carolina
Durham, North Carolina , then
Boise, Idaho , and then
Alexandria, Virginia . Lynch found this
transitory early life relatively easy to adjust to, noting that he
found it fairly easy to meet new friends whenever he started attending
a new school. Commenting on much of his early life, Lynch has
I found the world completely and totally fantastic as a child. Of
course, I had the usual fears, like going to school ... For me, back
then, school was a crime against young people. It destroyed the seeds
of liberty. The teachers didn't encourage knowledge or a positive
Alongside his schooling, Lynch joined the Boy Scouts , although he
would later note that he only "became so I could quit and put it
behind me". He rose to the highest rank of Eagle Scout . It was
through being an Eagle Scout that he was present with other Boy Scouts
outside of the
White House at the inauguration of President John F.
Kennedy , which took place on Lynch's birthday in 1961. Lynch had
become interested in painting and drawing from an early age, becoming
intrigued by the idea of pursuing it as a career path when living in
Virginia, where his friend's father was a professional painter.
At Francis C. Hammond High School in Alexandria, Lynch did poorly
academically, having little interest in school work, but was popular
with other students, and after leaving decided that he wanted to study
painting at college, beginning his studies at the School of the Museum
of Fine Arts, Boston in 1964, where he was a roommate of
Peter Wolf .
Nonetheless, he left the School of the Museum of Fine Arts after only
a year, stating that "I was not inspired AT ALL in that place", and
instead deciding that he wanted to travel around
Europe for three
years with his friend
Jack Fisk , who was similarly unhappy with his
Cooper Union . They had some hopes that in
could train with the expressionist painter
Oskar Kokoschka at his
school. Upon reaching
Salzburg , however, they found that he was not
available and, disillusioned, returned to the
United States after
spending only 15 days of their planned three years in Europe.
PHILADELPHIA AND SHORT FILMS: 1966–1970
Back in the United States, Lynch returned to Virginia, but since his
parents had moved to
Walnut Creek, California
Walnut Creek, California , he stayed with his
friend Toby Keeler for a while. He decided to move to the city of
Philadelphia and enroll at the
Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts
Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts ,
after advice from Jack Fisk, who was already enrolled there. He
preferred this college to his previous school in Boston, claiming that
Philadelphia there were great and serious painters, and everybody
was inspiring one another and it was a beautiful time there." It was
here that he began a relationship with a fellow student, Peggy Reavey,
and they were married in 1967. The following year, Peggy gave birth to
their daughter Jennifer. Later describing this situation, Peggy stated
that " definitely was a reluctant father, but a very loving one. Hey,
I was pregnant when we got married. We were both reluctant." As a
family, they moved to the Fairmount neighborhood of Philadelphia,
where they were able to purchase a large 12-room house for the
relatively low price of $3,500 due to the high crime and poverty rates
in the area. Later describing living there, Lynch stated that
We lived cheap, but the city was full of fear. A kid was shot to
death down the street ... We were robbed twice, had windows shot out
and a car stolen. The house was first broken into only three days
after we moved in ... The feeling was so close to extreme danger, and
the fear was so intense. There was violence and hate and filth. But
the biggest influence in my whole life was that city.
Meanwhile, to help financially support his family alongside his art
studies, he took up a job printing engravings.
At the Pennsylvania Academy Lynch made his first short film , which
Six Men Getting Sick (Six Times) (1967). He had first come
up with the idea when he developed a wish to see his paintings move,
and he subsequently began discussing the idea of creating an animation
with an artist named Bruce Samuelson. When this project never came
about, Lynch decided to work on a film alone, and so purchased the
cheapest 16mm camera that he could find in order to do so. Taking one
of the abandoned upper rooms of the Academy as a working space, he
spent $200 – which at the time he felt to be a lot of money – to
produce Six Men Getting Sick. Describing the work as "57 seconds of
growth and fire, and three seconds of vomit", Lynch played the film on
a loop at the Academy's annual end-of-year exhibit, where it shared
joint first prize with a painting by Noel Mahaffey. This led to a
commission from one of his fellow students, the wealthy H. Barton
Wasserman, who offered him $1000 to create a film installation in his
home. Spending $478.28 of that on purchasing the second-hand Bolex
camera "of dreams", Lynch produced a new animated short, but upon
getting the film developed, realized that the result was simply a
blurred, frameless print. As he would later relate, "So I called up
Bart and said, 'Bart, the film is a disaster. The camera was broken
and what I've done hasn't turned out.' And he said, 'Don't worry,
David, take the rest of the money and make something else for me. Just
give me a print.' End of story."
Using this leftover money, Lynch decided to experiment on making a
work that was a mix of animation with live action , producing a
four-minute short called The
Alphabet (1968). The film starred Lynch's
wife Peggy as a character known as The Girl, who chants the alphabet
to a series of images of horses before dying at the end by
hemorrhaging blood all over her bed sheets. Adding a sound effect,
Lynch used a broken Uher tape recorder to record the sound of his baby
daughter Jennifer crying, creating a distorted sound that Lynch felt
to be particularly effective. Later describing what had inspired him,
Lynch stated that "Peggy's niece was having a bad dream one night and
was saying the alphabet in her sleep in a tormented way. So that's
sort of what started The
Alphabet going. The rest of it was just
Learning about the newly founded
American Film Institute , which gave
grants to film makers who could support their application with a prior
work and a script for a new project, Lynch decided to send them a copy
Alphabet along with a script that he had written for a new
short film, one that would be almost entirely live action, named The
Grandmother . The Institute agreed to help finance the work,
initially offering him $5000 out of his requested budget of $7,200,
but later granting him the additional $2,200 that he had requested.
Starring people he knew from both work and college and filmed in his
own house, The Grandmother featured a neglected boy who "grows" a
grandmother from a seed to care for him. The film critics Michelle Le
Blanc and Colin Odell later remarked that "this film is a true oddity
but contains many of the themes and ideas that would filter into his
later work, and shows a remarkable grasp of the medium".
LOS ANGELES AND ERASERHEAD: 1971–1979
Lynch's Eraserhead, featuring Henry Spencer (
Jack Nance )
In 1971 Lynch moved with his wife and daughter to
Los Angeles , where
he began studying filmmaking at the
AFI Conservatory , a place that he
would later describe as being "completely chaotic and disorganized,
which was great ... you quickly learned that if you were going to get
something done, you would have to do it yourself. They wanted to let
people do their thing." He began writing a script for a proposed work
titled Gardenback, which had "unfolded from this painting I'd done".
In this venture he was supported by a number of figures at the
Conservatory, who encouraged him to lengthen the script and add more
dialogue, something that he reluctantly agreed to do. Nonetheless,
with all the interference on his Gardenback project, he became fed up
with the Conservatory and quit after returning to start the second
year and being put in first year classes. Dean of the AFI, Frank
Daniel, asked Lynch to reconsider, believing that he was one of the
school's best students. Lynch agreed on the condition that he could
create his own project that would not be interfered with. Feeling that
Gardenback was "wrecked", he instead set about on a new film, which he
Despite the fact that the film was planned to be about forty-two
minutes long (it ended up being eighty-nine minutes long), the script
Eraserhead was only 21 pages long, and Lynch was able to create
the film free from interference. Filming, which began on May 29, 1972,
took place at night in some abandoned stables, allowing the production
team, which was largely Lynch and some of his friends, including Sissy
Jack Fisk , cinematographer
Frederick Elmes and sound
Alan Splet to set up a camera room, green room, editing room,
sets as well as a food room and a bathroom. Initially, funding for
the project came from the AFI , who gave Lynch a $10,000 grant, but it
was not enough to complete the work, and under pressure from studios
after the success of the relatively cheap feature film
Easy Rider ,
they were unable to provide him with any more. Lynch was then
supported by a loan from his father, and by money that he was able to
bring in from a paper route that he took up delivering the Wall Street
Journal . Not long into the production of Eraserhead, Lynch and his
wife Peggy amicably separated and divorced, and so he began living
full-time on set. In 1977, Lynch would remarry, this time to Mary
Fisk, sister of Jack Fisk.
Filmed in black and white ,
Eraserhead tells the story of a quiet
young man named Henry (
Jack Nance ) living in a dystopian industrial
wasteland, whose girlfriend gives birth to a deformed baby whom she
leaves in his care. The baby constantly cries, causing much concern.
When he realizes the baby has actually become ill, Henry tries to help
it. This leads to its accidental death, after which he is haunted by
what seem to be daemons that represent the baby and Henry finds
himself in a "heaven" which he arrives at by entering the center of a
planet rock. Lynch has consistently refused to either confirm or deny
any interpretation of Eraserhead, or to "confess his own thinking
behind the many abstractions in the film". Nonetheless, he admits
that it was heavily influenced by the fearful mood of Philadelphia,
and referred to the film as "my
Philadelphia Story ".
Due to financial problems the filming of
Eraserhead was haphazard,
regularly stopping and starting again. It was in one such break in
1974 that Lynch created a short film titled The Amputee, which
revolved around a woman with two amputated legs (played by Jack
Catherine Coulson ) reading aloud a letter and having
her stumps washed by a doctor (played by Lynch himself).
Eraserhead was finally finished in 1976, after five years of
production. Lynch subsequently tried to get the film entered into the
Cannes Film Festival , but while some reviewers liked it, others felt
that it was awful, and so it was not selected for screening.
Similarly, reviewers from the
New York Film Festival
New York Film Festival also rejected it,
though it was screened at the
Los Angeles Film Festival , where Ben
Barenholtz , the distributor of the
Elgin Theater , heard about it.
He was very supportive of the movie, helping to distribute it around
United States in 1977, and
Eraserhead subsequently became popular
on the midnight movie underground circuit, and was later described as
one of the most important midnight movies of the seventies along with
El Topo ,
Pink Flamingos ,
The Rocky Horror Picture Show
The Rocky Horror Picture Show , The Harder
They Come and
Night of the Living Dead
Night of the Living Dead . The acclaimed film maker
Stanley Kubrick said that it was one of his all-time favorite films.
THE ELEPHANT MAN AND MAINSTREAM SUCCESS: 1980–1982
After the cult success of
Eraserhead on the underground circuit,
Stuart Cornfeld , an executive producer for
Mel Brooks , saw it and
later remarked that "I was just 100 percent blown away ... I thought
it was the greatest thing I'd ever seen. It was such a cleansing
experience." Contacting Lynch, he agreed to help him with his next
planned project, a film titled
Ronnie Rocket for which Lynch had
already written a script. However, Lynch soon realized that Ronnie
Rocket, a film that he described as being about "electricity and a
three-foot guy with red hair", was not going to be picked up by any
financiers, and so he asked Cornfeld to find him a script written by
someone else which he could direct. Cornfeld found him four possible
scripts. On hearing the title of the first, The Elephant Man, Lynch
chose the script.
The Elephant Man script, written by Chris de Vore and
Eric Bergren ,
was based on a true story, that of
Joseph Merrick , a heavily deformed
man living in Victorian London, who was held in a sideshow but was
later taken under the care of a London surgeon, Frederick Treves .
Lynch wanted to make some alterations that would alter the story from
true events, but in his view make a better plot. However, in order to
do so he would have to get the permission of
Mel Brooks , whose
Brooksfilms , would be responsible for production;
subsequently Brooks viewed Eraserhead, and after coming out of the
screening theatre, embraced Lynch, declaring that "You're a madman, I
love you! You're in."
The resulting film, The Elephant Man , starred
John Hurt as John
Merrick (his name was changed from Joseph), as well as Anthony Hopkins
as Frederick Treves. Filming took place in London, and Lynch brought
his own distinctively surrealist approach to the film, filming it in
color stock black and white. Nonetheless it has been described as "one
of the most conventional" of his films. The Elephant Man was a huge
critical and commercial success, and earned eight Academy Award
nominations, including Best Director and Best Adapted Screenplay for
THE DE LAURENTIIS FILMS, DUNE AND BLUE VELVET: 1983–1986
Following on from the success of The Elephant Man, the filmmaker
George Lucas , himself a fan of Eraserhead, offered Lynch the
opportunity to direct the third film in his
Star Wars trilogy, Return
of the Jedi . Lynch refused, arguing that Lucas should direct the film
himself as the movie should reflect his own vision, not Lynch's take
on it. Soon after however, the opportunity to direct another
big-budget science fiction epic arose when
Dino de Laurentiis
Dino de Laurentiis of the
De Laurentiis Entertainment Group asked him to create a film
Frank Herbert 's science fiction novel Dune (1965).
Lynch agreed, and in doing so was also contractually obliged to
produce two other works for the company. He then set about writing a
script based upon the original novel, initially with both Chris de
Vore and Eric Bergren, and then just by himself when De Laurentiis
wasn't happy with their ideas. Lynch also helped build some of the
sets, attempting to create "a certain look" for the film, and he
particularly enjoyed building the set for the oil planet of Giedi
Prime , for which he "used steel, bolts, and porcelain to construct"
Dune is set in the far future, when humans live in an interstellar
empire under a feudal system . The main character, Paul Atreides
Kyle MacLachlan ), is the son of a noble who takes control
of the desert planet
Arrakis , which grows the rare spice melange ,
the most highly prized commodity in the empire. Lynch, however, was
unhappy with the work, later remarking that "Dune was a kind of studio
film. I didn't have final cut . And, little by little, I was
subconsciously making compromises" to his own vision. Much of his
footage was eventually removed from the final theatrical cut,
dramatically condensing the plot. Although De Laurentiis hoped it
would be as successful as Star Wars, Lynch's Dune (1984) was a
critical and commercial dud; it had cost $45 million to make, and
grossed a mere $27.4 million domestically. Later on, Universal Studios
released an "extended cut" of the film for syndicated television,
containing almost an hour of cutting-room-floor footage and new
narration. Such was not representative of Lynch's intentions, but the
studio considered it more comprehensible than the original two-hour
version. Lynch objected to these changes and had his name struck from
the extended cut, which has "
Alan Smithee " credited as the director
and "Judas Booth" (a pseudonym which Lynch himself invented, inspired
by his own feelings of betrayal) as the screenwriter.
Meanwhile, in 1983, he had begun the writing and drawing of a comic
The Angriest Dog in the World , which featured unchanging
graphics of a tethered dog that was so angry that it could not move,
alongside cryptic philosophical references. It ran from 1983 until
1992 in the
Village Voice ,
Creative Loafing and other tabloid and
alternative publications. It was around this period that Lynch also
became interested in photography as an art form, and travelled to
northern England to take photos of the degrading industrial landscape,
something that he was particularly interested in.
Following on from Dune, Lynch was contractually still obliged to
produce two other projects for De Laurentiis: the first of these was a
planned sequel, which due to the film's lack of success never went
beyond the script stage. The other was a more personal work, based
upon a script that Lynch had been working on for some time. Developing
from ideas that Lynch had had since 1973, the resulting film, Blue
Velvet , was set in the fictional town of Lumberton, USA, and revolves
around a college student named Jeffrey Beaumont (
Kyle MacLachlan ),
who finds a severed ear in a field. Subsequently, investigating
further with the help of friend Sandy (
Laura Dern ), he uncovers that
it is related to a criminal gang led by psychopath Frank Booth (Dennis
Hopper ), who has kidnapped the husband and child of singer Dorothy
Isabella Rossellini ) and repeatedly subjects her to rape .
Lynch himself characterizes the story as "a dream of strange desires
wrapped inside a mystery story".
For the film, Lynch decided to include pop songs from the 1960s,
including "In Dreams " by
Roy Orbison and "Blue Velvet " by Bobby
Vinton , the latter of which was largely inspirational for the film,
with Lynch stating that "It was the song that sparked the movie ...
There was something mysterious about it. It made me think about
things. And the first things I thought about were lawns – lawns and
the neighbourhood." Other music for the film was also produced, this
time composed by
Angelo Badalamenti , who would go on to produce the
music for most of Lynch's subsequent cinematic works. Dino de
Laurentiis loved the film, and it achieved support from some of the
early specialist screenings, but the preview screenings to a
mainstream audience were instead highly negative, with most of the
audience hating the film. Although Lynch had found success previously
with The Elephant Man, Blue Velvet's controversy with audiences and
critics introduced him into the mainstream, and became a huge critical
and moderate commercial success. The film earned Lynch his second
Academy Award nomination for Best Director .
Woody Allen , whose film
Hannah and Her Sisters was nominated for Best Picture , said that Blue
Velvet was his favorite film of the year.
TWIN PEAKS, WILD AT HEART AND FIRE WALK WITH ME: 1987–1996
Lynch at the 1990
Emmy Awards ceremony
During the late 1980s, Lynch had begun to work in television as well
as cinema, directing a short piece titled The Cowboy and the Frenchman
for French television in 1989. Around this time, he met the
Mark Frost , who had formerly worked on such
projects as the television police series
Hill Street Blues
Hill Street Blues , and they
decided to start working together on a biopic of singer and actress
Marilyn Monroe based upon Anthony Summers's book, The Goddess: The
Secret Lives of Marilyn Monroe. While this project never got off the
ground, the duo went on to work on a comedy script named One Saliva
Bubble, but that did not see completion either. While they were
talking in a coffee shop, Lynch and Frost had the idea of a corpse
washing up on the shore of a lake, and subsequently set about on their
third project, initially called Northwest Passage but would eventually
become the television series
Twin Peaks (1990–1991). A drama series
set in a small Washington town where popular high school student Laura
Palmer has been raped and murdered,
Twin Peaks featured
Dale Cooper (
Kyle MacLachlan ) as the investigator trying to
unearth the killer, and discovering not only the supernatural elements
to the murder but also the secrets of many of the local townsfolk; as
Lynch himself summed it up, "The project was to mix a police
investigation with the ordinary lives of the characters." Lynch later
revealed that " worked together, especially in the initial stages.
Later on we started working more apart." They pitched the series to
the ABC Network , who agreed to finance the pilot episode and
eventually commissioned the first season, comprising seven episodes.
A second season went into production soon on 22 additional episodes.
Lynch himself only directed six episodes of series to devote his time
to working on the film Wild at Heart, but carefully chose the
directors for other episodes. Lynch appeared in several episodes of
the series as the deaf
FBI agent Gordon Cole . The series was a
success, with high ratings both in the
United States and in many
nations abroad, and soon spawned a cult following. Executives at the
ABC Network, however, believed that public interest in the show was
decreasing. The network insisted that Lynch and Frost reveal who the
Laura Palmer was prematurely, which they begrudgingly agreed
to do. Lynch felt that agreeing to do so is one of his biggest
professional regrets. Following the revealing of the murderer and the
series' move from Thursday to Saturday night,
Twin Peaks continued for
several more episodes, but was cancelled following a ratings drop.
Lynch, who disliked the direction that the writers and directors took
in the previous episodes, directed the final episode. He ended the
season on a cliffhanger , later stating that "that's not the ending.
That's the ending that people were stuck with."
Twin Peaks was in production, the Brooklyn Academy of Music
asked Lynch and the composer
Angelo Badalamenti , who had been
responsible for the music in Twin Peaks, to create a theatrical piece
which would be performed only twice in 1989 as a part of the New Music
America Festival . The result was
Industrial Symphony No. 1 : The
Dream of the Broken Hearted, which starred frequent Lynch
collaborators such as
Laura Dern ,
Nicolas Cage and Michael J.
Anderson , and contained five songs sung by
Julee Cruise . David Lynch
produced a fifty-minute video of the performance in 1990. Meanwhile,
Lynch was also involved in the creation of various commercials for
different companies, including perfume companies like Yves Saint
Calvin Klein and
Giorgio Armani and the Japanese coffee
company Namoi, which featured a Japanese man searching the town of
Twin Peaks for his missing wife. 1990 was Lynch's annus mirabilis:
Wild at Heart won the Palme d\'Or at
Cannes , and the television
Twin Peaks was proving a smash hit with audiences across the
world. The musical/performance piece Industrial Symphony No. 1, which
Lynch had staged with
Angelo Badalamenti at the Brooklyn Academy of
music, had spawned the album
Floating into the Night
Floating into the Night and launched
Julee Cruise . Five one-man exhibitions between 1989 and 1991
emphasized Lynch's roots in fine art and painting, and a rash of ads
(including a teaser trailer for
Michael Jackson 's 'Dangerous' tour)
confirmed the demand for the Lynch touch ... In an unlikely scenario
for the maker of Eraserhead, Lynch had become an influential and
fashionable brand name. Christopher Rodley Lynch at the 1990
Cannes Film Festival
While Lynch was working on the first few episodes of Twin Peaks, his
friend Monty Montgomery "gave me a book that he wanted to direct as a
movie. He asked if I would maybe be executive producer or something,
and I said 'That's great, Monty, but what if I read it and fall in
love with it and want to do it myself?' And he said, 'In that case,
you can do it yourself'." The book was
Barry Gifford 's novel Wild at
Heart: The Story of Sailor and Lula, which told the tale of two lovers
on a road trip. Lynch felt that it was "just exactly the right thing
at the right time. The book and the violence in America merged in my
mind and many different things happened." With Gifford's support,
Lynch adapted the novel into a film called Wild at Heart , a crime and
road movie starring
Nicolas Cage as Sailor and
Laura Dern as Lula.
Describing his plot as a "strange blend" of "a road picture, a love
story, a psychological drama and a violent comedy", Lynch altered much
from the original novel, changing the ending and incorporating
numerous references to the classic film The Wizard of Oz . Despite
receiving a muted response from American critics and viewers, it won
the Palme d\'Or at the 1990
Cannes Film Festival .
Following on from the success of Wild at Heart, Lynch decided to
return to the world of the now-cancelled Twin Peaks, this time without
Mark Frost, to create a film that acted primarily as a prequel but
also, in part, as a sequel, with Lynch stating that "I liked the idea
of the story going back and forth in time." The result, Twin Peaks:
Fire Walk with Me (1992), primarily revolved around the last few days
in the life of Laura Palmer, and was much "darker" in tone than the
television series, having much of the humour removed, and dealing with
such topics as incest and murder . Lynch himself stated that the film
was about "the loneliness, shame, guilt, confusion and devastation of
the victim of incest". Twin Peaks: Fire Walk with Me was financed by
the company CIBY-2000, and most of the cast of the series agreed to
reprise their roles for the film, although some refused and many were
not enthusiastic about the project. The film was a commercial and
critical failure in the United States; however, it was a hit in Japan
and some critics, such as
Mark Kermode , have hailed it as Lynch's
Meanwhile, Lynch worked with
Mark Frost on some new television shows.
After Twin Peaks, they produced a series of documentaries titled
American Chronicles (1990) which examined life across the United
States, the comedy series On the Air (1992), which was cancelled after
only three episodes had aired, and the three-episode
Hotel Room (1993) about events that happen in one hotel room but on
LOST HIGHWAY, THE STRAIGHT STORY AND MULHOLLAND DRIVE: 1997–2001
Following these unsuccessful television ventures, Lynch returned to
making feature films. In 1997 he released the non-linear, noiresque
Lost Highway , which was co-written by
Barry Gifford and starred Bill
Patricia Arquette . The film failed commercially and
received a mixed response from critics.
Following Lost Highway, Lynch began work directing a film from a
script written by
Mary Sweeney and
John E. Roach . The resulting
The Straight Story
The Straight Story was based upon a true story: that
of Alvin Straight (played in the film by
Richard Farnsworth ), an
elderly man from Laurens ,
Iowa , who goes on a three hundred mile
journey to visit his sick brother (played by
Harry Dean Stanton
Harry Dean Stanton ) in
Mount Zion, Wisconsin , riding a lawnmower for the entire journey.
Commenting on why he chose this script, Lynch said that "that's what I
fell in love with next", and displayed his admiration for Straight,
describing him as "like
James Dean , except he's old". Angelo
Badalamenti again produced the music for the film, although it was
"very different from the kind of score he's done for in the past".
Among the many differences with his earlier films, The Straight Story
did not contain profanities, sexual content or violence; it was rated
G (general viewing) by the
Motion Picture Association of America ,
which came as "shocking news" to many in the film industry, who were
surprised that it "did not disturb, offend or mystify". As Le Blanc
and Odell stated, the plot made it "seem as far removed from Lynch's
earlier works as could be imagined, but in fact right from the very
opening, this is entirely his film – a surreal road movie".
The same year, Lynch approached ABC once again with ideas for a
television drama . The network gave Lynch the go-ahead to shoot a
two-hour pilot for the series Mulholland Drive, but disputes over
content and running time led to the project being shelved
indefinitely. However, with seven million dollars from the French
StudioCanal , Lynch completed the pilot as a film,
Mulholland Drive . The film, a non-linear narrative surrealist tale of
the dark side of Hollywood , stars
Naomi Watts ,
Laura Harring and
Justin Theroux . The film performed relatively well at the box office
worldwide and was a critical success, earning Lynch a Best Director
prize at the 2001
Cannes Film Festival (shared with
Joel Coen for The
Man Who Wasn\'t There ) and a Best Director award from the New York
Film Critics Association. In addition, Lynch received his third
Academy Award nomination for Best Director. In 2016, the film was
named the top film of the 21st century by the BBC following a poll of
177 film critics from 36 countries.
INTERNET WORK AND INLAND EMPIRE: 2002–2013
Lynch in 2007
With the rising popularity of the
Internet , Lynch decided to utilize
it as a new distribution channel, releasing several new series that he
had created exclusively on his website, davidlynch.com. In 2002, he
created a series of online shorts named
DumbLand . Intentionally crude
both in content and execution, the eight-episode series was later
released on DVD. The same year, Lynch released a surreal sitcom on
his website called Rabbits , about a family of humanoid rabbits.
Later, he made his experiments with Digital Video available in the
form of the Japanese-style horror short
Darkened Room . In 2006,
Lynch's feature film Inland Empire was released. At three hours long,
it was the longest of Lynch's films. Like Mulholland Drive and Lost
Highway before it, the film did not follow a traditional narrative
structure. It starred Lynch regulars
Laura Dern , Harry Dean Stanton
Justin Theroux , with cameos by
Naomi Watts and Laura Harring
(voices of Suzie and Jane Rabbit), and a performance by
Jeremy Irons .
Lynch described the piece as "a mystery about a woman in trouble". In
an effort to promote the film, Lynch made appearances with a cow and a
placard bearing the slogan "Without cheese there would be no Inland
In 2009, Lynch produced a documentary web series directed by his son,
Austin Lynch, and friend Jason S. called Interview Project.
Interested in working with
Werner Herzog , Lynch collaborated with him
in 2009 to produce Herzog's film
My Son, My Son, What Have Ye Done? .
Using a non-standard narrative, the film was based on the true story
of an actor who committed matricide while acting in a production of
Oresteia , and starred
Grace Zabriskie , a Lynch regular. Lynch
has plans to direct a documentary on
Maharishi Mahesh Yogi consisting
of interviews with people who knew him.
In 2010, Lynch began making guest appearances on the Family Guy
The Cleveland Show
The Cleveland Show as Gus the Bartender . He had been
convinced to appear in the show by its lead actor, Mike Henry , who is
a fan of Lynch and who felt that his whole life had changed after
seeing Wild at Heart.
Lady Blue Shanghai is a 16-minute promotional
film that was written, directed and edited by Lynch for
Dior . It was
released on the
Internet in May 2010.
Lynch directed a concert by English new wave band
Duran Duran on
March 23, 2011. The concert was streamed live on
YouTube from the
Mayan Theater in
Los Angeles as the kickoff to the second season of
Unstaged: An Original Series from American Express . "The idea is to
try and create on the fly, layers of images permeating
Duran Duran on
the stage", Lynch said. "A world of experimentation and hopefully some
happy accidents". The animated short I Touch a Red Button Man, a
collaboration between Lynch and the band Interpol , played in the
background during Interpol's concert at the Coachella Valley Music and
Arts Festival in April 2011. The short, which features Interpol's song
"Lights", was later made available online.
It was believed that Lynch was going to retire from the film industry
; according to
Abel Ferrara , Lynch "doesn't even want to make films
any more. I've talked to him about it, OK? I can tell when he talks
about it." However, in a June 2012
Los Angeles Times interview, Lynch
stated that he lacked the inspiration to start a new movie project,
but "If I got an idea that I fell in love with, I'd go to work
tomorrow". In September 2012, Lynch appeared in the three-part "Late
Show" arc on FX's Louie as Jack Dahl. In November 2012, Lynch hinted
at plans for a new film while attending
Plus Camerimage in
Poland. Speaking at the festival, Lynch said "something is coming up.
It will happen but I don't know exactly when". At Plus Camerimage,
Lynch was also presented with a lifetime achievement award and the key
to the city by Bydgoszcz's mayor
Rafał Bruski . During an interview
Los Angeles Times in January 2013, frequent Lynch
Laura Dern confirmed she and Lynch are planning a new
The New York Times
The New York Times later revealed Lynch is working on
Idem Paris , a short documentary film about the
lithographic process, was released online in February 2013. On June
28, 2013, a music video directed by Lynch for the
Nine Inch Nails
Nine Inch Nails song
Came Back Haunted " was released. He also did photography for the
self-titled album from
Dumb Numbers released August 2013.
REVIVING TWIN PEAKS: 2014–PRESENT
On October 6, 2014, Lynch confirmed via
Twitter that he would start
shooting together with
Mark Frost a new, nine-episode season of Twin
Peaks in 2015, with the episodes expected to air in early 2016 on
Showtime . Lynch and Frost wrote all nine episodes. On April 5, 2015,
Lynch announced via
Twitter that the project was still alive, but he
was no longer going to direct because the budget was too low for what
he wanted to do. However, he later announced on May 15, 2015, via
Twitter, that he would indeed be returning to the revival, as he had
sorted out his issues with Showtime. This was later confirmed by
Showtime CEO David Nevins, who announced that Lynch would direct every
episode of the revival and that the original order of nine episodes
had been extended to eighteen episodes. By January 2016, the series
was halfway through the shooting schedule and filming was completed by
April 2016. The two-episode premiere aired May 21, 2017.
While doing press for Twin Peaks, he was again asked if he was
retired from film and confirmed that he had made his last feature
film, responding, "Things changed a lot... So many films were not
doing well at the box office even though they might have been great
films and the things that were doing well at the box office weren't
the things that I would want to do". Lynch later clarified that this
statement had been misconstrued, and reiterated "I did not say I quit
cinema. Simply that nobody knows what the future holds."
CINEMATIC INFLUENCES AND THEMES
I look at the world and I see absurdity all around me. People do
strange things constantly, to the point that, for the most part, we
manage not to see it. That's why I love coffee shops and public places
– I mean, they're all out there.
Lynch says that his work is more similar in many respects to that of
European filmmakers than American ones, believing that most films that
"get down and thrill your soul" are from European directors. Lynch
has commented on his admiration for such film makers as Stanley
Federico Fellini ,
Werner Herzog , and
Jacques Tati . He
has also stated that
Billy Wilder 's Sunset Boulevard (1950) is one of
his favourite films, as is Kubrick's Lolita (1962). He has also
Herk Harvey 's
Carnival of Souls (1962) as an influence on his
There are several recurring themes within Lynch's work, leading film
critics Le Blanc and Odell to state that "his films are so packed with
motifs, recurrent characters, images, compositions and techniques that
you could view his entire output as one large jigsaw puzzle of ideas".
One of the key themes that they noted was the usage of dreams and
dreamlike imagery and structure within his works, something they
related to the "surrealist ethos" of relying "on the subconscious to
provide visual drive". This can be seen in John Merrick 's dream of
his mother in The Elephant Man, Agent Cooper 's dreams of the red room
Twin Peaks and the "dreamlike logic" of the narrative found in
Eraserhead, Mulholland Drive and Inland Empire. Discussing his
attitude to dreams, Lynch has stated that "Waking dreams are the ones
that are important, the ones that come when I'm quietly sitting in a
chair, letting my mind wander. When you sleep, you don't control your
dream. I like to dive into a dream world that I've made or discovered;
a world I choose ... right there is the power of cinema." His films
are known for their use of magic realism .
Another of Lynch's prominent themes is industry , with repeated
imagery of "the clunk of machinery, the power of pistons, shadows of
oil drills pumping, screaming woodmills and smoke billowing
factories", as can be seen with the industrial wasteland in
Eraserhead, the factories in The Elephant Man, the sawmill in Twin
Peaks and the lawn mower in The Straight Story. Describing his
interest in such things, Lynch stated that "It makes me feel good to
see giant machinery, you know, working: dealing with molten metal. And
I like fire and smoke. And the sounds are so powerful. It's just big
stuff. It means that things are being made, and I really like that."
Another theme is the dark underbelly of violent criminal activity
within a society, such as with Frank's gang in Blue Velvet and the
cocaine smugglers in Twin Peaks. The idea of deformity is also found
in several of Lynch's films, from The Elephant Man to the deformed
baby in Eraserhead, as well as death from head wounds, found in most
of Lynch's films. Other imagery commonly used in Lynch's works are
flickering electricity or lights, fire and stages upon which a singer
performs, often surrounded by drapery.
With the exception of The Elephant Man and Dune, which are set in
Victorian London and a fictitious galaxy respectively, all of Lynch's
films have been set in the United States, and he has stated that "I
like certain things about America and it gives me ideas. When I go
around and I see things, it sparks little stories, or little
characters pop out, so it just feels right to me to, you know, make
American films." A number of his works, including Blue Velvet, Twin
Peaks and Lost Highway are intentionally reminiscent of the 1950s
American culture despite being set in the later decades of the 20th
century. Lynch stated that "It was a fantastic decade in a lot of ways
... there was something in the air that is not there any more at all.
It was such a great feeling, and not just because I was a kid. It was
a really hopeful time, and things were going up instead of going down.
You got the feeling you could do anything. The future was bright.
Little did we know we were for a disastrous future."
Lynch also tends to feature his leading female actors in "split"
roles, so that many of his female characters have multiple, fractured
identities. This practice began with his choice to cast
Sheryl Lee as
Laura Palmer and her cousin
Maddy Ferguson in
Twin Peaks and
continued in his later works. In Lost Highway,
Patricia Arquette plays
the dual role of Renee Madison/Alice Wakefield, while in Mulholland
Naomi Watts plays Diane Selwyn/Betty Elms and Laura Harring
plays Camilla Rhodes/Rita and in Inland Empire
Laura Dern plays Nikki
Grace/Susan Blue. By contrast, Lynch rarely creates multi-character
roles for his male actors, with the possible only exception in his
Twin Peaks revival where
Kyle MacLachlan plays
Dale Cooper ,
Killer BOB as Cooper's Doppelgänger and Douglas
He frequently tends to have characters that have supernatural and
omnipotent qualities. They can be seen as physical manifestations of
various different concepts, such as hatred or fear. Examples of these
characters are The Man Inside the Planet from Eraserhead, Bob from
Twin Peaks, The Mystery Man from Lost Highway, The Bum in Mulholland
Drive, and The Phantom in Inland Empire.
List of frequent David Lynch collaborators
Lynch is also widely noted for his collaborations with various
production artists and composers on his films and other productions.
He frequently works with
Angelo Badalamenti to compose music for his
productions, former wife
Mary Sweeney as a film editor, casting
Johanna Ray , and cast members
Harry Dean Stanton
Harry Dean Stanton , Jack
Kyle MacLachlan ,
Naomi Watts ,
Isabella Rossellini , Grace
Zabriskie , and
Laura Dern .
Lynch's painting So This Is Love, 1992
Lynch first trained as a painter, and although he is now better known
as a filmmaker, he has continued to paint. Lynch has stated that "all
my paintings are organic, violent comedies. They have to be violently
done and primitive and crude, and to achieve that I try to let nature
paint more than I paint." Many of his works are very dark in colour,
and Lynch has said this is because
I wouldn't know what to do with . Colour to me is too real. It's
limiting. It doesn't allow too much of a dream. The more you throw
black into a colour, the more dreamy it gets ... Black has depth. It's
like a little egress; you can go into it, and because it keeps on
continuing to be dark, the mind kicks in, and a lot of things that are
going on in there become manifest. And you start seeing what you're
afraid of. You start seeing what you love, and it becomes like a
Many of his works also contain letters and words added to the
painting. He explains:
The words in the paintings are sometimes important to make you start
thinking about what else is going on in there. And a lot of times, the
words excite me as shapes, and something'll grow out of that. I used
to cut these little letters out and glue them on. They just look good
all lined up like teeth ... sometimes they become the title of the
Lynch considers the 20th-century Irish artist Francis Bacon to be his
"number one kinda hero painter", stating that "Normally I only like a
couple of years of a painter's work, but I like everything of Bacon's.
The guy, you know, had the stuff."
Lynch was the subject of a major art retrospective at the Fondation
Cartier , Paris from March 3 – May 27, 2007. The show was titled The
Air is on Fire and included numerous paintings, photographs, drawings,
alternative films and sound work. New site-specific art installations
were created specially for the exhibition. A series of events
accompanied the exhibition including live performances and concerts.
Some of Lynch's art include photographs of dissected chickens and
other animals as a "Build your own Chicken" toy ad.
His alma mater, the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, presented an
exhibition of his work, entitled "The Unified Field", which opened on
September 12, 2014 and ended in January 2015.
His favorite photographers include
William Eggleston (The Red Ceiling
Joel-Peter Witkin , and
Diane Arbus .
Lynch in August 2007
Lynch has also been involved in a number of music projects, many of
them related to his films. His album genres switch mainly between
experimental rock , ambient soundscapes and, most recently,
avant-garde electropop music. Most notably he produced and wrote
Julee Cruise 's first two albums, Floating into the Night
(1989) and The Voice of Love (1993), in collaboration with Angelo
Badalamenti who composed the music and also produced. Lynch also
worked on the 1998
Jocelyn Montgomery album Lux Vivens. For his own
productions, he composed music for Wild at Heart, Twin Peaks: Fire
Walk with Me, Mulholland Drive, and Rabbits. In 2001, he released
BlueBob , a rock album performed by Lynch and John Neff. The album is
notable for Lynch's unusual guitar playing style. He plays "upside
down and backwards, like a lap guitar", and relies heavily on effects
pedals. Most recently Lynch composed several pieces for Inland
Empire, including two songs, "Ghost of Love" and "Walkin' on the Sky",
in which he makes his public debut as a singer. In 2009, his new
book-CD set Dark Night of the Soul was released. In 2008, he started
his own record label called
David Lynch MC which first released Fox
Bat Strategy: A Tribute to Dave Jaurequi in early 2009. In August
2009, it was announced that he was releasing Afghani/American singer
Ariana Delawari's Lion of Panjshir album in conjunction with Manimal
Vinyl record company.
In November 2010, Lynch released two electropop music singles, "Good
Day Today" and "I Know", through the independent British label Sunday
Best Recordings . Describing why he created them, he stated that "I
was just sitting and these notes came and then I went down and started
working with Dean and then these few notes, 'I want to have a good
day, today' came and the song was built around that". The singles
were followed by an album,
Crazy Clown Time , which was released in
November 2011 and described as an "electronic blues album". The songs
were sung by Lynch, with guest vocals on one track by
Karen O of the
Yeah Yeah Yeahs
Yeah Yeah Yeahs , and composed and performed by Lynch and Dean
On September 29, 2011, Lynch released This Train with vocalist and
long-time musical collaborator
Chrysta Bell on the La Rose Noire
label. The 11-song album was produced by Lynch and co-written
primarily by Lynch and Chrysta Bell. It includes the song "Polish
Poem" which is featured on the Inland Empire soundtrack. The musical
partnership also yielded a 5- song EP entitled Somewhere In the
Nowhere, released October 7, 2016, on Meta Hari Records.
Lynch's second studio album,
The Big Dream , was released in 2013 and
included the single, "I\'m Waiting Here ", with Swedish
Lykke Li . The Big Dream's release was preceded by
TBD716, an enigmatic 43-second video featured on Lynch's
For Record Store Day 2014
David Lynch released
The Big Dream Remix EP
which featured four songs from his album remixed by various artists.
This included the track "Are You Sure" remixed by Bastille . The band
Bastille have been known to take inspiration from David Lynch's work
for their songs and music videos, the main one being their song "Laura
Palmer " which is influenced by Lynch's television show Twin Peaks.
Lynch designed and constructed furniture for his 1997 film Lost
Highway, notably the small table in the Madison house and the VCR
In April 1997 he presented a furniture collection at the prestigious
Milan Furniture Fair in Italy. "Design and music, art and architecture
– they all belong together."
Working with designer Raphael Navot, architectural agency Enia and
light designer Thierry Dreyfus, Lynch has conceived and designed a
nightclub in Paris. "Silencio" opened in October 2011, and is a
private members' club although is free to the public after midnight.
Patrons have access to concerts, films and other performances by
artists and guests. Inspired by the club of the same name in his 2001
film Mulholland Drive, the underground space consists of a series of
rooms, each dedicated to a certain purpose or atmosphere. "Silencio is
something dear to me. I wanted to create an intimate space where all
the arts could come together. There won't be a Warhol-like guru, but
it will be open to celebrated artists of all disciplines to come here
to programme or create what they want."
In 2006, Lynch authored a short book describing his creative
processes, stories from throughout his career, and the benefits he had
realized through his practice of
Transcendental Meditation called
Catching the Big Fish: Meditation, Consciousness, and Creativity . He
describes the metaphor behind the title in the introduction:
Ideas are like fish.
If you want to catch little fish, you can stay in the shallow water.
But if you want to catch the big fish, you've got to go deeper. Down
deep, the fish are more powerful and more pure. They're huge and
abstract. And they're very beautiful.
The book weaves a non-linear autobiography with descriptions of
Lynch's cognitive experiences during Transcendental Meditation. All
author's royalties will be donated to the
David Lynch Foundation .
Lynch has had several long-term relationships. In 1967, he married
Peggy Lentz in Chicago,
Illinois . They had one child, Jennifer
Chambers Lynch , born in 1968, who is a film director. They filed for
divorce in 1974. On June 21, 1977, Lynch married Mary Fisk, and the
couple had one child, Austin Jack Lynch, born in 1982. They divorced
in 1987, and Lynch began dating
Isabella Rossellini after filming Blue
Velvet. Lynch and Rossellini broke up in 1991, and Lynch developed a
Mary Sweeney , with whom he had one son. Sweeney
also worked as Lynch's longtime film editor/producer and co-wrote and
The Straight Story
The Straight Story . The two married in May 2006, but
divorced that July. In 2009 Lynch married actress Emily Stofle, who
appeared in his 2006 film Inland Empire . The couple has one child,
Lula Boginia Lynch, born in 2012.
Lynch has said that he is "not a political person". However, he has
expressed admiration for former US President
Ronald Reagan .
Describing his political philosophy, he stated, "at that time, I
thought of myself as a libertarian . I believed in next to zero
government. And I still would lean toward no government and not so
many rules, except for traffic lights and things like this. I really
believe in traffic regulations." Lynch continued to state that "I
don't know if there even is a Libertarian party . They wouldn't have a
prayer of getting anywhere. So I'm a Democrat now. And I've always
been a Democrat, really. But I don't like the Democrats a lot, either,
because I'm a smoker, and I think a lot of the Democrats have come up
with these rules for non-smoking."
He endorsed the center-left
Natural Law Party in the 2000
presidential election and Democratic incumbent
Barack Obama in the
2012 presidential election . In the 2016
United States presidential
election , he endorsed
Bernie Sanders .
Lynch speaking on
Transcendental Meditation and the creative
process in 2007
Lynch advocates the use of
Transcendental Meditation in bringing
peace to the world. He was initiated into Transcendental Meditation
in July 1973, and has practiced the technique consistently since then.
Lynch says he met
Maharishi Mahesh Yogi , the founder of the TM
movement , for the first time in 1975 at the Spiritual Regeneration
Movement center in Los Angeles,
California . He reportedly became
close with the Maharishi during a month-long "Millionaire's
Enlightenment Course" held in 2003, the fee for which was US$1
In July 2005, he launched the
David Lynch Foundation for
Consciousness-Based Education and Peace , established to help
finance scholarships for students in middle and high schools who are
interested in learning the
Transcendental Meditation technique and to
fund research on the technique and its effects on learning. Together
John Hagelin and Fred Travis, a brain researcher from Maharishi
University of Management (MUM), Lynch promoted his vision on college
campuses with a tour that began in September 2005. Lynch is on the
board of trustees of MUM Trustees and has hosted an annual "David
Lynch Weekend for World Peace and Meditation" there since 2005.
Lynch was working for the building and establishment of seven
buildings, in which 8,000 salaried people would practice advanced
meditation techniques, "pumping peace for the world". He estimates the
cost at US$7 billion . As of December 2005, he had spent US$400,000 of
personal money, and raised US$1 million in donations. In December
2006, the New York Times reported that he continued to have that goal.
Catching the Big Fish (Tarcher/Penguin 2006), discusses
the impact of the
Transcendental Meditation technique on his creative
process. Lynch attended the funeral of the Maharishi in India in 2008.
He told a reporter, "In life, he revolutionised the lives of millions
of people. ... In 20, 50, 500 years there will be millions of people
who will know and understand what the Maharishi has done." In 2009,
he went to India to film interviews with people who knew the Maharishi
as part of a biographical documentary.
In 2009, Lynch organized a benefit concert at Radio City Music Hall
David Lynch Foundation. On April 4, 2009, the "Change Begins
Within" concert featured
Paul McCartney ,
Ringo Starr ,
Sheryl Crow ,
Eddie Vedder ,
Bettye LaVette ,
Ben Harper , and
Mike Love of the Beach Boys.
David Wants to Fly , released in May
2010, is a documentary by German filmmaker David Sieveking "that
follows the path of his professional idol, David Lynch, into the world
Transcendental Meditation (TM)".
An independent project starring Lynch called Beyond The Noise: My
Transcendental Meditation Journey, directed by film student Dana
Farley, who has severe dyslexia and attention deficit disorder, was
shown at film festivals in 2011, including the Marbella Film
Kevin Sean Michaels is one of the producers. In
2013 Lynch wrote: "
Transcendental Meditation leads to a beautiful,
peaceful revolution. A change from suffering and negativity to
happiness and a life more and more free of any problems."
Lynch designed his personal website, a site exclusive to paying
members, where he posts short videos and his absurdist series Dumbland
, plus interviews and other items. The site also featured a daily
weather report , where Lynch gives a brief description of the weather
in Los Angeles, where he resides. Until June 2010, this weather report
(usually no longer than 30 seconds) was also being broadcast on his
David Lynch – Daily Weather Report. An
absurd ringtone ("I like to kill deer") from the website was a common
sound bite on
The Howard Stern Show
The Howard Stern Show in early 2006.
Lynch is a coffee drinker and even has his own line of special
organic blends available for purchase on his website as well as in
Whole Foods . Called "
David Lynch Signature Cup", the coffee has been
advertised via flyers included with several recent Lynch-related DVD
releases, including Inland Empire and the Gold Box edition of Twin
Peaks. The possibly self-mocking tag-line for the brand is "It's all
in the beans ... and I'm just full of beans." This is also a quote of
a line said by
Justin Theroux 's character in Inland Empire .
The moving image collection of
David Lynch is held at the Academy
Film Archive, which has preserved two of his student films.
* 1967: Vanderlip Gallery, Philadelphia
* 1983: Puerto Vallarta, Mexico
* 1987: James Corcoran Gallery, Los Angeles
Leo Castelli Gallery, New York
* 1990: Tavelli Gallery, Aspen
Museum of Contemporary Art Tokyo
* 1992: Sala Parpallo, Valencia
* 1993: James Corcoran Gallery, Los Angeles
* 1995: Painting Pavilion, Open Air Museum, Hakone
* 1996: Park Tower Hall, Tokyo
* 1997: Galerie Piltzer, Paris
Fondation Cartier pour l\'Art Contemporain , Paris
* 2008: Epson Kunstbetrieb, Düsseldorf
* 2009: Max-Ernst-Museum, Brühl
* 2010: Mönchehaus Museum, Goslar
* 2010: GL Strand, Copenhagen
* 2012: Galerie Chelsea, Sylt
* 2012: Galerie Pfefferle, Munich
* 2013: Galerie Barbara von Stechow, Frankfurt
* 2014: The Photographers´ Gallery, London
Middlesbrough Institute of Modern Art
Middlesbrough Institute of Modern Art
* 2014/15: Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia
* 2015: Gallery of Modern Art, Brisbane
David Lynch discography
* Ghost of Love (2006)
Crazy Clown Time (2011)
The Big Dream (2013)
* Lux Vivens (with
Jocelyn Montgomery ) (1998)
BlueBOB (with John Neff) (2001)
* The Air Is On Fire (with Dean Hurley) (2007)
* This Train (with Chrysta Bell) (2011)
Polish Night Music (with Marek Zebrowski) (2015)
* Somewhere in the Nowhere (with Chrysta Bell) (2016)
David Lynch filmography
CANNES FILM FESTIVAL
The Elephant Man
Wild at Heart
Twin Peaks: Fire Walk with Me
The Straight Story
The Straight Story
AWARDS AND NOMINATIONS
List of accolades received by David Lynch
The Elephant Man
Best Adapted Screenplay
The Elephant Man
The Elephant Man
The Elephant Man
Cannes Film Festival
Wild at Heart
Twin Peaks: Fire Walk with Me
The Straight Story
Won (Tied with
Joel Coen for The Man Who Wasn\'t There )
Outstanding Directorial Achievement in Motion Pictures
The Elephant Man
Outstanding Achievement in Main Title Theme Music
Outstanding Achievement in Music and Lyrics
Twin Peaks for the song "Into the Night"
Outstanding Directing in a
Twin Peaks: Pilot Episode
Outstanding Writing in a
Twin Peaks: Pilot Episode
The Elephant Man
Independent Spirit Awards
The Straight Story
Special Distinction Award (Shared with
Laura Dern )
for their collaborative work
Twin Peaks: Fire Walk with Me
Life Career Award
Venice Film Festival
Venice Film Festival
Future Film Festival Digital Award
Career – Golden Lion
Drama Adapted from Another Medium
The Elephant Man
Best Original Screenplay
* Film portal
* Horror portal
* Montana portal
* David Lynch\'s unrealized projects
* ^ "40 best directors". London:
The Guardian Online. 2007.
Archived from the original on July 27, 2007. Retrieved November 29,
* ^ Ankeny, Jason. "David Lynch: Biography". AllMovie. Retrieved
November 29, 2010.
* ^ Pauline Kael, quoted in Lynch and Rodley 2005 . p. xi.
* ^ charitybuzz (2012). "Have 3-Time Academy Award-Nominated
David Lynch Review Your Screenplay in LA". charitybuzz.
Charitybuzz Inc. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
* ^ A B "Festival de Cannes: Wild at Heart". festival-cannes.com.
Retrieved August 7, 2009.
* ^ "The Police Knighted In France: Filmmaker
David Lynch Promoted
to Officer in France\'s Legion of Honor". CBS News Online. October 1,
2007. Retrieved November 29, 2010.
* ^ "David Lynch\'s Acclaimed Films". They Shoot Pictures, Don't
They. Retrieved November 3, 2016.
* ^ "Film Critics Pick the Best Movies of the Decade". Metacritic.
January 3, 2010. Retrieved November 3, 2016.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . pp. 10–11.
* ^ A B Lynch and Rodley 2005 . p. 1.
* ^ David Lynch: "Den Här Världen Är Full Av Hat Och Ångest"
* ^ Williams, Alex (December 31, 2007). "David Lynch\'s Shockingly
Peaceful Inner Life". New York Times. Archived from the original on
September 10, 2013. Retrieved November 29, 2010.
* ^ Sadighian, David (October 1, 2005). "
David Lynch thinks we\'re
all lightbulbs. What?". Yale Daily News. Retrieved November 29, 2010.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . pp. 2–3.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . p. 14.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . p. 05.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . pp. 8–9.
Peter Wolf (2011). "Peter\'sBio". Peter Wolf. Peter Wolf.
Archived from the original on June 15, 2012. Retrieved August 16,
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . pp. 31–34.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . pp. 36–37.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . p. 31.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . pp. 42–43.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . p. 43.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . pp. 37–38.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . p. 38.
* ^ A B Le Blanc and Odell 2000 . pp. 15–16.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . p. 39.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . pp. 39–40
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . p. 42.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . pp. 44–47.
* ^ Le Blanc and Odell 2000 . p. 18.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . pp. 57–58.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . pp. 58–59.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . pp. 59–60.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . p. 76 and 60.
* ^ "David Lynch". The Wall Street Journal. July 21, 2012. Archived
from the original on July 22, 2012. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . pp. 60, 80, 110.
* ^ A B Lynch and Rodley 2005 . p. 54.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . p. 56.
* ^ A B
David Lynch interview 1985 Archived January 18, 2010, at
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . p. 66.
* ^ Le Blanc and Odell 2000 . p. 17.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . pp. 82–83.
* ^ Midnight Movies: From the Margin to the Mainstream on
* ^ A B Lynch and Rodley 2005 . p. 77.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . p. 88.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . pp. 90–92.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . p. 95.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . pp. 92–93.
* ^ Le Blanc and Odell 2000 . pp. 29–30.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . p. 104.
* ^ A B Lynch and Rodley 2005 . p. 113.
* ^ A B Lynch and Rodley 2005 . p. 115.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . p. 118.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . p. 120.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . pp. 116–117.
* ^ Erica Sheen; Annette Davison (2004). The cinema of David Lynch:
American dreams, nightmare visions. Wallflower Press. ISBN
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . p. 109.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . pp. 109–111.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . p. 138.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . p. 134.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . pp. 130–132.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . pp. 148–149.
* ^ Peary, Danny (1988). Cult Movies 3. New York: Simon & Schuster
Inc. pp. 38–42. ISBN 0-671-64810-1 .
* ^ Le Blanc and Odell 2000 . p. 81.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . pp. 156–157.
* ^ Le Blanc and Odell 2000 . p. 85.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . p. 157.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . pp. 157–159.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . pp. 174–175.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . pp. 180–181.
* ^ "A Slice of Lynch", a featurette included in the Twin Peaks
Definitive Gold Box Edition DVD set, October 2007.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . p. 182.
* ^ Le Blanc and Odell 2000 . pp. 55–56.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . pp. 211–212.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . p. 191.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . p. 193.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . pp. 193–194, 198.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . p. 187.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . pp. 184–187.
* ^ Kermode, Mark (February 8, 2007). "David Lynch".
The Guardian .
London. Retrieved October 27, 2009.
* ^ Le Blanc and Odell 2000 . pp. 82–84.
* ^ "Lost Highway (1997)". The Numbers . Retrieved August 3, 2016.
* ^ "Lost Highway Reviews".
Metacritic . Retrieved August 3, 2016.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . pp. 247, 252.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . p. 260.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . p. 245.
* ^ Le Blanc and Odell 2000 . p. 69.
* ^ "
Academy Award Database: Lynch, David". Academy of Motion
Picture Arts and Sciences. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
* ^ Brown, Mark (August 22, 2016). "Mulholland Drive leads the pack
in list of 21st century\'s top films". The Guardian. Retrieved August
* ^ Leo Charney (January 4, 2006). "It\'s Just Lynch". Philadelphia
Weekly. Review Publishing Limited Partnership. Archived from the
original on September 12, 2012. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
* ^ Neva Chonin (February 7, 2007). "Lynch dives within". San
Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved March 21, 2011.
* ^ Hart, Hugh (May 30, 2009). "David Lynch\'s Interview Project
Probes American Dreams". Wired . Retrieved August 30, 2011.
* ^ Kay, Jeremy (June 22, 2010). "Werner Herzog: a killer at the
The Guardian . London. Retrieved September 1, 2011.
* ^ "
David Lynch to shoot film about TM guru Maharishi Mahesh Yogi
in India". Daily News & Analysis. November 18, 2009. Retrieved
November 29, 2010.
* ^ Faye, Denis. "A Kinder, Gentler Family Guy". Writers Guild of
America, West. Retrieved November 29, 2010.
* ^ Lewis, Dave. "Watch: David Lynch,
Duran Duran team for
\'Unstaged\' streaming concert". www.HitFix.com. Retrieved March 22,
* ^ Emami, Gazelle (July 13, 2011). "David Lynch/Interpol
Collaboration, \'I Touch A Red Button Man\' (EXCLUSIVE)". The
Huffington Post . Retrieved October 30, 2011.
* ^ Leigh, Danny (August 19, 2011). "Has
David Lynch retired, or is
it just a bad dream?".
The Guardian . Retrieved September 7, 2015.
* ^ Zeitchik, Steven
David Lynch says he doesn\'t have any ideas
for a new film
Los Angeles Times, June 22, 2012
* ^ Rosser, Michael (November 26, 2012). "
David Lynch hints at new
film Diary Blog".
Screen International . Top Right Group . Retrieved
November 26, 2012.
* ^ Rosser, Michael (November 25, 2012). "
David Lynch and Keanu
Plus Camerimage News".
Screen International . Top Right
Group . Retrieved November 26, 2012.
* ^ Blake, Meredith (January 15, 2013). "Laura Dern\'s Enlightened
Los Angeles Times .
Tribune Company . Retrieved January 17,
* ^ Weston, Hilary (January 16, 2013). "
David Lynch and Laura Dern
Have a Mysterious Project in the Works – Movies".
BlackBook . VIBE
Media. Archived from the original on February 13, 2013. Retrieved
January 17, 2013.
* ^ Hoffman, Claire (February 22, 2013). "
David Lynch Is Back ...
as a Guru of Transcendental Meditation".
The New York Times
The New York Times . The New
York Times Company . Retrieved February 23, 2013.
* ^ Fischer, Russ (February 12, 2013). "
David Lynch Short Film Idem
Paris Recalls the Industrial Tone of His Debut".
/Film . Retrieved
February 25, 2013.
* ^ Jon Blistein (June 27, 2013). "
Nine Inch Nails
Nine Inch Nails Photos Preview
\'Came Back Haunted\' Clip".
Rolling Stone .
* ^ "
Dumb Numbers II, by Dumb Numbers".
* ^ Littleton, Cynthia (October 6, 2014). "
Twin Peaks Revival to
Air on Showtime in 2016". Variety. Retrieved October 6, 2014.
* ^ Alex Stedman, "
David Lynch Says He Won’t Direct the ‘Twin
Peaks’ Revival", Variety, April 6, 2015.
* ^ McCown, Alex (May 15, 2015). "
David Lynch just announced he’s
rejoined Showtime’s Twin Peaks".
The A.V. Club . Retrieved August 3,
* ^ Yaniz Jr., Robert (August 12, 2015). "‘Twin Peaks’ Revival
To Resolve Questions From Previous Seasons". Screen Rant. Retrieved
August 3, 2016.
* ^ Andreeva, Nellie (January 12, 2016). "‘Twin Peaks’ Update:
Premiere Set For Early 2017,
David Lynch Halfway Done". Deadline .
Retrieved August 3, 2016.
* ^ Andreeva, Nellie (April 25, 2016). "‘Twin Peaks’: Here Is
the Full Cast Of David Lynch’s Showtime Reboot". Deadline .
Retrieved August 3, 2016.
* ^ Snyder, Chris (February 10, 2017). "\'Twin Peaks\' is coming
back after 25 years – here\'s everything you need to know about it".
Business Insider. Retrieved February 17, 2017.
* ^ Idato, Michael (May 5, 2017). "
David Lynch on the Return of
Twin Peaks and Why He Will Never Make Another Film". Sydney Morning
* ^ Sharf, Zack (May 26, 2017). "
David Lynch Is Not Retiring From
Filmmaking After All, But His Future Still Remains Unclear". Indiewire
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . p. 199.
* ^ A B C D Lynch and Rodley 2005 . p. 62.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . p. 71.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . p. 21.
* ^ "Retro Cinema: Carnival of Souls". Moviefone. October 12, 2007.
Retrieved February 17, 2017.
* ^ Le Blanc and Odell 2000 . p. 08.
* ^ Le Blanc and Odell 2000 . pp. 8–9.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . p. 15.
* ^ A B Le Blanc and Odell 2000 . pp. 9–11.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . p. 110.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . p. 18.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . p. 3–5.
* ^ A B Lynch and Rodley 2005 . p. 22.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . p. 20.
* ^ Lynch and Rodley 2005 . pp. 16–17.
* ^ Wyatt, Caroline (March 2, 2007). "David Lynch\'s dark arts laid
bare". BBC News. Retrieved May 1, 2010.
* ^ "David Lynch: The Unified Field". pafa.org.
* ^ "
David Lynch interview: \'There is something so incredibly
cosmically magical about curtains\'".
* ^ "BOSS Users Group magazine Vol. 5, No. 1 Summer 2001".
Lynchnet.com. Retrieved July 6, 2011.
* ^ "Music – New Music News, Reviews, Pictures, and Videos".
* ^ Topping, Alexandra (November 28, 2010). "The latest offbeat
experiment from filmmaker David Lynch: pop singles". London: The
Guardian. Retrieved November 30, 2010.
* ^ A B Lynch, David (November 11, 2011). "Music, Not Movies, But
Still Exploring Places of Darkness".
The New York Times
The New York Times . Retrieved
January 30, 2012.
* ^ Powell, Mike (November 8, 2011). "Crazy Clown Time". Pitchfork
. Retrieved January 30, 2012.
* ^ Battan, Carrie. "
David Lynch Unveils Album Cover Art".
* ^ Dombal, Ryan. "
David Lynch Talks New Music Projects".
* ^ Strauss, Matthew. "
David Lynch and
Chrysta Bell Team Up for New
* ^ Minkser, Evan (June 3, 2013). "
David Lynch Announces New Album,
The Big Dream, Shares Track Featuring
Lykke Li News". Pitchfork .
Retrieved June 3, 2013.
* ^ "Video of the day: David Lynch\'s TBD716". Notebook.
MUBI . May
31, 2013. Retrieved June 3, 2013.
* ^ "
David Lynch collaborates with
Moby and Bastille for Record
Store Day EP – listen".
* ^ "The City of Absurdity: David Lynch\'s Furniture".
* ^ "Silencio by David Lynch". September 7, 2011.
* ^ Gibbons, Fiachra (August 31, 2011). "Inside David Lynch\'s
Paris nightclub" – via The Guardian.
* ^ Lynch, David (2006). Catching the Big Fish: Meditation,
Consciousness, and Creativity. The Penguin Group. p. 1. ISBN
978-1-58542-540-2 . Retrieved June 14, 2014.
* ^ "Peggy Reavey".
* ^ Willow, Hank (November 19, 2001). "
Twin Peaks Director David
Lynch – Admires Reagan, Natural Law Party". hollywoodinvestigator.
Retrieved November 9, 2012.
* ^ A B "Was
David Lynch the Original Libertarian Democrat?".
December 11, 2006.
* ^ Barney, Richard A. (2009). David Lynch: Interviews. University
Press of Mississippi . ISBN 978-1-60473-236-8 .
* ^ Lynch, David. "Reason 52: I Have Noticed Something in Mitt
Romney\'s name.". 90 Days, 90 Reasons. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
David Lynch (March 29, 2016). "Dear Twtter Friends, YAY! BERNIE
SANDERS FOR PRESIDENT!!!". (Tweet). Retrieved March 29, 2016.
* ^ Audio of his lecture is available from
* ^ A B "
David Lynch on meditation: Heaven is a place on earth".
New Statesman. Archived from the original on November 2, 2013.
Retrieved November 2, 2013.
* ^ Lynch, David (July 3, 2008). "\'The pleasure of life grows\'".
The Guardian. London.
* ^ A B William Booth, "Yogi Bearer: Dark Films Aside, David Lynch
Brims With the Light of Transcendental Meditation", Washington Post,
December 2, 2005
* ^ The Washington Post, David Lynch\'s Guru and His Art, Claire
Hoffman, February 7, 2008
* ^ Kress, Michael. "David Lynch\'s Peace Plan". BeliefNet.
Retrieved November 29, 2010.
* ^ A B Stevens, Jacqueline; Barkham, Patrick (January 27, 2009).
"And now children, it\'s time for your yogic flying lesson". The
* ^ A B Alex Williams, "David Lynch\'s Shockingly Peaceful Inner
Life", New York Times, December 31, 2006, section 9, p. 1
David Lynch Foundation For Consciousness-Based Education
Archived February 17, 2015, at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ Institute of Science, Technology and Public Policy (2005).
David Lynch –
John Hagelin Tour Inspires Thousands of College
Students on East and West Coasts". Institute of Science, Technology
and Public Policy. Institute of Science, Technology and Public Policy.
Retrieved August 16, 2012.
* ^ Reimer, Emily (October 30, 2009). "Fourth Annual David Lynch
Weekend for World Peace and Meditation Taking Place in Iowa". Paste
Magazine. Retrieved November 15, 2009.
* ^ Mukherjee, Krittivas (February 11, 2008). "West meets East on
guru Mahesh Yogi\'s funeral pyre". Reuters. Retrieved May 7, 2010.
* ^ "
David Lynch to shoot film about TM guru Maharishi Mahesh Yogi
in India". Thaindian News. November 18, 2009.
David Lynch to Make Film About the Beatles Guru November 18,
* ^ Jon Pareles, "
Paul McCartney and
Ringo Starr Reunite at Radio
City", New York Times, April 4, 2009, Arts Section
* ^ German Documentaries, AGDF, March 2010. "The young filmmaker
David Sieveking follows the path of his professional idol, David
Lynch, into the world of
Transcendental Meditation (TM)."
* ^ Variety,
David Wants to Fly Review, Alissa Simon February 14,
2010 Variety Reviews -
David Wants to Fly - Film Reviews - Berlin -
Review by Alissa Simon" "David Wants to Fly" follows German
writer-helmer David Sieveking on his road to enlightenment, a journey
that involves David Lynch, various headquarters of the Transcendental
Meditation (TM) movement and the icy source of the Ganges."
* ^ "Beyond The Noise".
David Lynch Foundation. August 24, 2010.
Retrieved August 24, 2010.
* ^ List of 2011 documentaries Marbella Film Festival archive
* ^ "Beyond the Noise: My
Transcendental Meditation Journey" at
* ^ "Remember when
David Lynch used to do weather reports on the
Internet?". dangerousminds.net. August 25, 2016.
David Lynch Signature Cup flyer, included with the Twin Peaks
Definitive Gold Box Edition DVD set, October 2007, the digitally
Eraserhead DVD in 2006, and in other Lynch DVD releases in
* ^ "
David Lynch Collection". Academy Film Archive.
* ^ "Review:
David Lynch Art Exhibit in Copenhagen".
www.elephantjournal.com. Retrieved December 1, 2014.
* Le Blanc, Michelle and Odell, Colin (2000). David Lynch.
Harpenden, Hertfordshire: Pocket Essentials. ISBN 1-903047-06-4 .
* Lynch, David and Rodley, Chris (2005).
Lynch on Lynch (revised
edition). New York: Faber and Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-22018-2 .
* David Lynch: The Art of the Real, the website of a 2012 Berlin
conference on the artistic work of
David Lynch with all lectures in
* David Lynch: The Unified Field by Robert Cozzolino with Alethea
Rockwell (Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts,
Philadelphia and the
California Press, 2014 ISBN 9780520283961 ).
* David Lynch: Interviews, a collection of interviews with Lynch
from 1977 to 2008, edited by Richard A. Barney for the series
Conversations with Filmmakers (University Press of Mississippi, 2009,
ISBN 978-1-60473-237-5 , ISBN 978-1604732368 ). This volume covers
topics that include Lynch's filmmaking, furniture design, painting,
and music career.
* The Passion of David Lynch: Wild at Heart in Hollywood by Martha
Nochimson (University of Texas Press, 1997, ISBN 0-292-75565-1 ).
* The Complete Lynch by David Hughes (Virgin Virgin, 2002, ISBN
* Weirdsville U.S.A.: The Obsessive Universe of
David Lynch by Paul
A. Woods (Plexus Publishing. UK, Reprint edition, 2000, ISBN
David Lynch (Twayne's Filmmakers Series) by Kenneth C. Kaleta
(Twayne Publishers, 1992, ISBN 0-8057-9323-2 ).
* Pervert in the Pulpit: Morality in the Works of
David Lynch by
Jeff Johnson (McFarland padding:0.75em; background:#f9f9f9;"> Find
more aboutDAVID LYNCHat's sister projects
* Media from Commons
* Quotations from Wikiquote
* Data from Wikidata
* Official website (Requires
Adobe Flash Player
Adobe Flash Player )
David Lynch Foundation : Education : Transcendental Meditation
David Lynch on
David Lynch at
David Lynch at
David Lynch at
* Bibliography of books and articles about Lynch via UC Berkeley
Media Resources Center
* Early life
* Frequent collaborators
* The Elephant Man (1980)
* Dune (1984)
* Blue Velvet (1986)
* Wild at Heart (1990)
* Twin Peaks: Fire Walk with Me (1992)
* Lost Highway (1997)
The Straight Story
The Straight Story (1999)
* Mulholland Drive (2001)
* Inland Empire (2006)
Six Men Getting Sick (Six Times)
* The Grandmother
* The Amputee
* The Cowboy and the Frenchman
Industrial Symphony No. 1
* Premonition Following An Evil Deed
Lady Blue Shanghai
Wicked Game "
* "Longing "
Shot in the Back of the Head "
Came Back Haunted "
Twin Peaks (1990–91)
* On the Air
Twin Peaks (2017)
Polish Night Music
Crazy Clown Time
The Big Dream
Catching the Big Fish
Genealogies of Pain
* Dark Night of the Soul
My Son, My Son, What Have Ye Done?
AWARDS BY FILM
* The Elephant Man
* Blue Velvet
* Wild at Heart
Jennifer Lynch (daughter)
The Angriest Dog in the World
* David Lynch: The Art Life
Lynch on Lynch
* Frank Booth
Cannes Film Festival Best Director Award
René Clément (1946)
René Clément (1949)
Luis Buñuel (1951)
Jules Dassin /
Sergei Vasilyev (1955)
Sergei Yutkevich (1956)
Robert Bresson (1957)
Ingmar Bergman (1958)
François Truffaut (1959)
Yuliya Solntseva (1961)
Liviu Ciulei (1965)
Sergei Yutkevich (1966)
Ferenc Kósa (1967)
Glauber Rocha /
Vojtěch Jasný (1969)
John Boorman (1970)
Miklós Jancsó (1972)
Michel Brault /
Ettore Scola (1976)
Nagisa Oshima (1978)
Terrence Malick (1979)
Werner Herzog (1982)
Robert Bresson /
Andrei Tarkovsky (1983)
Bertrand Tavernier (1984)
André Téchiné (1985)
Martin Scorsese (1986)
Wim Wenders (1987)
Fernando Solanas (1988)
Emir Kusturica (1989)
Pavel Lungin (1990)
Joel Coen (1991)
Robert Altman (1992)
Mike Leigh (1993)
Nanni Moretti (1994)
Mathieu Kassovitz (1995)
Joel Coen (1996)
Wong Kar-wai (1997)
John Boorman (1998)
Pedro Almodóvar (1999)
Edward Yang (2000)
Joel Coen /
David Lynch (2001)
Im Kwon-taek /
Paul Thomas Anderson
Paul Thomas Anderson (2002)
Gus Van Sant (2003)
Tony Gatlif (2004)
Michael Haneke (2005)
Alejandro González Iñárritu
Alejandro González Iñárritu (2006)
Julian Schnabel (2007)
Nuri Bilge Ceylan
Nuri Bilge Ceylan (2008)
Brillante Mendoza (2009)
Mathieu Amalric (2010)
Nicolas Winding Refn
Nicolas Winding Refn (2011)
Carlos Reygadas (2012)
Amat Escalante (2013)
Bennett Miller (2014)
Hou Hsiao-hsien (2015)
Olivier Assayas /
Cristian Mungiu (2016)
Sofia Coppola (2017)
Cannes Film Festival jury presidents
* Georges Huisman (1946)
* Georges Huisman (1947)
* Georges Huisman (1949)
André Maurois (1951)
Maurice Genevoix (1952)
Jean Cocteau (1953)
Jean Cocteau (1954)
Marcel Pagnol (1955)
Maurice Lehmann (1956)
André Maurois (1957)
Marcel Achard (1958)
Marcel Achard (1959)
Georges Simenon (1960)
Jean Giono (1961)
* Tetsurō Furukaki (1962)
Armand Salacrou (1963)
Fritz Lang (1964)
Olivia de Havilland
Olivia de Havilland (1965)
Sophia Loren (1966)
Alessandro Blasetti (1967)
André Chamson (1968)
Luchino Visconti (1969)
Miguel Ángel Asturias (1970)
Michèle Morgan (1971)
Joseph Losey (1972)
Ingrid Bergman (1973)
René Clair (1974)
Jeanne Moreau (1975)
Tennessee Williams (1976)
Roberto Rossellini (1977)
Alan J. Pakula
Alan J. Pakula (1978)
Françoise Sagan (1979)
Kirk Douglas (1980)
Jacques Deray (1981)
Giorgio Strehler (1982)
William Styron (1983)
Dirk Bogarde (1984)
Miloš Forman (1985)
Sydney Pollack (1986)
Yves Montand (1987)
Ettore Scola (1988)
Wim Wenders (1989)
Bernardo Bertolucci (1990)
Roman Polanski (1991)
Gérard Depardieu (1992)
Louis Malle (1993)
Clint Eastwood (1994)
Jeanne Moreau (1995)
Francis Ford Coppola
Francis Ford Coppola (1996)
Isabelle Adjani (1997)
Martin Scorsese (1998)
David Cronenberg (1999)
Luc Besson (2000)
Liv Ullmann (2001)
David Lynch (2002)
Patrice Chéreau (2003)
Quentin Tarantino (2004)
Emir Kusturica (2005)
Wong Kar-wai (2006)
Stephen Frears (2007)
Sean Penn (2008)
Isabelle Huppert (2009)
Tim Burton (2010)
Robert De Niro
Robert De Niro (2011)
Nanni Moretti (2012)
Steven Spielberg (2013)
Jane Campion (2014)
* Joel and Ethan Coen (2015)
* George Miller (2016)
Pedro Almodóvar (2017)
* History of
Maharishi Peace Palace
Maharishi Vastu Architecture
Maharishi Vedic Approach to Health
Transcendental Meditation in education
Transcendental Meditation technique
David Lynch Foundation (US)
Global Country of World Peace
Maharishi Heaven on Earth Development
Natural Law Party
Natural Law Party of Canada
Natural Law Party (United States)
Transcendental Meditation movement
Maharishi Institute of Management (IN)
Maharishi Mahesh Yogi Vedic University (IN)
Maharishi School (UK)
Maharishi School of the Age of Enlightenment (US)
Maharishi University of Management
Maharishi University of Management and Technology (IN)
Maharishi University of Management
Maharishi University of Management (US)
Maharishi Vidya Mandir Schools (IN)
* David Lynch
Nancy Cooke de Herrera
* List of people who have learned
Maharishi Mahesh Yogi
The Beatles in India
The Beatles in India
Golden Domes (US)
Kolleg St. Ludwig (NL)
* Maharishi Vedic City,