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Datong
Datong
is a prefecture-level city in northern Shanxi
Shanxi
Province in the People's Republic of China. It is located in a basin at an elevation of 1,040 metres (3,410 ft) and borders Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
to the north and west and Hebei
Hebei
to the east. It had a population of 3,318,057 during the 2010 census, of whom 1,629,035 lived in the built-up area made of the three urban districts of Chengqu, Kuangqu and Nanjiao.

Contents

1 History 2 Geography

2.1 Climate

3 Administrative divisions 4 Tourism 5 Economy

5.1 Main enterprises

6 Transportation 7 Education

7.1 Colleges and universities 7.2 Major schools

8 Communication 9 See also 10 References

10.1 Citations 10.2 Bibliography

11 Further reading 12 External links

History[edit]

The Nine-Dragon Wall

The Drum Tower (鼓楼)

The area of present-day Datong
Datong
was close to the Beidi
Beidi
("Northern Barbarian") state of Dai, which was conquered by the Zhao clan of Jin in 457 BC. It was a frontier land between the agricultural Chinese and Beidi
Beidi
and the nomads of the Eurasian steppe
Eurasian steppe
(known to the Chinese as the Hu or Donghu). The area was well known for its trade in horses. Pingcheng County formed part of the Qin commandery of Yanmen.[1] It continued under the Han, who founded a site within present-day Datong in 200 BC following their victory against the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
nomads at the Battle of Baideng. Located near a pass to Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
along the Great Wall, Pingcheng blossomed during the following period and became a stop-off point for camel caravans moving from China into Mongolia and beyond. It was sacked at the end of the Eastern Han. Pingcheng became the capital of Northern Wei
Northern Wei
from AD 398–494. The Yungang Grottoes were constructed during the later part of this period (460–494). During the mid to late 520s, Pingcheng was the seat of Northern Wei's Dai Commandery.[2] The city was renamed Datong
Datong
in 1048. It was the Xijing ("Western Capital") of the Jurchen Jin dynasty prior to being sacked by the Mongols. It was sacked again at the end of the Ming in 1649, but promptly rebuilt in 1652. Geography[edit]

The Yungang Grottoes.

Datong
Datong
is the northernmost city of Shanxi, and is located in the Datong
Datong
Basin, with an administrative area spanning latitude 39° 03'–40° 44' N and longitude 112° 34'–114° 33' E. The urban area is surrounded on three sides by mountains, with passes only to the east and southwest. Within the prefecture-level city elevations generally increase from southeast to northwest. Datong
Datong
borders Ulanqab (Inner Mongolia) to the northwest and Zhangjiakou
Zhangjiakou
(Hebei) to the east, Shuozhou
Shuozhou
(Shanxi) to the southwest and Xinzhou
Xinzhou
(Shanxi) to the south. The well-known Datong
Datong
Volcanic Arc lies nearby in the Datong
Datong
Basin. Climate[edit] Datong
Datong
has a continental, monsoon-influenced steppe climate (Köppen BSk), influenced by the 1,000 metres (3,300 ft)+ elevation, with rather long, cold, very dry winters, and very warm summers. Monthly mean temperatures range from −10.6 °C (12.9 °F) in January to 22.0 °C (71.6 °F) in July; the annual mean temperature is 6.97 °C (44.5 °F). Due to the aridity and elevation, diurnal temperature variation is often large, averaging 13.3 °C (23.9 °F) annually. There barely is any precipitation during winter, and more than ¾ of the annual precipitation occurs from June to September. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 54% in July to 66% in October, sunshine is abundant year-round, and the city receives 2,671 hours (about 60% of the possible total) of bright sunshine per year.

Climate data for Datong
Datong
(1971–2000)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 11.2 (52.2) 19.2 (66.6) 25.3 (77.5) 35.4 (95.7) 35.5 (95.9) 39.0 (102.2) 39.2 (102.6) 35.9 (96.6) 34.7 (94.5) 27.5 (81.5) 21.7 (71.1) 14.6 (58.3) 39.2 (102.6)

Average high °C (°F) −3.4 (25.9) 0.6 (33.1) 7.5 (45.5) 16.5 (61.7) 23.3 (73.9) 27.2 (81) 28.2 (82.8) 26.4 (79.5) 21.7 (71.1) 15.0 (59) 5.8 (42.4) −1.5 (29.3) 13.9 (57)

Daily mean °C (°F) −10.6 (12.9) −6.8 (19.8) 0.3 (32.5) 8.9 (48) 16.0 (60.8) 20.4 (68.7) 22.0 (71.6) 20.2 (68.4) 14.7 (58.5) 7.8 (46) −1.1 (30) −8.2 (17.2) 7.0 (44.6)

Average low °C (°F) −16.6 (2.1) −13 (9) −6 (21) 1.5 (34.7) 8.3 (46.9) 13.4 (56.1) 16.3 (61.3) 14.8 (58.6) 8.5 (47.3) 1.6 (34.9) −6.8 (19.8) −14 (7) 0.7 (33.3)

Record low °C (°F) −29.1 (−20.4) −27.6 (−17.7) −20.9 (−5.6) −15.6 (3.9) −5.8 (21.6) 2.9 (37.2) 8.8 (47.8) 6.1 (43) −3.4 (25.9) −10.4 (13.3) −24 (−11) −27.6 (−17.7) −29.1 (−20.4)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 2.0 (0.079) 3.4 (0.134) 9.3 (0.366) 17.5 (0.689) 29.5 (1.161) 48.9 (1.925) 100.6 (3.961) 83.1 (3.272) 50.6 (1.992) 17.6 (0.693) 7.5 (0.295) 1.6 (0.063) 371.6 (14.63)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 2.0 2.5 4.5 4.1 7.0 9.8 13.5 12.2 8.8 4.8 2.8 1.9 73.9

Average relative humidity (%) 50 46 44 38 40 49 65 68 61 53 52 51 51.4

Mean monthly sunshine hours 184.1 189.4 222.3 243.5 272.5 265.7 244.8 233.9 234.6 226.8 185.8 167.5 2,670.9

Percent possible sunshine 62 63 60 62 62 59 54 55 63 66 62 58 60.5

Source: [http://old-cdc.cma.gov.cn/shuju/search1.jsp?dsid=SURF_CLI_CHN_MUL_MMON_19712000_CES&tpcat=SURF&type=table&pageid=3 China Meteorological Administration]

Administrative divisions[edit]

Map

Pingcheng Yungang Xinrong Yunzhou Yanggao County Tianzhen County Guangling County Lingqiu County Hunyuan County Zuoyun County

Name Simplified Chinese[3][4] Pinyin Population (2003 est.)[citation needed][5] Area (km²)[6] Density (/km²)

Pingcheng District 平城区 Píngchéng Qū 580,000

Yungang District 云冈区 Yúngāng Qū 280,000

Xinrong District 新荣区 Xīnróng Qū 110,000 1,006 109

Yunzhou District 云州区 Yúnzhōu Qū 170,000 1,501 113

Yanggao County 阳高县 Yánggāo Xiàn 290,000 1,678 173

Tianzhen County 天镇县 Tiānzhèn Xiàn 210,000 1,635 128

Guangling County 广灵县 Guǎnglíng Xiàn 180,000 1,283 140

Lingqiu County 灵丘县 Língqiū Xiàn 230,000 2,720 85

Hunyuan County 浑源县 Húnyuán Xiàn 350,000 1,965 178

Zuoyun County 左云县 Zuǒyún Xiàn 140,000 1,314 107

Defunct - Kuang District (Chinese: 矿区; pinyin: Kuàngqū) is largely made up of separate mines throughout the metropolitan area.

Tourism[edit] The Yungang Grottoes
Yungang Grottoes
are a collection of shallow caves located 16 km (9.9 mi) west of Datong. There are over 50,000 carved images and statues of Buddhas and bodhisattvas within these grottoes, ranging from 4 centimeters to 7 meters tall. Most of these icons are around 1000 years old. Within the city itself, there are a few surviving sites of historical interest such as the Nine-Dragon Wall, the Huayan Monastery (华严寺; Huáyán Sì), and the Shanhua Temple
Shanhua Temple
(善化寺; Shànhuà Sì). Further afield is the Hanging Temple
Hanging Temple
(悬空寺; Xuánkōng Sì) built into a cliff face near Mount Heng. Most of the historical sites in this region date to the Tang and Ming dynasties, but the Hanging Temple
Hanging Temple
dates to the Northern Wei
Northern Wei
dynasty (386–534). The railway locomotive works (see below) began to attract increasing numbers of railway enthusiasts from the 1970s. When construction of steam locomotives was phased out, the authorities did not want to lose this valuable tourism market, and pondered the possibility of developing a steam railway operating centre as an attraction. A number of study visits were undertaken to the East Lancashire Railway
East Lancashire Railway
at Bury, and a twinning arrangement was concluded with that town. In 2010, work began on reconstructing the city's 14th century Ming dynasty defensive wall. The controversial reconstruction project was in its final phase at the end of 2014.[7] The documentary The Chinese Mayor[8] documents two years of vigorous effort by Mayor Geng Yanbo to push the reconstruction project forward.

The Hanging Temple

Loess
Loess
landscape near Hunyuan

A tower on the City Wall

Pagoda at Huayan Temple

Huayan Temple

Lingyan Temple at Yungang Grottoes

Economy[edit] The GDP per capita was ¥17,852 (US$2,570) per annum in 2008, ranked no. 242 among 659 Chinese cities. Coal mining is the dominant industry of Datong. Its history and development are very much linked to this commodity. Development zones Datong
Datong
Economic and Technological Development Zone Due to its strategic position it is also an important distribution and warehousing center for Shanxi, Hebei
Hebei
and Inner Mongolia.[9] Datong
Datong
is an old fashioned coal mining city, and still sits on significant reserves of this commodity. Consequently, it has developed a reputation as one of China's most polluted cities. The Datong
Datong
Coal Mining Group is based here and is China's third largest such enterprise. Datong
Datong
is indeed however an emerging economy, as the city seeks to loosen its dependence on coal, introduce more environmentally friendly and efficient methods of extraction and move into other areas of business services. Local government has continued to upgrade its pillar coal sector (and related industries like coal chemicals, power and metallurgy), while also developing "substitute industries" such as machinery manufacturing, tourism and distribution, warehousing and logistics services. This has had some impact. Datong's GDP grew by 5.1 percent in 2008 to RMB56.6 billion.[10] While coal will continue to dominate, Datong
Datong
has been identified as one of the key cities requiring redevelopment, with part of this being in environmental cleanup, rehabilitation and industrial refocusing. Datong
Datong
is a pilot city for rehabilitation studies following years of pollution. To this end it has already struck up strong relationships with other cities worldwide with similar backgrounds, and has begun plans, for example, to develop a tourism base focused on steam engine technology with antique locomotives to be used along designated tracks.[11] Datong
Datong
has a large railway locomotive works ' Datong
Datong
locomotive factory', where the 'Aiming Higher'[clarification needed] class of steam locomotive was built as late as the 1970s, steam locomotive production ended in the late 1980s and the plants main products (as of 2010) is main line electric locomotives Main enterprises[edit]

Datong
Datong
Coal Mine Group(The third biggest coal-mining enterprise in China)[12] Datong
Datong
Electric Locomotive Co.,Ltd, (DELC) (The second biggest Elec-Locomotive enterprise in China)[13] Shanxi
Shanxi
Diesel Engine Industries Corporation,Ltd,CNGC[14] Shanxi
Shanxi
Synthetic Rubber Group Co.,Ltd,CNCC[15] GD Power Datong
Datong
No.2 Power Plant GD Power Datong
Datong
Power Generation Co., Ltd[16] Shanxi
Shanxi
Datang International Yungang Co-generation Co., Ltd.[17] China National Heavy Duty Truck Group Datong
Datong
Gear CO.,LTD[18]

Transportation[edit]

China National Highway 208 China National Highway 109 Jingda Expressway Dayun Expressway Huda Expressway Datong
Datong
Railway Station Datong
Datong
Airport

Education[edit] Colleges and universities[edit]

Datong
Datong
University (大同大学)

Major schools[edit]

Datong
Datong
No.1 Middle School (大同市第一中学) Datong
Datong
No.2 Middle School (大同市第二中学) Datong
Datong
Locomotive Middle School (大同机车中学) Datong
Datong
No.3 Middle School (大同市第三中学) BeiYue Middle School Datong
Datong
Experimental Secondary School (大同市实验中学) The No.1 Middle School of DCMG( Datong
Datong
Coal Mine Group) (同煤一中) Datong
Datong
No.14 Elementary School (大同市第十四小学) Datong
Datong
No.18 Elementary School (大同市第十八小学) Datong
Datong
Experimental Elementary School (大同市实验小学)

Communication[edit] South of Datong, there is a VLF-transmitter of the Chinese Navy located at 39°56′43″N 113°15′07″E / 39.94528°N 113.25194°E / 39.94528; 113.25194. The station has as interesting feature that four of its masts look like an inverted "V"-letter.[citation needed] See also[edit]

China portal

List of twin towns and sister cities in China Jumenbu

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ Hou Xiaorong (2009), 《秦代政区地理》 [Qíndài Zhèngqū Dìlǐ, An Atlas of Qin-Era Administrative Divisions], Beijing: Social Science Academic Press . (in Chinese) ^ Xiong (2009), s.v. "Daijun". ^ http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/tjbz/tjyqhdmhcxhfdm/2016/14/1402.html ^ http://www.sxdt.gov.cn/dtzww/lsyg/zjdt_lsyg.shtml ^ http://www.xzqh.org/html/show/sx/3525.html ^ http://www.tcmap.com.cn/shanxisheng/datong.html ^ "Fake it to make it". South China Morning Post
South China Morning Post
Magazine. Hong Kong. Retrieved November 2, 2014.  ^ "The Chinese Mayor". IMDB.  ^ China Briefing Business Guide. China-briefing.com. Retrieved on 25 February 2014. ^ 2008 Datong
Datong
Economy Report ^ China Briefing Business Guide: Datong
Datong
Economy. China-briefing.com. Retrieved on 25 February 2014. ^ 大同煤矿集团公司. Dtcoalmine.com. Retrieved on 25 February 2014. ^ Datong
Datong
Electric Locomotive Co.,Ltd Of Cnr Archived 30 July 2012 at Archive.is. Dtloco.com. Retrieved on 25 February 2014. ^ [1] Archived 10 February 2005 at the Wayback Machine. ^ [2] Archived 17 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ [3] Archived 3 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Www.China-Cdt.Com Archived 12 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine.. Www.China-Cdt.Com (29 December 2002). Retrieved on 25 February 2014. ^ china national heavy duty truck group datong gear co ltd. Dcgroup.com.cn. Retrieved on 25 February 2014.

Bibliography[edit]

Xiong, Victor Cunrui (2009), Historical Dictionary of Medieval China, Historical Dictionaries of Ancient Civilizations and Historical Eras, No. 19, Lanham: Scarecrow Press .

Further reading[edit]

Cotterell, Arthur (2008). The Imperial Capitals of China: An Inside View of the Celestial Empire. Pimlico, London. ISBN 978-1-84595-010-1.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Datong.

Datong
Datong
travel guide from Wikivoyage Official website

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Zhangqiu Jiaozhou Jimo Pingdu Laixi Tengzhou Longkou Laiyang Laizhou Penglai Zhaoyuan Qixia Haiyang Qingzhou Zhucheng Shouguang Anqiu Gaomi Changyi Qufu Zoucheng Xintai Feicheng Rongcheng Rushan Laoling Yucheng Linqing

Henan

Gongyi Xingyang Xinmi Xinzheng Dengfeng Yanshi Wugang Ruzhou Linzhou Weihui Huixian Qinyang Mengzhou Yuzhou Changge Yima Lingbao Dengzhou Yongcheng Xiangcheng Jiyuan*

Hubei

Daye Danjiangkou Yidu Dangyang Zhijiang Laohekou Zaoyang Yicheng Zhongxiang Yingcheng Anlu Hanchuan Shishou Honghu Songzi Macheng Wuxue Chibi Guangshui Enshi* Lichuan Xiantao* Qianjiang* Tianmen*

Hunan

Liuyang Liling Xiangxiang Shaoshan Leiyang Changning Wugang Miluo Linxiang Jinshi Yuanjiang Zixing Hongjiang Lengshuijiang Lianyuan Jishou*

Guangdong

Lechang Nanxiong Taishan Kaiping Heshan Enping Lianjiang Leizhou Wuchuan Gaozhou Huazhou Xinyi Sihui Xingning Lufeng Yangchun Yingde Lianzhou Puning Luoding

Guangxi

Cenxi Dongxing Guiping Beiliu Jingxi Yizhou Heshan Pingxiang

Hainan

Wuzhishan* Qionghai* Wenchang* Wanning* Dongfang*

Sichuan

Dujiangyan Pengzhou Qionglai Chongzhou Jianyang Guanghan Shifang Mianzhu Jiangyou Emeishan Langzhong Huaying Wanyuan Barkam* Kangding* Xichang*

Guizhou

Qingzhen Chishui Renhuai Xingyi* Kaili* Duyun* Fuquan

Yunnan

Anning Xuanwei Tengchong Chuxiong* Mengzi* Gejiu Kaiyuan Mile Wenshan* Jinghong* Dali* Ruili Mangshi* Lushui* Shangri-La*

Tibet

(none)

Shaanxi

Xingping Hancheng Huayin

Gansu

Yumen Dunhuang Linxia* Hezuo*

Qinghai

Yushu* Golmud* Delingha*

Ningxia

Lingwu Qingtongxia

Xinjiang

Changji* Fukang Bole* Alashankou Korla* Aksu* Artux* Kashgar* Hotan* Yining* Kuytun Korgas Tacheng* Wusu Altay* Shihezi* Aral* Tumxuk* Wujiaqu* Beitun* Tiemenguan* Shuanghe* Kokdala* Kunyu*

Taiwan5

(none)

Notes

* Indicates this city has already occurred above. aDirect-controlled Municipalities. bSub-provincial cities as provincial capitals. cSeparate state-planning cities. 1Special Economic Zone Cities. 2Coastal development cities. 3Prefecture capital status established by Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
Province and not recognized by Ministry of Civil Affairs. Disputed by Oroqen Autonomous Banner, Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
as part of it. 4Only administers islands and waters in South China Sea and have no urban core comparable to typical cities in China. 5The claimed province of Taiwan no longer have any internal division announced by Ministry of Civil Affairs of PRC, due to lack of actual jurisdiction. See Template:Administrative divisions of the Republic of China instead. All provincial capitals are listed first in prefecture-level cities by province.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 148493015 GN

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