A daughter is a female offspring; a girl, woman, or female animal in relation to her parents. Daughterhood is the state of being someone's daughter. The male counterpart is a son. Analogously the name is used in several areas to show relations between groups or elements. The word daughter also has several other connotations attached to it. One of these being that the term daughter can also be used in reference to female descendancy or consanguinity. It can also be used as a term of endearment coming from an elder.

In patriarchal societies, daughters often have different or lesser familial rights than sons. A family may prefer to have sons rather than daughters because the daughters are subjected to female infanticide.[1] In some societies it is the custom for a daughter to be 'sold' to her husband, who must pay a bride price. The reverse of this custom, where the parents pay the husband a sum of money to compensate for the financial burden of the woman, is found in societies where women do not labour outside the home, and is referred to as dowry.

The number next to each box in the Table of Consanguinity indicates the degree of relationship relative to the given person.
first lady of the United States Betty Ford with her daughter Susan Ford


In the United States, the birth rate is 105 sons to 100 daughters which has been the natural birth rate since the 18th century. About 80 percent of prospective adoptive parents from the US will choose a girl over a boy.[citation needed] In clinics that enable sex preferences, daughters are usually preferred over sons.[2]

Daughters in Business

When viewing how daughters are being treated in the family-role, most are held at high expectations because they have more responsibility. Daughters have the role of daddy’s little girl which means that the daughter has to do whatever possible to fulfill the expectation that a father has for the daughter. Which is more difficult for the daughter because of her gender. Being a woman gives the abilities to have to work for something ten times more than a man. Especially in a family business, there are more pressures to a girl. “The roles assigned to the daughters by their fathers and by the daughters themselves ranged from the role of daddy's little girl, which stressed her fragile and defenseless position within the family and the necessity of "pleasing daddy," to that of a tough and independent manager in the business.” (pg. 37,Dumas). This explains how much more work a daughter has to put in order to have a higher stand in the business. Additionally, it stated by Rosenblatt, de Mik, Anderson, and Johnson, “However, it is possible that the tensions resulting from role carryover are even stronger for daughters than they are for sons, since sons have been socialized to join the business and are seen as the eventual successor (1985).”

“Research on daughters in family-owned business is imperative today, considering the roles that daughters can play as increasing numbers of women enter the workforce and assume managerial responsibilities (Salganicoff, 1985).” “The number of women in managerial roles has also increased from 14 percent in 1964 to 33 percent in 1984 (Sutton and Moore, 1985).” As you can see in these two quotes, the role of a daughter in a family business has increased because the daughter’s role has shown how hard they had to work in order to show that they are as good as the son. Even if they have had to work twice as hard as the son’s role.[3][4]

See also


  1. ^ Stein, Dorothy: Burning widows, burning brides: The perils of daughterhood in India. Pacific Affairs, Vol 61, No. 3, p. 465. University of British Columbia.
  2. ^ https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2010/07/the-end-of-men/308135/
  3. ^ “Daughter.” Merriam-Webster.com, Merriam-Webster, www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/daughter. "daughter, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, December 2016. Web. 9 December 2016.
  4. ^ Dumas, Colette. "Understanding of father‐daughter and father‐son dyads in family‐owned businesses." Family Business Review 2.1 (1989): 31-46. Web. 9 December 2016.

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