PRIME MINISTER OF THE UNITED KINGDOM
FIRST MINISTRY AND TERM
Cameron–Clegg coalitionand agreement
* Bloody Sunday apology
* Spending and Strategic Defence reviews
* Military intervention in Libya (
* Alternative Vote referendum
* Phone hacking scandal
* 2011 riots
* Welfare Reform Act
* Health and Social Care Act
2012 Summer Olympics
2012 Summer Olympics
Belfast City Hall flag protests
* Woolwich attack
* Scottish independence referendum
SECOND MINISTRY AND TERM
Second Cameron ministry
* Military intervention against
* 2015–16 floods
* 2016 budget
* EU referendum
DAVID WILLIAM DONALD CAMERON (/ˈkæmrən, -mərən/ ; born 9 October
1966) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the
United Kingdomfrom 2010 to 2016 and Leader of the Conservative Party
from 2005 to 2016. He was Member of Parliament (MP) for Witney from
2001 to 2016. Cameron identifies as a One-Nation Conservative , and
has been associated with both economically liberal and socially
Born in London to wealthy upper middle-class parents, Cameron was
Eton College, and Brasenose College,
Oxford . From 1988 to 1993 he worked at the Conservative Research
Department , assisting the Conservative Prime Minister
before leaving politics to work for
Carlton Communicationsin 1994.
Becoming an MP in 2001, he served in the opposition shadow cabinet
under Conservative leader
Michael Howard, succeeding Howard in 2005.
Cameron sought to rebrand the Conservatives, embracing an increasingly
socially liberal position. The 2010 general election led to Cameron
becoming Prime Minister as the head of a coalition government with the
Liberal Democrats . His premiership was marked by the ongoing effects
of the late-2000s financial crisis ; these involved a large deficit in
government finances that his government sought to reduce through
austerity measures. His administration introduced large-scale changes
to welfare , immigration policy , education , and healthcare . It
Royal Mailand some other state assets, and legalised
same-sex marriage .
Internationally, his government intervened militarily in the Libyan
Civil War and later authorised the bombing of the Islamic State of
Iraq and the Levant ; domestically, his government oversaw the
referendum on voting reform and Scottish independence referendum ,
both of which confirmed Cameron's favoured outcome. When the
Conservatives secured an unexpected majority in the 2015 general
election he remained as Prime Minister, this time leading a
Conservative-only government. To fulfil a manifesto pledge, he
introduced a referendum on the UK\'s continuing membership of the EU .
Cameron supported continued membership; following the success of the
Leave vote, he resigned to make way for a new Prime Minister and was
Cameron has been praised for modernising the Conservative Party and
for decreasing the United Kingdom's national deficit. Conversely, he
has been criticised by figures on both the left and right , and has
been accused of political opportunism and elitism .
* 1 Early life and career
* 1.1 Family
* 1.2 Education
* 1.3 Early political career
Conservative Research Department
SpecialAdviser to the Chancellor
SpecialAdviser to the
* 1.3.4 Carlton
* 1.3.5 Parliamentary candidacies
* 2 In office
* 2.1 Member of Parliament, 2001–05
* 2.2 Conservative Party leadership
* 2.2.1 2005 leadership election
* 2.2.2 Reaction to Cameron as Leader
* 2.2.3 Allegations of recreational drug use
European Conservatives and Reformists
* 2.3.2 Shortlists for Parliamentary candidates
* 2.3.3 South Africa
* 2.3.4 Raising teaching standards
* 2.3.5 Expenses
* 2.4 2010 general election
* 3 Prime Minister (2010–2016)
* 3.1 Economy
* 3.3 Defence and foreign affairs
* 3.3.1 Defence cuts
NATOmilitary intervention in Libya
* 3.3.3 Falklands
* 3.3.6 Turkey and Israel
* 3.3.7 Military intervention in Iraq and Syria
* 3.4 2015 general election
* 3.5 2016 referendum and resignation
* 4 Policies, views and image
* 4.1 Self-description of views
* 4.2 Home affairs
* 4.2.1 Poverty
* 4.2.2 LGBT rights
* 4.2.3 Comments on other parties and politicians
* 4.3 Foreign affairs
* 4.3.1 Iraq War
* 4.3.2 India
* 4.4 Political image
* 4.4.1 Allegations of social elitism
* 4.4.2 Plots against leadership
* 4.4.3 Cameron and
* 4.4.4 Cameron and Lord Ashcroft
* 4.4.5 Standing in opinion polls
* 5 Post-premiership
* 6 Personal life
* 6.1 Family
* 6.2 Inheritance and family wealth
* 6.3 Leisure
* 6.4 Faith
* 6.5 Honours
* 7 References
* 8 Further reading
* 8.1 Full biography
* 8.2 Books about Cameron as leader
* 8.3 Published works by and about
* 8.4 Political career
* 8.5 Video
* 8.6 News coverage
* 9 External links
EARLY LIFE AND CAREER
Family of David Cameronand
Cameron is the younger son of Ian Donald Cameron (1932–2010) a
stockbroker , and his wife Mary Fleur (née Mount; born 1934), a
Justice of the Peace
Justice of the Peaceand a daughter of Sir William Mount, 2nd
Baronet . Cameron's parents were married on 20 October 1962. The
Toby Younghas described Cameron's background as being
Cameron was born in
Marylebone, London, and raised in Peasemore,
Berkshire. He has a brother, Alexander Cameron , QC (born 1963), a
barrister , and two sisters, Tania Rachel (born 1965) and Clare
Louise (born 1971).
His father, Ian, was born at Blairmore House near
Aberdeenshire, and died near
Toulon, France, on 8 September 2010;
Ian was born with both legs deformed and underwent repeated operations
to correct them. Blairmore was built by Cameron's
great-great-grandfather, Alexander Geddes, who had made a fortune in
the grain trade in
Chicago, Illinois, before returning to Scotland in
the 1880s. Blairmore was sold soon after Ian's birth.
Cameron has said, "On my mother's side of the family, her mother was
a Llewellyn, so Welsh . I'm a real mixture of Scottish , Welsh, and
English ." He has also referenced the German Jewish ancestry of one
of his great-grandfathers, Arthur Levita, a descendant of the Yiddish
From the age of seven, Cameron was educated at two independent
schools : at
Winkfield(near Ascot ) in
Berkshire, which counts Prince Andrew and Prince Edward among its old
boys. Owing to good grades, Cameron entered its top academic class
almost two years early. At the age of thirteen, he went on to Eton
Berkshire, following his father and elder brother. His
early interest was in art. Six weeks before taking his O-Levels he was
caught smoking cannabis . He admitted the offence and had not been
involved in selling drugs, so he was not expelled but was fined,
prevented from leaving the school grounds, and given a "Georgic " (a
punishment which involved copying 500 lines of
Cameron passed twelve O-Levels and then three A-levels : History of
art ; History, in which he was taught by
Michael Kidson; and
Economics with Politics. He obtained three 'A' grades and a '1' grade
Scholarship Levelexam in Economics and Politics. The
following autumn, he passed the entrance exam for the University of
Oxford , and was offered an exhibition at Brasenose College .
Brasenose College, Oxford
After leaving Eton in 1984, Cameron started a nine-month gap year .
For three months he worked as a researcher for his godfather Tim
Rathbone , then Conservative MP for Lewes , during which time he
attended debates in the House of Commons . Through his father, he was
then employed for a further three months in Hong Kong by Jardine
Matheson as a 'ship jumper', an administrative post.
Returning from Hong Kong, Cameron visited the then
where he was approached by two Russian men speaking fluent English.
Cameron was later told by one of his professors that it was
"definitely an attempt" by the
KGBto recruit him.
In October 1985, Cameron began his
Bachelor of Artscourse in
Philosophy, Politics and Economics(PPE) at Brasenose College, Oxford.
Vernon Bogdanor, has described him as "one of
the ablest" students he has taught, with "moderate and sensible
Conservative" political views .
Guy Spier, who shared tutorials with him, remembers him as an
outstanding student: "We were doing our best to grasp basic economic
concepts. David—there was nobody else who came even close. He would
be integrating them with the way the British political system is put
together. He could have lectured me on it, and I would have sat there
and taken notes." When commenting in 2006 on his former pupil's ideas
about a "Bill of Rights" to replace the Human Rights Act , however,
ProfessorBogdanor, himself a Liberal Democrat , said, "I think he is
very confused. I've read his speech and it's filled with
contradictions. There are one or two good things in it but one
glimpses them, as it were, through a mist of misunderstanding".
While at Oxford, Cameron was a member of the student dining society
Bullingdon Club, which has a reputation for an outlandish
drinking culture associated with boisterous behaviour and damaging
property. Cameron's period in the
Bullingdon Clubwas examined in a
Channel 4 docu-drama, _
When Boris Met Dave_.
Cameron graduated in 1988 with a first-class honours BA degree (later
promoted to an MA by seniority).
EARLY POLITICAL CAREER
Conservative Research Department
After graduation, Cameron worked for the Conservative Research
Department between September 1988 and 1993. His first brief was Trade
and Industry, Energy and Privatisation, and he befriended fellow young
colleagues including Edward Llewellyn ,
Ed Vaizeyand Rachel Whetstone
. They and others formed a group they called the "
which was dubbed the "Brat Pack" by the press, though it is better
known as the "
Notting Hill set", a name given to it pejoratively by
Derek Conway. In 1991, Cameron was seconded to
work on briefing
John Majorfor the then twice-weekly sessions of
Prime Minister\'s Questions . One newspaper gave Cameron the credit
for "sharper ...
Despatch boxperformances" by Major, which included
highlighting for Major "a dreadful piece of doublespeak " by Tony
Blair (then the Labour Employment spokesman) over the effect of a
national minimum wage . He became head of the political section of
the Conservative Research Department, and in August 1991 was tipped to
Judith Chaplinas Political Secretary to the Prime Minister.
However, Cameron lost to Jonathan Hill , who was appointed in March
1992. Instead, Cameron was given the responsibility for briefing Major
for his press conferences during the 1992 general election . During
the campaign, Cameron was one of the young "brat pack" of party
strategists who worked between 12 and 20 hours a day, sleeping in the
Alan Duncanin Gayfere Street ,
Westminster, which had been
Major's campaign headquarters during his bid for the Conservative
leadership. Cameron headed the economic section; it was while working
on this campaign that Cameron first worked closely with and befriended
Steve Hilton, who was later to become Director of Strategy during his
party leadership. The strain of getting up at 04:45 every day was
reported to have led Cameron to decide to leave politics in favour of
SpecialAdviser To The Chancellor
The Conservatives' unexpected success in the 1992 election led
Cameron to hit back at older party members who had criticised him and
his colleagues, saying "whatever people say about us, we got the
campaign right," and that they had listened to their campaign workers
on the ground rather than the newspapers. He revealed he had led other
members of the team across
Smith Squareto jeer at
the former Labour headquarters. Cameron was rewarded with a promotion
SpecialAdviser to the
Chancellor of the Exchequer
Chancellor of the Exchequer, Norman Lamont
Cameron was working for Lamont at the time of
Black Wednesday, when
pressure from currency speculators forced the pound sterling out of
European Exchange Rate Mechanism
European Exchange Rate Mechanism. At the 1992 Conservative Party
conference, Cameron had difficulty trying to arrange to brief the
speakers in the economic debate, having to resort to putting messages
on the internal television system imploring the mover of the motion,
Patricia Morris , to contact him. Later that month Cameron joined a
SpecialAdvisers who visited Germany to build better
relations with the
ChristianDemocratic Union ; he was reported to be
"still smarting" over the Bundesbank 's contribution to the economic
Lamont fell out with
Black Wednesdayand became
highly unpopular with the public. Taxes needed to be raised in the
1993 Budget, and Cameron fed the options Lamont was considering
Conservative Campaign Headquartersfor their political
acceptability to be assessed. By May 1993, the Conservatives' average
poll rating dropped below 30%, where they would remain until the 1997
general election . Major and Lamont's personal ratings also declined
dramatically. However, Lamont's unpopularity did not necessarily
affect Cameron: he was considered as a potential "kamikaze " candidate
for the Newbury by-election , which includes the area where he grew
up. However, Cameron decided not to stand.
During the by-election, Lamont gave the response "Je ne regrette rien
" to a question about whether he most regretted claiming to see "the
green shoots of recovery" or admitting to "singing in his bath" with
happiness at leaving the
European Exchange Rate Mechanism
European Exchange Rate Mechanism. Cameron
was identified by one journalist as having inspired this gaffe; it was
speculated that the heavy Conservative defeat in Newbury may have cost
Cameron his chance of becoming Chancellor himself, even though as he
was not a Member of Parliament he could not have been. Lamont was
sacked at the end of May 1993, and decided not to write the usual
letter of resignation; Cameron was given the responsibility to issue
to the press a statement of self-justification.
SpecialAdviser To The Home Secretary
Home Officebuilding Cameron worked at during the 1990s
After Lamont was sacked, Cameron remained at the Treasury for less
than a month before being specifically recruited by Home Secretary
Michael Howard. It was commented that he was still "very much in
favour" and it was later reported that many at the Treasury would
have preferred Cameron to carry on. At the beginning of September
1993, Cameron applied to go on Conservative Central Office's list of
Prospective Parliamentary Candidates.
Cameron was much more socially liberal than Howard but enjoyed
working for him. According to Derek Lewis , then Director-General of
Her Majesty\'s Prison Service , Cameron showed him a "his and hers
list" of proposals made by Howard and his wife, Sandra. Lewis said
Sandra Howard's list included reducing the quality of prison
food , although
Sandra Howarddenied this claim. Lewis reported that
Cameron was "uncomfortable" about the list. In defending Sandra
Howard and insisting that she made no such proposal, the journalist
Bruce Anderson wrote that Cameron had proposed a much shorter
definition on prison catering which revolved around the phrase
"balanced diet", and that Lewis had written thanking Cameron for a
During his work for Howard, Cameron often briefed the media. In March
1994, someone leaked to the press that the Labour Party had called for
a meeting with
John Majorto discuss a consensus on the Prevention of
Terrorism Act . After an inquiry failed to find the source of the
leak, Labour MP
Peter Mandelsondemanded assurance from Howard that
Cameron had not been responsible, which Howard gave. A senior Home
Office civil servant noted the influence of Howard's
saying previous incumbents "would listen to the evidence before making
a decision. Howard just talks to young public school gentlemen from
the party headquarters."
In July 1994, Cameron left his role as
SpecialAdviser to work as the
Director of Corporate Affairs at
Carlton Communications. Carlton,
which had won the ITV franchise for London weekdays in 1991, was a
growing media company which also had film-distribution and
video-producing arms. Cameron was suggested for the role to Carlton
Michael P. Greenby his later mother-in-law Lady
Astor. Cameron left Carlton to run for Parliament in 1997, returning
to his job after his defeat.
In 1997, Cameron played up the Company's prospects for digital
terrestrial television , for which it joined with
ITV Granadaand Sky
to form British Digital Broadcasting . In a roundtable discussion on
the future of broadcasting in 1998 he criticised the effect of
overlapping different regulators on the industry. Carlton's
consortium did win the digital terrestrial franchise but the resulting
company suffered difficulties in attracting subscribers. Cameron
resigned as Director of Corporate Affairs in February 2001 in order to
run for Parliament for a second time, although he remained on the
payroll as a consultant.
Stafford , the constituency Cameron contested in 1997
Having been approved for the Candidates' list, Cameron began looking
for a seat to contest for the 1997 general election . He was reported
to have missed out on selection for Ashford in December 1994 after
failing to get to the selection meeting as a result of train delays.
In January 1996, when two shortlisted contenders dropped out, Cameron
was interviewed and subsequently selected for Stafford , a
constituency revised in boundary changes, which was projected to have
a Conservative majority. The incumbent Conservative MP,
ran instead in the neighbouring constituency of Stone , where he was
re-elected. At the 1996 Conservative Party Conference, Cameron called
for tax cuts in the forthcoming Budget to be targeted at the low-paid
and to "small businesses where people took money out of their own
pockets to put into companies to keep them going". He also said the
Party "should be proud of the Tory tax record but that people needed
reminding of its achievements ... It's time to return to our
tax-cutting agenda. The socialist Prime Ministers of Europe have
Tony Blairbecause they want a federal pussy cat and not a
When writing his election address, Cameron made his own opposition to
British membership of the single European currency clear, pledging not
to support it. This was a break with official Conservative policy but
about 200 other candidates were making similar declarations.
Otherwise, Cameron kept closely to the national party line . He also
campaigned using the claim that a Labour Government would increase the
cost of a pint of beer by 24p; however, the Labour candidate, David
Kidney , portrayed Cameron as "a right-wing Tory". Initially, Cameron
thought he had a 50/50 chance but as the campaign wore on and the
scale of the impending Conservative defeat grew, Cameron prepared
himself for defeat. On election day, Stafford had a swing of 10.7%,
almost the same as the national swing, which made it one of the many
seats to fall to Labour: Kidney defeated Cameron by 24,606 votes
(47.5%) to 20,292 (39.2%), a majority of 4,314 (8.3%).
In the round of selection contests taking place in the run-up to the
2001 general election , Cameron again attempted to be selected for a
winnable seat. He tried for the Kensington and Chelsea seat after the
Alan Clark, but did not make the shortlist. He was in the
final two but narrowly lost at Wealden in March 2000, a loss ascribed
Samantha Cameronto his lack of spontaneity when speaking.
On 4 April 2000 Cameron was selected as prospective candidate (PPC)
for Witney in
Oxfordshire. This had been a safe Conservative seat but
its sitting MP
Shaun Woodward(who had worked with Cameron on the 1992
election campaign) had "crossed the floor" to join the Labour Party
and was selected instead for the safe Labour seat of St Helens South .
Cameron's biographers Francis Elliott and James Hanning describe the
two men as being "on fairly friendly terms". Cameron, advised in his
strategy by friend
Catherine Fall, put a great deal of effort into
"nursing" his potential constituency, turning up at social functions,
and attacking Woodward for changing his mind on fox hunting to support
During the election campaign, Cameron accepted the offer of writing a
regular column for _
The Guardian_'s online section. He won the seat
with a 1.9% swing to the Conservatives, taking 22,153 votes (45%) to
Labour candidate Michael Bartlet's 14,180 (28.8%), a majority of 7,973
MEMBER OF PARLIAMENT, 2001–05
Upon his election to Parliament, he served as a member of the Commons
Home Affairs Select Committee, a prominent appointment for a newly
elected MP. Cameron proposed that the Committee launch an inquiry into
the law on drugs, and urged the consideration of "radical options".
The report recommended a downgrading of Ecstasy from Class A to Class
B, as well as moves towards a policy of 'harm reduction ', which
Cameron determinedly attempted to increase his public visibility,
offering quotations on matters of public controversy. He opposed the
payment of compensation to Gurbux Singh, who had resigned as head of
Commission for Racial Equalityafter a confrontation with the
police; and commented that the
Home Affairs Select Committeehad
taken a long time to discuss whether the phrase "black market" should
be used. However, he was passed over for a front-bench promotion in
July 2002; Conservative leader
Iain Duncan Smithdid invite Cameron
and his ally
George Osborneto coach him on Prime Minister's Questions
in November 2002. The next week, Cameron deliberately abstained in a
vote on allowing same-sex and unmarried couples to adopt children
jointly, against a whip to oppose; his abstention was noted. The wide
scale of abstentions and rebellious votes destabilised the Duncan
In June 2003, Cameron was appointed a shadow minister in the Privy
Council Office as a deputy to
Eric Forth, then Shadow Leader of the
House . He also became a vice- chairman of the Conservative Party when
Michael Howardtook over the leadership in November of that year. He
was appointed Opposition frontbench local government spokesman in
2004, before being promoted to the
Shadow Cabinetthat June as head of
policy co-ordination. Later, he became Shadow Education Secretary in
the post-election reshuffle.
Daniel Finkelsteinhas said of the period leading up to Cameron's
election as leader of the Conservative party that "a small group of us
(myself, David Cameron,
Nick HerbertI think, once or twice) used to meet up in the offices of
Policy Exchange, eat pizza, and consider the future of the
Conservative Party". Cameron's relationship with Osborne is regarded
as particularly close; Conservative MP
Nadhim Zahawisuggested the
closeness of Osborne's relationship with Cameron meant the two
effectively shared power during Cameron's time as Prime Minister.
From February 2002 to August 2005 he was a non-executive director of
Urbium PLC, operator of the Tiger Tiger bar chain.
CONSERVATIVE PARTY LEADERSHIP
David Cameroncampaigning for the 2006 local elections in
Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne
2005 Leadership Election
Main article: Conservative Party leadership election, 2005
Following the Labour victory in the May 2005 general election ,
Michael Howardannounced his resignation as leader of the Conservative
Party and set a lengthy timetable for the leadership election .
Cameron announced on 29 September 2005 that he would be a candidate.
Parliamentary colleagues supporting him included
George Osborne, Shadow Defence Secretary and deputy
leader of the party
Oliver Letwin and former party
William Hague. His campaign did not gain wide support until
his speech, delivered without notes, at the 2005 Conservative party
conference . In the speech he vowed to make people "feel good about
being Conservatives again" and said he wanted "to switch on a whole
new generation." His speech was well-received; _
The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph_
said speaking without notes "showed a sureness and a confidence that
is greatly to his credit".
In the first ballot of Conservative MPs on 18 October 2005, Cameron
came second, with 56 votes, slightly more than expected; David Davis
had fewer than predicted at 62 votes;
Liam Foxcame third with 42
Kenneth Clarkewas eliminated with 38 votes. In the second
ballot on 20 October 2005, Cameron came first with 90 votes; David
Davis was second, with 57; and
Liam Foxwas eliminated with 51 votes.
All 198 Conservative MPs voted in both ballots.
The next stage of the election process, between Davis and Cameron,
was a vote open to the entire party membership. Cameron was elected
with more than twice as many votes as Davis and more than half of all
ballots issued; Cameron won 134,446 votes on a 78% turnout , to
Davis's 64,398. Although Davis had initially been the favourite, it
was widely acknowledged that his candidacy was marred by a
disappointing conference speech. Cameron's election as the Leader of
the Conservative Party and Leader of the Opposition was announced on 6
December 2005. As is customary for an Opposition leader not already a
member, upon election Cameron became a member of the Privy Council ,
being formally approved to join on 14 December 2005, and sworn of the
Council on 8 March 2006.
Reaction To Cameron As Leader
Cameron being interviewed at the headquarters of
Cameron's relative youth and inexperience before becoming leader
invited satirical comparison with
Tony Blair. _
Private Eye_ soon
published a picture of both leaders on its front cover, with the
caption "World's first face transplant a success". On the left , the
_New Statesman_ unfavourably likened his "new style of politics" to
Tony Blair's early leadership years. Cameron was accused of paying
excessive attention to appearance:
ITV Newsbroadcast footage from the
2006 Conservative Party Conference in
Bournemouthshows him wearing
four different sets of clothes within a few hours. In his _Guardian _
column, comedy writer and broadcaster
Charlie Brookerdescribed the
Conservative leader as "a hollow Easter egg with no bag of sweets
inside" in April 2007.
On the right of the party,
Norman Tebbit, the former Conservative
chairman , likened Cameron to
Pol Pot, "intent on purging even the
Thatcherismbefore building a New Modern Compassionate Green
Globally Aware Party".
Quentin DaviesMP, who defected from the
Conservatives to Labour on 26 June 2007, branded him "superficial,
unreliable and an apparent lack of any clear convictions" and stated
David Cameronhad turned the Conservative Party's mission into a
"PR agenda". Traditionalist conservative columnist and author Peter
Hitchens wrote, "Mr Cameron has abandoned the last significant
difference between his party and the established left", by embracing
social liberalism. _Daily Telegraph_ correspondent and blogger Gerald
Warner was particularly scathing about Cameron's leadership, saying
that it alienated traditionalist conservative elements from the
Before he became Conservative leader, Cameron was reportedly known to
friends and family as "Dave", though his preference is "David" in
public. Labour used the slogan
Dave the Chameleonin their 2006
local elections party broadcast to portray Cameron as an ever-changing
populist , which was criticised as negative campaigning by the
conservative press including _The Telegraph _, though Cameron
asserted the broadcast had become his daughter's "favourite video".
Allegations Of Recreational Drug Use
During the leadership election, allegations were made that Cameron
had used cannabis and cocaine recreationally before becoming an MP.
Pressed on this point during the BBC television programme _Question
Time _, Cameron expressed the view that everybody was allowed to "err
and stray" in their past. During his 2005 Conservative leadership
campaign he addressed the question of drug consumption by remarking
that "I did lots of things before I came into politics which I
shouldn't have done. We all did."
SHADOW CABINET APPOINTMENTS
Shadow Cabinet of David Cameron Cameron speaking
at the Home Office, on 13 May 2010
Shadow Cabinetappointments included MPs associated with the
various wings of the party. Former leader
William Haguewas appointed
to the Foreign Affairs brief, while both
George Osborneand David
Davis were retained, as Shadow
Chancellor of the Exchequer
Chancellor of the Exchequerand Shadow
Home Secretaryrespectively. Hague, assisted by Davis, stood in for
Cameron during his paternity leave in February 2006. In June 2008
Davis announced his intention to resign as an MP , and was immediately
replaced as Shadow
Dominic Grieve; Davis' surprise
move was seen as a challenge to the changes introduced under Cameron's
David Cameronwith the future Prime Minister Theresa
May , who was a member of the
Shadow Cabinetfrom 1999 until 2010
In January 2009 a reshuffle of the
Shadow Cabinetwas undertaken. The
chief change was the appointment of former Chancellor of the Exchequer
Kenneth Clarkeas Shadow Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform
David Cameronstating that "With Ken Clarke's arrival, we
now have the best economic team." The reshuffle also saw eight other
European ConservativesAnd Reformists
During his successful 2005 campaign to be elected Leader of the
Conservative Party, Cameron pledged that the Conservative Party's
Members of the
European Parliamentwould leave the European People\'s
Party group, which had a "federalist" approach to the European Union.
Once elected Cameron began discussions with right-wing and Eurosceptic
parties in other European countries, mainly in eastern Europe, and in
July 2006 he concluded an agreement to form the Movement for European
Reform with the Czech Civic Democratic Party , leading to the
formation of a new
European Parliamentgroup, the European
Conservatives and Reformists , in 2009 after the European Parliament
elections . Cameron attended a gathering at
cinema celebrating the foundation of the alliance.
In forming the caucus, which had 54 MEPs drawn from eight of the 27
EU member states , Cameron reportedly broke with two decades of
Conservative co-operation with the centre-right
the European People\'s Party (EPP), on the grounds that they are
dominated by European federalists and supporters of the Lisbon treaty
. EPP leader
Wilfried Martens, former
Prime Minister of Belgium
Prime Minister of Belgium,
has stated "Cameron's campaign has been to take his party back to the
centre in every policy area with one major exception: Europe. ... I
can't understand his tactics. Merkel and Sarkozy will never accept his
Shortlists For Parliamentary Candidates
Similarly, Cameron's initial "A-List " of prospective parliamentary
candidates was attacked by members of his party, and the policy was
discontinued in favour of sex-balanced final shortlists. Before being
discontinued, the policy had been criticised by senior Conservative MP
and former Prisons Spokeswoman
Ann Widdecombeas an "insult to women",
and she had accused Cameron of "storing up huge problems for the
In April 2009, _
The Independent_ reported that in 1989, while Nelson
Mandela remained imprisoned under the apartheid regime, David Cameron
had accepted a trip to South Africa paid for by an anti-sanctions
lobby firm. A spokesperson for Cameron responded by saying that the
Conservative Party was at that time opposed to sanctions against South
Africa and that his trip was a fact-finding mission. However, the
newspaper reported that Cameron's then superior at Conservative
Research Department called the trip "jolly", saying that "it was all
terribly relaxed, just a little treat, a perk of the job. The Botha
regime was attempting to make itself look less horrible, but I don't
regard it as having been of the faintest political consequence."
Cameron distanced himself from his party's history of opposing
sanctions against the regime. He was criticised by Labour MP Peter
Hain , himself an anti-apartheid campaigner.
Raising Teaching Standards
At the launch of the Conservative Party's education manifesto in
January 2010, Cameron declared an admiration for the "brazenly elite"
approach to education of countries such as
Singaporeand South Korea
and expressed a desire to "elevate the status of teaching in our
country". He suggested the adoption of more stringent criteria for
entry to teaching and offered repayment of the loans of maths and
science graduates obtaining first or 2.1 degrees from "good"
Wes Streeting, then president of the National Union of Students ,
said "The message that the Conservatives are sending to the majority
of students is that if you didn't go to a university attended by
members of the Shadow Cabinet, they don't believe you're worth as
During the MPs expenses scandal in 2009, Cameron said he would lead
Conservatives in repaying "excessive" expenses and threatened to expel
MPs that refused after the expense claims of several members of his
shadow cabinet had been questioned:
We have to acknowledge just how bad this is, the public are really
angry and we have to start by saying, "Look, this system that we have,
that we used, that we operated, that we took part in—it was wrong
and we are sorry about that". Cameron is in favour of
self-determination for Gibraltarians , 10 September 2013
One day later, _
The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph_ published figures showing over
five years he had claimed £82,450 on his second home allowance.
Cameron repaid £680 claimed for repairs to his constituency home.
Although he was not accused of breaking any rules, Cameron was placed
on the defensive over mortgage interest expense claims covering his
constituency home, after a report in _
The Mail on Sunday_ suggested
he could have reduced the mortgage interest bill by putting an
additional £75,000 of his own money towards purchasing the home in
Witney instead of paying off an earlier mortgage on his London home.
Cameron said that doing things differently would not have saved the
taxpayer any money, as he was paying more on mortgage interest than he
was able to reclaim as expenses anyway He also spoke out in favour of
laws giving voters the power to "recall" or "sack" MPs accused of
wrongdoing. In April 2014, he was criticised for his handling of the
expenses row surrounding Culture Secretary
Maria Miller, when he
rejected calls from fellow Conservative MPs to sack her from the front
2010 GENERAL ELECTION
United Kingdom general election, 2010and 2010 United
Kingdom government formation
The Conservatives had last won a general election in 1992 . The
general election of 2010 resulted in the Conservatives, led by
Cameron, winning the largest number of seats (306). This was, however,
20 seats short of an overall majority and resulted in the nation's
first hung parliament since February 1974 .
Talks between Cameron and Liberal Democrat leader
Nick Cleggled to
an agreed Conservative/Liberal Democrat coalition. Cameron in late
2009 had urged the Liberal Democrats to join the Conservatives in a
new "national movement" saying there was "barely a cigarette paper"
between them on a large number of issues. The invitation was rejected
at the time by the Liberal Democrat leader,
Nick Clegg, who said that
the Conservatives were totally different from his party and that the
Lib Dems were the true "progressives" in UK politics.
PRIME MINISTER (2010–2016)
Premiership of David Cameron Further information:
Second Cameron ministry
It has been suggested that portions of this section be split out
and merged into the article titled
Premiership of David Cameron_,
which already exists. (Discuss ) _(April 2017)_
Meeting with US President
Barack Obamaduring the 2010 G20
On 11 May 2010, following the resignation of
Gordon Brownas Prime
Minister and on his recommendation, Queen
Elizabeth IIinvited Cameron
to form a government. At age 43, Cameron became the youngest Prime
Minister since Lord Liverpool in 1812, beating the record previously
Tony Blairin May 1997. In his first address outside 10
Downing Street, he announced his intention to form a coalition
government , the first since the Second World War , with the Liberal
Democrats . Cameron in 2009 as Leader of the Opposition, with Lib
Nick Clegg, who later became Deputy Prime Minister of the
United Kingdom, and Lib Dem spokesman
Cameron outlined how he intended to "put aside party differences and
work hard for the common good and for the national interest." As one
of his first moves Cameron appointed
Nick Clegg, the leader of the
Liberal Democrats, as Deputy Prime Minister on 11 May 2010. Between
them, the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats controlled 363 seats in
the House of Commons, with a majority of 76 seats.
In June 2010 Cameron described the economic situation as he came to
power as "even worse than we thought" and warned of "difficult
decisions" to be made over spending cuts. By the beginning of 2015 he
was able to claim that his government\'s austerity programme had
succeeded in halving the budget deficit, though critics described the
claim as misleading since it was only true of the deficit measured as
a percentage of GDP.
Cameron agreed to holding the Scottish independence referendum, 2014
and eliminated the "devomax " option from the ballot for a straight
out yes or no vote. He supported the successful Better Together
campaign. He had also backed a successful campaign to retain the
status quo in a referendum on changing the voting system held at the
request of his coalition partners.
He supported the introduction of gay marriage despite more of his own
Conservative MPs voting against the move than for it, meaning the
support of Lib Dem MPs in government and Labour MPs in opposition was
required to allow it to pass.
Earlier in his term he had managed to secure a huge majority for UK
participation in UN-backed military action in Libya, but Cameron
became the first prime minister in over 100 years to lose a foreign
policy vote in the House of Commons over proposed military action
against Assad's regime in Syria.
United Kingdom government austerity programme UK
median household disposable income by income group for 2008-2016,
indexed to 2008
In response to the
Great Recession, Cameron undertook the austerity
programme. This was a deficit reduction programme consisting of
sustained reductions in public spending, intended to reduce the
government budget deficit and the welfare state in the United Kingdom
National Health Service and education have been "ringfenced "
and protected from direct spending cuts. Together with Chancellor
George Osborne, Cameron aimed to eliminate the structural deficit
(i.e. deficit on current spending as opposed to investment) and to
have government debt falling as a percentage of GDP. By 2015 the
deficit, as a percentage of GDP, had been reduced to half of what it
was in 2010, and the sale of government assets (mostly the shares of
banks nationalised in the 2000s) had resulted in government debt as a
proportion of GDP falling.
Cameron said immigration from outside the EU should be subject to
annual limits. He said in July 2013 that "in the last decade we have
had an immigration policy that's completely lax. The pressure it puts
on our public services and communities is too great." In 2015, _The
Independent_ reported, "The Conservatives have failed spectacularly to
deliver their pledge to reduce net migration to less than 100,000 a
Office for National Statistics(ONS) announced a net flow of
298,000 migrants to the UK in the 12 months to September 2014—up
from 210,000 in the previous year."
DEFENCE AND FOREIGN AFFAIRS
Cameron visits British troops in
Afghanistan, 3 October 2014
In 2014, Cameron dismissed warnings that his cuts to the UK defence
budget had left it less than a "first class-player in terms of
defence" and no longer a "full partner" to the United States.
In the July 2015 budget Chancellor
George Osborneannounced that the
UK defence spending would meet the
NATOtarget of 2% of GDP.
NATOMilitary Intervention In Libya
Operation Ellamy Cameron and Foreign Secretary
William Haguespeaking to
NATOSecretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen
London Conference on Libya, 29 March 2011.
Cameron condemned the "appalling and unacceptable" violence used
against anti-Gaddafi protesters at the beginning of the Libyan Civil
War After weeks of lobbying by the UK and its allies, on 17 March
United Nations Security Council
United Nations Security Councilapproved a no-fly zone to
prevent government forces loyal to
Muammar Gaddafifrom carrying out
air attacks on anti-Gaddafi rebels . Two days later the UK and the
United States fired more than 110 Tomahawk missiles at targets in
Cameron has said he is "proud" of the role
United Kingdomplayed in
the overthrow of Gaddafi's government. Cameron also stated that UK
had played a "very important role", adding that "a lot of people said
that Tripoli was completely different to Benghazi and that the two
don't get on—they were wrong. ... People who said 'this is all going
to be an enormous swamp of Islamists and extremists'—they were
In 2015 through 2016 the
Foreign Affairs Select Committeeconducted
an extensive and highly critical inquiry into the British involvement
in the civil war. It concluded that the early threat to civilians had
been overstated and that the significant Islamist element in the rebel
forces had not been recognised, due to an intelligence failure. By
summer 2011 the initial limited intervention to protect Libyan
civilians had become a policy of regime change . However that new
policy did not include proper support and for a new government,
leading to a political and economic collapse in Libya and the growth
ISILin North Africa. It concluded that Cameron was ultimately
responsible for this British policy failure.
Barack Obamaalso acknowledged there had been issues
with following up the conflict planning, commenting in an interview
The Atlantic_ magazine that Cameron had allowed himself be
"distracted by a range of other things"
Falkland Islands sovereignty dispute
In 2013, in response to
Argentina's calls for negotiations over the
Falkland Islands' sovereignty, a referendum was called asking
Falkland Islanderswhether they supported the continuation of their
status as an Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom. With a turnout
of 91.94%, an overwhelming 99.8% voted to remain a British territory
with only three votes against.
In light of this, Cameron said: "We believe in the Falkland
islanders' right to self-determination. They had a referendum. They
couldn't have been more clear about wanting to remain with our country
and we should protect and defend them".
Cameron supported Britain's close relationship with
In January 2015, Cameron travelled to the Saudi capital
his respects following the death of the nation's King Abdullah .
WikiLeaks, Cameron initiated a secret deal with Saudi
Arabia ensuring both were elected onto the U.N. Human Rights Council .
Cameron's government announced "firm political support" for the 2015
Saudi-led military intervention in Yemen against the Shi\'a Houthis ,
re-supplying the Saudi military with weapons and providing them with
Cameron reiterated calls for an independent investigation into the
alleged war crimes during the final stages of the Sri Lankan Civil War
. "There needs to be proper inquiries into what happened at the end
of the war, there needs to be proper human rights, democracy for the
Tamil minority in that country" Cameron stated. He stated that, if
this investigation was not completed by March 2014, he would press for
an independent international inquiry. This followed a visit to
Jaffna, a war-ravaged town in the northern part of
Cameron was the first foreign leader to visit
Jaffnasince the island
once colonised by Britain became independent in 1948. Cameron was
mobbed by demonstrators, mostly women, seeking his assistance in
tracing missing relatives .
Turkey And Israel
In a speech in
Ankarain July 2010, Cameron stated unequivocally his
support for Turkey's accession to the EU, citing economic, security
and political considerations, and claimed that those who opposed
Turkish membership were driven by "protectionism, narrow nationalism
or prejudice". In that speech, he was also critical of Israeli
action during the
Gaza flotilla raid
Gaza flotilla raidand its Gaza policy, and repeated
his opinion that Israel had turned Gaza into a "prison camp", having
previously referred to Gaza as "a giant open prison". These views
were met with mixed reactions. The Cameron government does not
formally recognise the Ottoman Empire's massacres of Armenians as a
During the EU referendum campaign, Cameron stated that Turkey was
unlikely to be ready to join the EU 'until the year 3000' at its
current rate of progress.
At the end of May 2011, Cameron stepped down as patron of the Jewish
National Fund , becoming the first British prime minister not to be
patron of the charity in the 110 years of its existence.
In a speech in 2011 Cameron said: "You have a Prime Minister whose
commitment and determination to work for peace in Israel is deep and
strong. Britain will continue to push for peace, but will always stand
up for Israel against those who wish her harm". He said he wanted to
reaffirm his "unshakable" belief in Israel within the same message.
He also voiced his opposition to the Goldstone Report, claiming it had
been biased against Israel and not enough blame had been placed on
In March 2014, during his first visit to Israel as Prime Minister,
Cameron addressed Israel's
Jerusalem, where he offered his
full support for peace efforts between Israelis and Palestinians,
hoping a two-state solution might be achieved. He also made clear his
rejection of trade or academic boycotts against Israel, acknowledged
Israel's right to defend its citizens as "a right enshrined in
international law," and made note of the
Balfour Declarationof 1917,
as "the moment when the State of Israel went from a dream to a plan,
Britain has played a proud and vital role in helping to secure Israel
as a homeland for the Jewish people." During his two-day visit, he
met with Israeli Prime Minister
Benjamin Netanyahuand with
Palestinian Authority President
Mahmoud Abbas. Senior Foreign Office
minister The Baroness Warsi resigned over the Cameron government's
decision not to condemn Israel for the
2014 Israel–Gaza conflict,
saying that the government's "approach and language during the current
crisis in Gaza is morally indefensible."
Military Intervention In Iraq And Syria
In August 2013, Cameron lost a motion in favour of bombing Syrian
armed forces in response to the
Ghouta chemical attack, becoming the
first prime minister to suffer such a foreign-policy defeat since
1782. In September 2014, MPs passed a motion in favour of British
planes joining, at the request of the Iraqi government, a bombing
campaign against Islamic State (IS) targets in Iraq; the motion
explicitly expressed parliament's disapproval of UK military action in
Syria. Cameron promised that, before expanding UK air strikes to
include IS units in Syria, he would seek parliamentary approval.
In July 2015, a Freedom of Information (FOI) request by Reprieve
revealed that, without the knowledge of UK parliamentarians, RAF
pilots had, in fact, been bombing targets in Syria, and that Cameron
knew of this. The prime minister, along with Defence Secretary
Michael Fallon, faced strong criticism, including from Tory MPs, for
not informing the Commons about this deployment; the Ministry of
Defence said that the pilots concerned were "embedded" with foreign
military forces, and so were "effectively" operating as such, while
Fallon denied that MPs had been, as he put it, "kept in the dark".
The Reprieve FoI request also revealed that British drone pilots had
been embedded, almost continuously, with American forces at Creech Air
Force Base since 2008. These drone operators, who were "a gift of
services", meaning the UK still paid their salaries and covered their
expenses, had been carrying out operations that included
reconnaissance in Syria to assist American strikes against IS.
Cameron and Russian President Vladimir Putin, G20 Antalya summit ,
Turkey, 16 November 2015
Fallon said that it was "illogical" for the UK not to bomb
Syria as the organisation does not "differentiate between Syria and
Iraq" and is "organised and directed and administered from Syria".
Following the terrorist attacks on Paris in November 2015, for which
Islamic State claimed responsibility, Cameron began pushing for a
strategy for the
Royal Air Force
Royal Air Forceto bomb Syria in retaliation.
Cameron set out his case for military intervention to Parliament on 26
November, telling MPs that it was the only way to guarantee Britain's
safety and would be part of a "comprehensive" strategy to defeat IS.
On 3 December 2015 MPs voted 397–223 in favour of launching air
ISILtargets in Syria. The vote for military action
was supported by all but seven members of the Parliamentary
Conservative Party, as well as 66 Labour MPs who backed the government
in defiance of their leader,
Jeremy Corbyn, who had expressed his
opposition to air strikes.
2015 GENERAL ELECTION
United Kingdom general election, 2015 Cameron
with Polish Prime Minister
Beata Szydłoin Warsaw, 10 December 2015
On 7 May 2015, Cameron was re-elected UK Prime Minister with a
majority in the Commons. The Conservative Party's decisive win in the
general election was as a surprise victory, as most polls and
commentators predicted the outcome would be too close to call and
result in a second hung parliament . Cameron said of his first term
when returned as Prime Minister for a second term that he was "proud
to lead the first coalition government in 70 years" and offered
particular thanks to Clegg for his role in it. Forming the first
Conservative majority government since 1992,
David Cameronbecame the
first Prime Minister to be re-elected immediately after a full term
with a larger popular vote share since Lord Salisbury at the 1900
general election .
In response to the
November 2015 Paris attacks, Cameron secured the
support of the House of Commons to extend air strikes against ISIS
into Syria. Earlier that year, Cameron had outlined a five-year
strategy to counter Islamist extremism and subversive teachings.
2016 REFERENDUM AND RESIGNATION
Cameron announcing his resignation as Prime Minister in the wake
of the UK vote on EU membership.
As promised in the election manifesto, Cameron set a date for a
referendum on whether the UK should remain a member of the European
Union , and announced that he would be campaigning for Britain to
remain within a "reformed EU". The terms of the UK's membership of
the EU were re-negotiated , with agreement reached in February 2016.
The referendum came to be known as
Brexit, a portmanteau of
"British" and "exit". The referendum was held on 23 June 2016 and the
British electorate voted by 52% to 48% in favour of leaving the
European Union. On 24 June, a few hours after the results became
known, Cameron announced that he would resign the office of Prime
Minister by the start of the Conservative Party Conference in October
2016. In a farewell speech outside 10 Downing Street, he stated that,
on account of his own advocacy on behalf of remaining in the EU, "I do
not think it would be right for me to try to be the captain that
steers our country to its next destination."
Very intense criticism followed the realisation of just how much the
referendum had split the country, with _The Independent_ calling the
referendum an act of "indescribably selfish recklessness." In late
Foreign Affairs Select Committeewas told that Cameron had
refused to allow the Civil Service to make plans for Brexit, a
decision the committee described as "an act of gross negligence."
The Conservative Party leadership election was scheduled for 9
September and the new leader was expected to be in place by the autumn
conference, set to begin on 2 October. On 11 July, following the
Andrea Leadsomfrom the Conservative Party leadership
election and the confirmation of
Theresa Mayas the new leader of the
Conservative Party , Cameron announced he would hold a final cabinet
meeting on 12 July and then following a final Prime Minister\'s
Questions submit his resignation to the Queen on the afternoon of 13
July. After his final Prime Minister's Questions, Cameron received a
standing ovation from MPs; his final comment was, "I was the future
once" – a reference to his 2005 quip to Tony Blair, "he was the
future once". Cameron then submitted his resignation to the Queen
later that day.
Although no longer serving as Prime Minister, Cameron originally
stated that he would continue inside Parliament, on the Conservative
backbenches . On 12 September, however, he announced that he was
resigning his seat with immediate effect. He was succeeded as MP for
Witney by fellow Conservative
Robert Courts. _The Washington Post_
described him as having "sped away without glancing back" once Theresa
May had "vaulted herself out of the hurricane-strength political
wreckage of Britain's vote to leave the European Union."
POLICIES, VIEWS AND IMAGE
Political positions of David Cameron
SELF-DESCRIPTION OF VIEWS
Cameron described himself in December 2005 as a "modern compassionate
conservative " and spoke of a need for a new style of politics, saying
that he was "fed up with the
Punch and Judy
Punch and Judypolitics of
He was "certainly a big Thatcher fan, but I don't know whether that
makes me a Thatcherite", claiming to be a "liberal Conservative",
though "not a deeply ideological person." As Leader of the
Opposition, Cameron asserted that he did not intend to oppose the
government as a matter of course, and would offer his support in areas
of agreement. He has urged politicians to concentrate more on
improving people's happiness and "general well-being", instead of
focusing solely on "financial wealth". There were claims that he
described himself to journalists at a dinner during the leadership
contest as the "heir to Blair".
In his first Conservative Conference speech as party leader in
Bournemouthin 2006, he described the
National Health Serviceas "one
of the 20th Century's greatest achievements". He went on to say, "Tony
Blair explained his priorities in three words: education, education,
education. I can do it in three letters: N.H.S." He also talked about
his severely disabled son, Ivan, concluding "So, for me, it is not
just a question of saying the NHS is safe in my hands—of course it
will be. My family is so often in the hands of the NHS, so I want them
to be safe there." Cameron talks with US President Barack Obama
and German Chancellor
Angela Merkel, 25 May 2011
Cameron said that he believes in "spreading freedom and democracy,
and supporting humanitarian intervention" in cases such as the
Sudan. However, he rejected neo-conservatism
because, as a conservative , he recognises "the complexities of human
nature , and will always be sceptical of grand schemes to remake the
world." A supporter of multilateralism as "a country may act
alone—but it cannot always succeed alone", he believes
multilateralism can take the form of acting through "
NATO, the UN ,
the G8 , the EU and other institutions", or through international
alliances . Cameron said that "If the West is to help other
countries, we must do so from a position of genuine moral authority"
and "we must strive above all for legitimacy in what we do."
He believes that British Muslims have a duty to integrate into
British culture, but noted in an article published in 2007 that the
Muslimcommunity finds aspects such as high divorce rates and drug use
uninspiring, and that "Not for the first time, I found myself thinking
that it is mainstream Britain which needs to integrate more with the
British Asian way of life, not the other way around." In his first
speech as PM on radicalisation and the causes of terrorism in February
2011, Cameron said that 'state multiculturalism ' had failed. In 2010
he appointed the first
Muslimmember of the British cabinet, Baroness
Warsi , as a minister without portfolio, and in 2012 made her a
special minister of state in foreign affairs. She resigned, however,
in August 2014 over the government's handling of the 2014
Israel–Gaza conflict .
Whilst urging members of his party to support the coalition's
proposals for same-sex marriage , Cameron said that he backed gay
marriage not in spite of his conservatism but because he is a
conservative, and claimed it was about equality. In 2012, Cameron
publicly apologised for Thatcher-era policies on homosexuality,
specifically the introduction of the controversial
Section 28of the
Local Government Act 1988, which he described as "a mistake".
Political positions of David Cameron§ Welfare
In 2006 Cameron described poverty as a "moral disgrace" and promised
to tackle relative poverty . In 2007 Cameron promised, "We can make
British poverty history, and we will make British poverty history".
Also in 2007 he stated "Ending child poverty is central to improving
child well-being". In 2015
Polly Toynbeequestioned Cameron's
commitment to tackling poverty, contrasting his earlier statements
agreeing that "poverty is relative" with proposals to change the
government's poverty measure, and saying that cuts in child tax
credits would increase child poverty among low-paid working families.
In 2010 Cameron was given a score of 36% in favour of lesbian, gay
and bisexual equality by Stonewall . Prior to 2005, Cameron was
opposed to gay rights, calling it a "fringe agenda" and attacking the
Tony Blairfor "moving heaven and earth to allow
the promotion of homosexuality in our schools" by repealing the
Section 28of the
Local Government Act 1988. Cameron is
also recorded by
Hansardas having voted against same-sex adoption
rights in 2002, but he denies this, claiming he abstained from the
three-line whip imposed on him by his party. In 2008, he wanted
lesbians who receive IVF treatment to be required to name a father
figure, which received condemnation from LGBT equality groups.
However, Cameron supported commitment for gay couples in a 2005
speech, and in October 2011 urged Conservative MPs to support gay
In November 2012, Cameron and
Nick Cleggagreed to fast-track
legislation for introducing same-sex marriage. Cameron stated that he
wanted to give religious groups the ability to host gay marriage
ceremonies, and that he did not want to exclude gay people from a
"great institution". In 2013, the
Marriage(Same Sex Couples) Act
2013 became law despite opposition from more than half of his fellow
Conservative MPs, including Cabinet ministers
Owen Patersonand David
Jones . He also subsequently appointed two women who had voted
against same-sex marriage as ministers in the Government Equalities
Caroline Dinenagefollowing the 2015 general
In August 2013, he rejected calls by
Stephen Fryand others to strip
Russia from hosting the
2014 Winter Olympics
2014 Winter Olympicsdue to its anti-gay laws.
Cameron did not attend the games but denied it was a boycott in
protest at Russia's laws, having previously raised the issue of gay
rights in the country with
Comments On Other Parties And Politicians
Gordon Brown(when Brown was Chancellor of the
Exchequer ) for being "an analogue politician in a digital age" and
referred to him as "the roadblock to reform". As Prime Minister, he
reacted to press reports that Brown could be the next head of the
International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fundby hinting that he may block the
appointment, citing the huge national debt that Brown left the country
with as a reason for Brown not being suitable for the role.
He said that
John Prescott"clearly looks a fool" after Prescott's
personal indiscretions were revealed in spring 2006, and wondered if
the Deputy Prime Minister had broken the ministerial code. During a
speech to the Ethnic Media Conference in November 2006, Cameron also
Ken Livingstone, the
Mayor of London
Mayor of London, as an "ageing far
left politician" following Livingstone's criticism of Trevor Phillips
, head of the Commission for Racial Equality. Cameron with his
John Major, and deputy
Nick Clegg, during Barack Obama's address to Parliament, 10 June 2011
In 2006, Cameron made a speech in which he described extremist
Islamic organisations and the
British National Partyas "mirror
images" to each other, both preaching "creeds of pure hatred".
Cameron is listed as being a supporter of
Unite Against Fascism
Unite Against Fascism.
In April 2006, Cameron accused the
UK Independence Partyof being
"fruitcakes, loonies and closet racists, mostly," leading UKIP MEP
Nigel Farage(who became leader in September of that year) to demand
an apology for the remarks. Right-wing Conservative MP
Bob Spink, who
later defected to UKIP, also criticised the remarks, as did _The
Daily Telegraph _. Cameron was seen encouraging Conservative MPs to
join the standing ovation given to
Tony Blairat the end of his last
Prime Minister's Question Time; he had paid tribute to the "huge
efforts" Blair had made and said Blair had "considerable achievements
to his credit, whether it is peace in Northern Ireland or his work in
the developing world, which will endure".
In September 2015, after the election of
Jeremy Corbynas Labour
leader, Cameron called the party a "threat" to British national and
economic security, on the basis of Corbyn's defence and fiscal
In an interview on _
Friday Night with Jonathan Ross_ in 2006,
Cameron said that he supported the decision of the then Labour
Government to go to war in Iraq , and said that he thought supporters
should "see it through". He also supported a motion brought by the
Plaid Cymruin 2006 calling for an inquiry into the
government's conduct of the Iraq war. In 2011, he oversaw the
withdrawal of British soldiers from Iraq. He repeatedly called for the
Chilcot Inquiryinto the Iraq war to conclude and publish its
findings, saying "People want to know the truth".
Indian Prime Minister
Narendra Modiand Cameron at the Wembley
Stadium, 13 November 2015
Cameron was a strong advocate of increased ties between India and the
United Kingdom, describing Indian–British relations as the "New
Special Relationship" in 2010.
In October 2012, as
Narendra Modirose to prominence in India, the UK
rescinded its boycott of the then-
Gujaratstate Chief Minister over
religious riots in
Gujaratin 2002 that left more than 2,000 dead,
and in November 2013, Cameron commented that he was "open" to meeting
Modi. Modi was later elected as Prime Minister in a landslide
majority, leading to Cameron calling Modi and congratulating him on
the "election success", one of the first Western leaders to do so.
Allegations Of Social Elitism
Cameron speaking at a Conservative reception in 2008
While Leader of the Conservative Party , Cameron has been accused of
reliance on "old-boy networks", and conversely attacked by his party
for the imposition of selective shortlists of women and ethnic
minority prospective parliamentary candidates .
Some of Cameron's senior appointments, such as
Chancellor of the Exchequer
Chancellor of the Exchequer, are former members of the Bullingdon
Michael Goveconceded it was "ridiculous" how many fellow
Cabinet ministers were old-Etonians, though he placed the blame on the
failings of the state education system rather than Cameron. However,
Michael Mosbacher, co-founder of _Standpoint _ magazine, wrote that
Cameron's Cabinet has the lowest number of Etonians of any past
Conservative government: "David Cameron's government is the least
patrician, least wealthy and least public-school-educated—indeed the
least Etonian Conservative-led government this country has ever seen".
Cameron speaking in 2010
Plots Against Leadership
Following poor results in the May 2012 local elections after a
difficult few months for the government, with Labour increasing its
lead in the polls, there were concerns from Conservative MPs about
Cameron's leadership and his electability. David Davies , the chairman
Welsh Affairs Select Committee, accused the Tory leadership of
"incompetence" and hinted that it could risk Cameron's leadership.
Nadine Dorrieswarned the Prime Minister that a leadership challenge
Later that year, Tory MP
Brian Binleyopenly said that Cameron's
leadership was like being a "maid" to the Liberal Democrats, and
accused him of leading the party to defeat. In January 2013 it was
Adam Afriyiewas planning his own bid for the Tory
leadership with the support of fellow MPs
Jonathan Djanoglyand Dan Byles
The Times_ and _
ConservativeHome_ revealed that a 'rebel reserve'
of 55 Tory MPs gave firm pledges to a co-ordinating MP to support a
motion of 'no confidence' and write to Brady simultaneously, more than
the 46 MPs needed to trigger a vote of no confidence. Andrew Bridgen
openly called for a vote of confidence in Cameron's leadership and
claimed that the Prime Minister had a "credibility problem" but he
dropped his bid for a contest a year later.
Cameron And Andy Coulson
In 2007 Cameron appointed
Andy Coulson, former editor of the _News
of the World _, as his director of communications. Coulson had
resigned as the paper's editor following the conviction of a reporter
in relation to illegal phone hacking , although stating that he knew
nothing about it. In June 2010
Downing Streetconfirmed Coulson's
annual salary as £140,000, the highest pay of any special adviser to
In January 2011 Coulson left his post, saying coverage of the
phone-hacking scandal was making it difficult to give his best to the
job. In July 2011 he was arrested and questioned by police in
connection with further allegations of illegal activities at the News
of the World, and released on bail. Despite a call to apologise for
hiring Coulson by the leader of the opposition, Cameron defended the
appointment, saying that he had taken a conscious choice to give
someone who had screwed up a second chance. On 20 July, in a special
parliamentary session at the House of Commons , arranged to discuss
News International phone hacking scandal, Cameron said that he
"regretted the furore" that had resulted from his appointment of
Coulson, and that "with hindsight" he would not have hired him.
Coulson was detained and charged with perjury by
30 May 2012. Coulson was convicted of conspiracy to hack phones in
June 2014. Prior to the jury handing down their verdict, Cameron
issued a "full and frank" apology for hiring him, saying "I am
extremely sorry that I employed him. It was the wrong decision and I
am very clear about that." The judge hearing Coulson's trial was
critical of the prime minister, pondering whether the intervention was
out of ignorance or deliberate, and demanded an explanation.
Cameron And Lord Ashcroft
Although Lord Ashcroft played a significant role in the 2010
election, he was not offered a ministerial post. In June 2012,
shortly before a major Tory rebellion on
House of Lords
House of Lordsreform ,
Peter Obornecredited Ashcroft with "stopping the Coalition
working" by moving policy on Europe, welfare, education, taxation to
the right. According to Oborne, Ashcroft, owner of both the
ConservativeHomeand PoliticsHome websites and a "brutal critic of the
Coalition from the start", had established "megaphone presence" in the
on-line media. He believes Cameron's philosophy of liberal
conservatism has been destroyed by "coordinated attacks on the
Coalition" and "the two parties are no longer trying to pretend that
they are governing together."
In _The Observer_,
Andrew Rawnsleycommented that he believes that
Ashcroft uses carefully timed opinion polls to "generate publicity",
"stir trouble for the prime minister" and influence the direction of
the party. In 2015 Ashcroft released _
Call Me Dave_, an unauthorised
biography of Cameron written with journalist
Isabel Oakeshott, which
attracted significant media attention for various lurid allegations
about Cameron's time at university. The book includes an anonymous
anecdote about Cameron, now referred to as
Piggate. No evidence for
the anecdote has been produced. Many commentators have described the
accusations as a "revenge job" by Ashcroft, who was not offered a
senior role in government when Cameron came to power in 2010.
Ashcroft initially claimed the book was "not about settling scores",
while Oakeshott said that they had held back publication until after
the 2015 general election to avoid damaging Cameron and the
Conservatives' electoral chances. Ashcroft subsequently admitted that
the initiation allegations "may have been case of mistaken identity"
and has stated that he has a personal "beef" with Cameron.
Cameron later went on to deny these allegations and stated that
Ashcroft's reasons for writing the book were clear and the public
could see clearly through it.
Standing In Opinion Polls
Protesters outside 10
Downing Streetcalling for Cameron to
resign over the
Panama Papersscandal, 9 April 2016
An ICM poll in September 2007 saw Cameron rated the least popular of
the three main party leaders. A
YouGovpoll on party leaders
conducted on 9–10 June 2011 found 44% of the electorate thought he
was doing well and 50% thought he was doing badly, whilst 38% thought
he would be the best PM and 35% did not know. In the run up to the
2015 election, Cameron achieved his first net positive approval rating
in four years, with a
YouGovpoll finding 47% of voters thought he was
doing well as prime minister compared with 46% who thought he was
In September 2015, a Opinium poll had similar results to the one
shortly before the election, with voters split with 42% who approved
of him and 41% who did not. Cameron had significantly better net
approval ratings in polls conducting in December and January (getting
−6 in both) than Labour leader
Jeremy Corbyn(who got −38 and
−39). However, following the
Panama Papersleak in April 2016, his
personal approval ratings fell below Corbyn's.
In October 2016, Cameron became chairman of the National Citizen
Service Patrons. In January 2017, he was appointed president of
Alzheimer\'s Research UK to address misconceptions surrounding
dementia and campaign for medical research funding to tackle the
Cameron is married to Samantha Gwendoline Sheffield , the daughter of
Sir Reginald Sheffield, 8th Baronet, and Annabel Lucy Veronica Jones
(now Viscountess Astor ). A
Marlborough Collegeschool friend of
Cameron's sister Clare, Samantha accepted Clare's invitation to
accompany the Cameron family on holiday in
Tuscany, Italy, after
graduating from Bristol School of Creative Arts. It was then David and
Samantha's romance started. They were married on 1 June 1996 at the
Church of St Augustine of Canterbury,
five years before Cameron was elected to parliament . The Camerons
have had four children. Their first, Ivan Reginald Ian, was born on 8
April 2002 in Hammersmith and Fulham , London, with a rare combination
of cerebral palsy and a form of severe epilepsy called Ohtahara
syndrome , requiring round-the-clock care. Recalling the receipt of
this news, Cameron was quoted as saying: "The news hits you like a
freight train ... You are depressed for a while because you are
grieving for the difference between your hopes and the reality. But
then you get over that, because he's wonderful." Ivan was cared for
at the specialist NHS Cheyne Day Centre in West London, which closed
shortly after he left it. Ivan died at St Mary\'s Hospital ,
Paddington, London, on 25 February 2009, aged six. Samantha
Cameron in a saree with
David Cameronwelcoming Indian Prime Minister
Modi , 13 November 2015
The Camerons have two daughters, Nancy Gwen (born 2004) and Florence
Rose Endellion (born 24 August 2010), and a son, Arthur Elwen (born
2006). Cameron took paternity leave when Arthur was born, and this
decision received broad coverage. It was also stated that Cameron
would be taking paternity leave after his second daughter was born.
She was born on 24 August 2010, three weeks prematurely, while the
family was on holiday in
Cornwall. Her third given name, Endellion,
is taken from the village of
St Endellionnear where the Camerons were
In early May 2008, the Camerons decided to enrol their daughter Nancy
at a state primary school . For three years before that they had been
attending its associated church,
St Mary Abbots, near the Cameron
family home in
North Kensington. Cameron's constituency home is in
Oxfordshire, and the Camerons have been described as key
members of the
Chipping Norton set.
On 8 September 2010, it was announced that Cameron would miss Prime
Minister\'s Questions in order to fly to southern France to see his
father, Ian Cameron, who had suffered a stroke with coronary
complications. Later that day, with David and other family members at
his bedside, Ian died. On 17 September 2010, Cameron attended a
private ceremony for the funeral of his father in
prevented him from hearing the address of
Pope Benedict XVI
Pope Benedict XVIin
WestminsterHall , an occasion he would otherwise have attended.
INHERITANCE AND FAMILY WEALTH
In October 2010,
David Cameroninherited £300,000 from his father's
will. The Camerons' family fortune was built up by his late father,
Ian Cameron, who had worked as a stockbroker in the City of London.
Ian Cameron used multimillion-pound investment funds based in offshore
tax havens, such as
Panama City, and
Geneva, to increase
the family wealth. In 1979 he took advantage of the end of capital
controls made by
Margaret Thatcherduring her first month in power,
which made it lawful to take money out of the country without it being
taxed or subject to any financial controls by the UK government.
In 1982, Ian Cameron created the Panamanian Blairmore Holdings Inc. an
offshore investment fund, valued at about $20 million in 1988, "not
liable to taxation on its income or capital gains", which used bearer
shares until 2006.
In April 2016, following the
Panama Papersfinancial documents leak,
David Cameronfaced calls to resign after he was forced to admit that
he and his wife Samantha profited from Ian Cameron's offshore fund.
He owned £31,500 of shares in the fund and sold them for a profit of
£19,000 shortly before becoming Prime Minister in 2010. The former
Mayor of London,
Ken Livingstone, even argued that Cameron "shouldn't
just resign, he should be sent to prison".
David Cameronargued that
the fund was set up in Panama so that people who wanted to invest in
dollar-denominated shares and companies could do so. Cameron had
intervened in 2013 to water down a planned EU crackdown on tax
evasion. Thousands of protesters held two marches in London in April
2016 to demand Cameron's resignation.
An estimate of his worth is £3.2 million, though this figure
excludes the six-figure legacies Cameron is expected to inherit from
both sides of his family.
François Hollande, and
others watch the penalty shootout of the 2012 UEFA Champions League
Final . Cameron is celebrating Chelsea 's victory.
Before becoming prime minister, Cameron regularly used his bicycle to
commute to work. In early 2006, he was photographed cycling to work,
followed by his driver in a car carrying his belongings. His
Conservative Party spokesperson subsequently said that this was a
regular arrangement for Cameron at the time. Cameron is an occasional
jogger and in 2009 raised funds for charities by taking part in the
Oxford 5K and the
Great Brook Run.
Cameron supports Aston Villa . He is also a keen cricket fan and has
appeared on _
Test Match Special
Test Match Special_.
At a Q -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em;
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Library resources about
* Resources in your library
* Resources in other libraries
BY DAVID CAMERON
* Resources in your library
* Resources in other libraries
* Elliott, Francis; Hanning, James (2012). _Cameron: Practically a
Conservative_. Fourth Estate. ISBN 978-0-00-743642-2 .
BOOKS ABOUT CAMERON AS LEADER
* Nadler, Jo-Anne (2007). _David Cameron: The Regeneration Game_.
Politico's Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84275-194-7 .
* O\'Hara, Kieron (2007). _After Blair:
David Cameronand the
Conservative Tradition_. Icon Books. ISBN 978-1-84046-795-6 .
* Lee, Simon; Beech, Matt (2009). _The Conservatives under David
Cameron: Built to Last?_. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-57565-3 .
* Snowdon, Peter (2010). _Back from the Brink: The Extraordinary
Fall and Rise of the Conservative Party_. HarperPress. ISBN
* Hitchens, Peter (2010). _The Cameron Delusion_. Continuum. ISBN
* Jones, Dylan (2010). _Cameron on Cameron: Conversations with Dylan
Jones_. Fourth Estate. ISBN 978-0-00-728537-2 .
* Seymour, Richard (2010). _The Meaning of David Cameron_. O Books.
ISBN 978-1-84694-456-7 .
* Bale, Tim (2011). _The Conservative Party: From Thatcher to
Cameron_. Polity Press. ISBN 978-0-7456-4858-3 .
* Lee, Simon; Beech, Matt (2011). _The Cameron-Clegg Government:
Politicsin an Age of Austerity_. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN
* Heppell, Timothy; Seawright, David (2012). _Cameron and the
Conservatives: The Transition to Coalition Government_. Palgrave
Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-31410-8 .
* Toynbee, Polly ; Walker, David (2012). _Dogma and Disarray:
Cameron at Half-Time_. Mount Caburn Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9573953-0-5
* Toynbee, Polly; Walker, David (2015). _Cameron\'s Coup _. Guardian
Books. ISBN 978-1-78335-043-8 .
PUBLISHED WORKS BY AND ABOUT
* Works by or about
David Cameronin libraries (
* David Cameron\'s articles at _
* _My Legacy: What I Will Be Remembered For_, by David Cameron
* Profile at
Parliament of the United Kingdom
Parliament of the United Kingdom
* Contributions in Parliament at _
* Contributions in Parliament during 2006–07 2007–08 2008–09
2009–10 at _
* Contributions in Parliament at _
* Voting record at
* Record in Parliament at
* Profile at
* Articles authored at _
David Cameronat TED
* Appearances on
David Cameronon Internet Movie Database
David Cameroncollected news and commentary at _Al Jazeera English
David Cameroncollected news and commentary". _
David Cameroncollected news and commentary". _The New York Times
David Cameroncollected news and commentary at _The Telegraph _
* Brian Wheeler, The