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Dashavatara
Dashavatara
(Sanskrit: दशावतार, daśāvatāra) refers to the ten primary avatars of Vishnu, the Hindu god of preservation. Vishnu
Vishnu
is said to descend in form of an avatar to restore cosmic order. The word Dashavatara
Dashavatara
derives from daśa, meaning 'ten', and avatar (avatāra), roughly equivalent to 'incarnation'. The list of included avatars varies across sects and regions, and no list can be uncontroversially presented as standard. However, most draw from the following set of figures, omitting at least one of those listed in parentheses: Matsya, Kurma, Varaha, Narasimha, Vamana, Parashurama, Rama, Krishna, (Balarama) or (Buddha) and Kalki. Some traditions include a regional deity such as Vithoba
Vithoba
or Jagannath
Jagannath
in penultimate position, replacing Krishna
Krishna
or Buddha. The order of the ancient concept of Dashavataras has been interpreted to be reflective of modern Darwinian evolution.

Contents

1 Description 2 Etymology 3 Incarnation of the Divine

3.1 Restoration of the Divine 3.2 Yuga

4 List 5 Historical development

5.1 Origins 5.2 Alternate lists

5.2.1 Buddha 5.2.2 Balarama 5.2.3 Regional versions 5.2.4 Longer lists

5.3 Status of Krishna

6 Evolutionary interpretation 7 References

7.1 Bibliography

8 External links

Description[edit] The list of avatars in the Dashavatara
Dashavatara
varies by region. The following table summarises the position of avatars within the Dashavatara
Dashavatara
in many but not all traditions. A number in the table indicates the position of the corresponding avatar within the Dashavatara. Two or more numbers separated by commas indicate that the position of the corresponding avatar within the Dashavatara
Dashavatara
varies between traditions. Bracketed numbers indicate that the corresponding avatar is omitted in some traditions.

Anantashayana Vishnu
Vishnu
with Lakshmi, his ten avatars above him (annotated), 6th – 8th century Badami, Karnataka

Avatar Position Yuga[1]

Matsya 1 Satya Yuga

Kurma 2

Varaha 3

Narasimha 4

Vamana 5 Treta Yuga

Parashurama 6

Rama 7

Balarama (8) Dwapara Yuga

Krishna (8, 9)

Buddha (9) Kali Yuga

Kalki 10

Etymology[edit] The word Dashavatara
Dashavatara
derives from daśa, meaning 'ten' and avatar (avatāra), meaning 'incarnation'. Number of occurrences of these avatars of lord Vishnu
Vishnu
are one less than the total number of avatars in previous yuga. Satya Yug - Had 4 (Matsya, Kurma, Varaha, Narasimha) Treta Yug - Had 3 (Vamana, Parshurama, Rama) Dvapara Yug - Had 1 (Krishna) Kali Yug - Had 1, Yet to have 1 (Buddha, Kalki) Incarnation of the Divine[edit] Restoration of the Divine[edit] God Vishnu
Vishnu
incarnates on Earth from time to time to eradicate evil forces, to restore the dharma and to liberate the worthy ones or devotees from the cycle of births and deaths. Vishnu
Vishnu
in his avatar as Krishna
Krishna
speaks in the Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 4 Shloka 8: "To deliver the pious and to annihilate the miscreants, as well as to reestablish the principles of righteousness, I manifest myself, millennium after millennium".[2][3] A similar thread appears in Buddhism. The Pāli Canon
Pāli Canon
refers to 28 Buddhas,[4] while the Mahayana
Mahayana
tradition additionally has many Buddhas of celestial origin, for example Amitābha
Amitābha
and Vairocana. The Mahayana tradition also knows the Eighteen Arhats
Eighteen Arhats
who protect the Buddhist faith,[5] and all schools of Buddhism await for the coming of Maitreya, a Buddha
Buddha
prophesied to arrive on earth many millennia after Gautama Buddha's death and Parinirvana.[6][7] Yuga[edit] The first four avatars of Vishnu
Vishnu
appeared in Satya or Krita Yuga, the first of the four Yugas, also called 'The Golden Age', the next three in the second Yuga, the Treta Yuga, the one avatar after that appeared in the third Yuga, the Dwapara Yuga
Dwapara Yuga
and the two remaining avatars, including tenth and the last avatar, appear in the last Yuga, Kali Yuga. The time till completion for Kali Yuga
Kali Yuga
is in 427,000 years.[8] In the Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana and the Bhagavata Purana, the Kali-yuga ending is described with the appearance of Kalki, who will defeat the wicked, liberate the virtuous, and initiate a new Satya or Kalki
Kalki
Yuga.[9]

At that time, the Supreme Personality of Godhead will appear on the earth. Acting with the power of pure spiritual goodness, He will rescue eternal religion. Lord Viṣṇu — the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the spiritual master of all moving and nonmoving living beings, and the Supreme Soul of all — takes birth to protect the principles of religion and to relieve His saintly devotees from the reactions of material work. — Bhagavata Purana, 12.2.16-17[10]

List[edit]

1st to 5th of the Dashavatars on Udupi temple gopuram, Karnataka.

Matsya, the fish. Vishnu
Vishnu
takes the form of a fish to save Manu from the deluge (Pralaya), after which he takes his boat to the new world along with one of every species of plant and animal, gathered in a massive cyclone. Kurma, the giant tortoise. When the devas and asuras were churning the Ocean of milk
Ocean of milk
in order to get Amrita, the nectar of immortality, the mount Mandara they were using as the churning staff started to sink and Vishnu
Vishnu
took the form of a tortoise to bear the weight of the mountain. Varaha, the boar. He appeared to defeat Hiranyaksha, a demon who had taken the Earth, or Prithvi, and carried it to the bottom of what is described as the cosmic ocean(much like in ether theory) in the story. The battle between Varaha
Varaha
and Hiranyaksha
Hiranyaksha
is believed to have lasted for a thousand years, which the former finally won. Varaha
Varaha
carried the Earth out of the ocean between his tusks and restored it to its place in the universe. Narasimha, the half-man/half-lion. The rakshasa (Demon) Hiranyakashipu, the elder brother of Hiranyaksha, was granted a powerful boon from brahma, not allowing him to be killed by man or animal, inside or out, day or night, on earth or the stars, with a weapon either living or inanimate. Vishnu
Vishnu
descended as an anthropomorphic incarnation, with the body of a man and head and claws of a lion. He then disembowels the rakshasa at the courtyard threshold of his house, at dusk, with his claws, while he lay on his thighs. Vamana, the dwarf. The fourth descendant of Hiranyakashyap, Bali, with devotion and penance was able to defeat Indra, the god of firmament. This humbled the other deities and extended his authority over the three worlds. The gods appealed to Vishnu
Vishnu
for protection and he descended as a boy Vamana. During a yajna (यज्ञ) of the king, Vamana
Vamana
approached him and Bali promised him for whatever he asked. Vamana
Vamana
asked for three paces of land. Bali agreed, and the dwarf then changed his size to that of a giant. He stepped over heaven in his first stride, and the netherworld with the second. Bali realized that Vamana
Vamana
was Vishnu
Vishnu
incarnate. In deference, the king offered his head as the third place for Vamana
Vamana
to place his foot. The avatar did so and thus granted Bali immortality. Then in appreciation to Bali and his grandfather Prahlada, Vamana
Vamana
made him ruler of Pathala, the netherworld. Parashurama, the warrior with the axe. He is son of Jamadagni
Jamadagni
and Renuka
Renuka
and received an axe after a penance to Shiva. He is the first Brahmin- Kshatriya
Kshatriya
in Hinduism, or warrior-saint, with duties between a Brahmin
Brahmin
and a Kshatriya. King Kartavirya Arjuna
Kartavirya Arjuna
and his army visited the father of Parashurama
Parashurama
at his ashram, and the saint was able to feed them with the divine cow Kamadhenu. The king demanded the cow, but Jamadagni
Jamadagni
refused. Enraged, the king took it by force and destroyed the ashram. Parashurama
Parashurama
then killed the king at his palace and destroyed his army. In revenge, the sons of Kartavirya killed Jamadagni. Parashurama
Parashurama
took a vow to kill every Kshatriya
Kshatriya
on earth twenty-one times over, and filled five lakes with their blood. Ultimately, his grandfather, rishi Rucheeka, appeared before him and made him halt. He is a Chiranjivi (immortal), and believed to be alive today in penance at Mahendragiri. Rama, the prince and king of Ayodhya. He is a commonly worshipped avatar in Hinduism, and is thought of as the ideal heroic man. His story is recounted in one of the most widely read scriptures of Hinduism, the Ramayana. While in exile from his own kingdom with his brother Lakshman
Lakshman
and the God Hanuman, his wife Sita
Sita
was abducted by the demon king of Lanka, Ravana. He travelled to Lanka, killed the demon king and saved Sita. Balarama, the elder brother of Krishna, is regarded generally as an avatar of Shesha. However, Balarama
Balarama
is included as the eighth avatar of Vishnu
Vishnu
in the Sri Vaishnava
Sri Vaishnava
lists, where Buddha
Buddha
is omitted and Krishna
Krishna
appears as the ninth avatar in this list.[11] He is particularly included in the lists where Krishna
Krishna
is removed and becomes the source of all. Krishna[12] was the eighth son of Devaki
Devaki
and Vasudeva. A frequently worshipped deity in Hinduism, he is the hero of various legends and embodies qualities such as love and playfulness. Buddha: Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, is commonly included as an avatar of Vishnu
Vishnu
in Hinduism. Buddha
Buddha
is sometimes depicted in Hindu scriptures
Hindu scriptures
as a preacher who deludes and leads demons and heretics away from the path of the Vedic scriptures, but another view praises him a compassionate teacher who preached the path of ahimsa (non-violence).[12][11][13] Kalki
Kalki
("Eternity", or "White Horse", or "Destroyer of Filth"), will be the final incarnation of Vishnu, foretold to appear at the end of Kali Yuga, our present epoch. He will be atop a white horse and his sword will be drawn, blazing like a comet. He is the harbinger of end time in Hindu eschatology, and will destroy all unrighteousness and evil at the end of Kali Yuga.

Historical development[edit] Origins[edit]

Anantashayana Vishnu
Vishnu
with Lakshmi, his Dashavatars above him (annotated), 6th – 8th century Badami, Karnataka

The evolution of historical Vishnuism produced a complex system of Vaishnavism, often viewed as a synthesis of the worship of Vishnu, Narayana, Vasudeva
Vasudeva
and Krishna, and which was well established by the time of the Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
from 3138 BCE to the 3rd century CE.[14] Alternate lists[edit] Various versions of the list of Vishnu's avatars exist.[12] Some lists mention Krishna
Krishna
as the eighth avatar and the Buddha
Buddha
as the ninth avatar,[12] while others, such as the Yatindramatadipika, a 17th-century summary of Srivaisnava-doctrine,[11] state Balarama
Balarama
as the eighth avatar and Krishna
Krishna
as the ninth.[11] Buddha[edit] The adoption of Buddha
Buddha
as one of the avatars of Vishnu
Vishnu
under Bhagavatism
Bhagavatism
was a catalyzing factor in assimilation during the Gupta period between 330 and 550 CE. By the 8th century CE, the Buddha
Buddha
was declared an avatar of Vishnu
Vishnu
in several Puranas.[15] The mythologies of the Buddha
Buddha
and Vishnu
Vishnu
share a number of structural and substantial similarities, which contributed to the assimilation of the Buddha
Buddha
as an avatar of Vishnu.[15] This assimilation is indicative of the Hindu ambivalence toward the Buddha
Buddha
and Buddhism.[15] Conversely, Vishnu
Vishnu
has also been assimilated into Sinhalese Buddhist culture,[16] and Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism is sometimes called Buddha-Bhagavatism.[17] By this period, the concept of Dashavatara
Dashavatara
was fully developed.[18] Balarama[edit] Some Vaishnavas refuse to accept the Buddha
Buddha
as an incarnation of Vishnu, and instead believe that Balarama
Balarama
is the 8th incarnation, and Krishna
Krishna
the 9th.[19] Regional versions[edit]

Temple door depicting Dashavatar-the ten avatars, Sree Balaji Temple, Goa. (from leftmost upper corner, clock wise) Matsya, Narasimha, Parashurama, Rama, Krishna, Kalki, Vamana, Vithoba, Varaha
Varaha
and Kurma.

In Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and Goa, Vithoba's image replaces Buddha
Buddha
as the ninth avatar of Vishnu
Vishnu
in some temple sculptures and Hindu astrological almanacs.[20] In certain Oriya literary creations from Orissa, Jagannath
Jagannath
has been treated as the Ninth avatar, by substituting Buddha.[21] Longer lists[edit] The Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
claims that Vishnu
Vishnu
has infinite avatars which he takes whenever there is a need to restore cosmic order, however, it still goes on to numerically list out 22 Vishnu
Vishnu
avatars in chapter 1.3. [22]

Four Kumaras
Four Kumaras
(Catursana) [BP 1.3.6] – the four Sons of god Brahma
Brahma
and exemplified the path of devotion Varaha
Varaha
[BP 1.3.7]- The divine warthog who lifts earth from cosmic waters Narada
Narada
[BP 1.3.8] -the divine-sage who travels the worlds as a devotee of Vishnu Nara-Narayana
Nara-Narayana
[BP 1.3.9] – the twin-sages Kapila
Kapila
[BP 1.3.10] – a renowned sage spoken of in the Mahabharata, son of Kardama Muni and Devahuti and sometimes identified with the founder of the Samkhya
Samkhya
school of philosophy Dattatreya
Dattatreya
[BP 1.3.11] – the combined avatar of the Hindu trinity Brahma, Vishnu
Vishnu
and Shiva. He was born to the sage Atri
Atri
became a great seer himself Yajna
Yajna
[BP 1.3.12] – the lord of fire-sacrifice, who was also a previous Indra – the lord of heaven Rishabha [BP 1.3.13] – the father of Bharata Chakravartin
Bharata Chakravartin
and Bahubali Prithu
Prithu
[BP 1.3.14] – the sovereign-king who milked the earth as a cow to get the world's grain and vegetation and also invented agriculture Matsya
Matsya
[BP 1.3.15]- A narwhal who guided Manu's ark during the pralaya (deluge) and also killed demon Hayagriva Kurma
Kurma
[BP 1.3.16]- A giant tortoise who balances Mount Mandara atop his caprice during the churning of the cosmic ocean of milk Dhanvantari
Dhanvantari
[BP 1.3.17] – the father of Ayurvedic medicine and a physician to the Devas Mohini
Mohini
[BP 1.3.17] – the enchantress Narasimha
Narasimha
[BP 1.3.18]- The man-lion who kills demon Hiranyakashpu Vamana
Vamana
[BP 1.3.19]- The dwarf Parashurama
Parashurama
[BP 1.3.20]- The Brahmin
Brahmin
warrior with an axe who kills Kartyavira Arjuna and his Kshatriya
Kshatriya
allies Rama
Rama
[BP 1.3.22]- 'Perfect King' from Suryavansha, Subject of Ramayana Vyasa
Vyasa
[BP] 1.3.21] – the compiler of the scriptures – Vedas
Vedas
and writer of the scriptures Puranas
Puranas
and the epic Mahabharata Balarama
Balarama
[BP 1.3.23]- Lord of agriculture and elder brother to Krishna Krishna
Krishna
[BP 1.3.23]-Subject of the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
and the Bhagavad Gita Buddha
Buddha
[BP 1.3.24]- The enlightened teacher Kalki
Kalki
[BP 1.3.25]- The future lawgiver

Thirty-nine avatars are mentioned in the Pañcaratra
Pañcaratra
including the likes of Garuda[23]. [24] However, despite these lists, the commonly accepted number of ten avatars for Vishnu
Vishnu
was fixed well before the 10th century CE.[25] Status of Krishna[edit] Srimanta Sankardeva
Srimanta Sankardeva
considered Krishna
Krishna
as Vishnu
Vishnu
himself, the source of all incarnations. Thus, in his Soturbinxoti Ovotar (Chaturvinshati Avatar) of the Kirttan Puthi, Krishna
Krishna
is not included, but Balarama
Balarama
is included.[26] Jayadeva, in his Pralaya
Pralaya
Payodhi Jale from the Gita Govinda, includes Balarama
Balarama
and Buddha
Buddha
where Krishna
Krishna
is equated with Vishnu
Vishnu
and the source of all avatars.[27] In traditions that emphasize the Bhagavata Purana, Krishna
Krishna
is the original Supreme Personality of Godhead, from whom everything else emanates. Gaudiya Vaishnavas worship Krishna
Krishna
as Svayam Bhagavan, or source of the incarnations.[28][29][30] The Vallabha
Vallabha
Sampradaya and Nimbarka
Nimbarka
Sampradaya, (philosophical schools) go even further, worshiping Krishna
Krishna
not only as the source of other incarnations, but also Vishnu
Vishnu
himself, related to descriptions in the Bhagavata Purana. Mahanubhavas also known as the Jai Kishani Panth, considers Lord Krishna
Krishna
as the supreme God and don't consider the list of Dashavatara while consider another list of Panchavatara (5 Avatars). [31][32] Evolutionary interpretation[edit] Some modern interpreters sequence Vishnu's ten main avatars in a definitive order, from simple life-forms to more complex, and see the Dashavataras as a reflection, or a foreshadowing, of the modern theory of evolution. Such an interpretation was first propounded by Theosophist Helena Blavatsky
Helena Blavatsky
in her 1877 opus Isis Unveiled, in which she proposed the following ordering of the Dashavataras:[33][34]

Matsya
Matsya
- fish, the first class of vertebrates; evolved in water (Indicates origin of Fishes in Silurian Period) Kurma
Kurma
- amphibious living in both water and land; but not to confuse with the vertebrate class amphibians)(Indicates origin of Amphibians in Devonian Period) Varaha
Varaha
- mammals, wild land animals (Indicates Mammals origin in Triassic Period) Narasimha
Narasimha
- beings that are half-animal and half-human (indicative of emergence of human thoughts and intelligence in powerful wild nature) Vamana
Vamana
- short, premature human beings Parasurama
Parasurama
- early humans living in forests and using weapons Rama
Rama
- humans living in community, beginning of civil society Krishna
Krishna
- humans practicing animal husbandry, politically advanced societies Buddha
Buddha
- humans finding enlightenment Kalki
Kalki
- advanced beings with great powers of destruction.

This interpretation was taken up by other Orientalists and by Hindus in India, particularly reformers who sought to harmonize traditional religion with modern science. Keshub Chandra Sen, a prominent figure in the Brahmo Samaj
Brahmo Samaj
and an early teacher of Swami Vivekananda, was the first Indian Hindu to adopt this reading. In an 1882 lecture he said:[33]

The Puranas
Puranas
speak of the different manifestations or incarnations of the Deity in different epochs of the world history. Lo! The Hindu Avatar
Avatar
rises from the lowest scale of life through the fish, the tortoise, and the hog up to the perfection of humanity. Indian Avatarism is, indeed, a crude representation of the ascending scale of Divine creation. Such precisely is the modern theory of evolution.

Similarly, Monier Monier-Williams
Monier Monier-Williams
wrote "Indeed, the Hindus were ... Darwinians centuries before the birth of Darwin, and evolutionists centuries before the doctrine of evolution had been accepted by the Huxleys of our time, and before any word like evolution existed in any language of the world."[35] J. B. S. Haldane
J. B. S. Haldane
suggested that Dashavatara
Dashavatara
gave a "rough idea" of vertebrate evolution: a fish, a tortoise, a boar, a man-lion, a dwarf and then four men ( Kalki
Kalki
is not yet born).[36] Nabinchandra Sen
Nabinchandra Sen
explains the Dashavatara
Dashavatara
with Darwin's evolution in his Raivatak.[37] C. D. Deshmukh
C. D. Deshmukh
also remarked on the "striking" similarity between Darwin's theory and the Dashavatara.[38] References[edit]

^ J.P. VASWANI (2017). Dasavatara. Jaico Publishing House. pp. 12 – 14.  ^ D. Sharma (2005). Life After Death and Reincarnation. Deep and Deep Publications. p. 38.  ^ http://www.bhagavad-gita.org/Gita/verse-04-08.html.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ Snyder, p. 496. ^ Zhang 2014, p. 921. ^ Tan, Piya (2008). "Cakkavatti Sihanada Sutta" (PDF). The Dharmafarers. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-10-01. When the situation reaches its lowest point, people finally realize the futility of violence, give it up, and so begin to keep the precepts, initiating a social renewal and increase in various wholesome conditions and ever longer life-spans. When the human life-span reaches 80,000 years, the whole kingdom prospers and is thickly populated. The wheel-turner Saṅkha arises in the city of Ketu,mati (present Kusi,nārā). Then, there arises the future Buddha Metteyya.  ^ U Chit Tin, Sayagyi (March 1988). "The Coming Buddha, Ariya Metteyya". What the Buddha
Buddha
said in plain English.  ^ B-Gita 8.17 "And finally in Kal-yuga (the yuga we have now been experiencing over the past 5,000 years) there is an abundance of strife, ignorance, irreligion and vice, true virtue being practically nonexistent, and this yuga lasts 432,000 years. In Kali Yuga, vice increases to such a point that at the termination of the yuga the Supreme Lord Himself appears as the Kalki
Kalki
avatara" ^ Klostermaier (2007) p. 495 ^ "Bhagavata Purana, 12.2.16-17". Archived from the original on 27 January 2010.  ^ a b c d Carman 1994, p. 211-212. ^ a b c d Wuaku 2013, p. 148. ^ Literature review of secondary references of Buddha
Buddha
as Dashavatara which regard Buddha
Buddha
to be part of standard list:

Britannica Balarama Britannica A Dictionary of Asian Mythology By David Adams Leeming p. 19 "Avatar" Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide By Roshen Dalal p. 112 "Dashavatara" ""The standard and most accepted list found in Puranas
Puranas
and other texts is: ... Rama, Krishna, Buddha, Kalki." The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: A-M p. 73 "Avatar" Hindu Gods and Goddesses By Sunita Pant Bansal p. 27 "Vishnu Dashavatara" Hindu Myths (Penguin Books) pp. 62-63 The Hare Krsnas - Incarnations of the Lord - Dasavatara - Ten Primary Visnu Incarnations The Book of Vishnu
Vishnu
(see index) Seven secrets of Vishnu
Vishnu
By Devdutt Pattanaik p. 203 "In the more popular list of ten avatars of Vishnu, the ninth avatar is shown as Buddha, not Balarama." A Dictionary of Hinduism
Hinduism
p. 47 "Avatara" BBC - GCSE Bitesize Avatars Gavin D. Flood (13 July 1996). An Introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge University Press. p. 116. ISBN 978-0-521-43878-0. 

^ Beck, Guy L. (1993). Sonic theology: Hinduism
Hinduism
and sacred sound. Columbia, S.C: University of South Carolina Press. p. 170. ISBN 0-87249-855-7.  ^ a b c Holt 2013, p. 14. ^ Holt 2013, p. 3. ^ Hāṇḍā, Omacanda (1994). Buddhist Art & Antiquities of Himachal Pradesh: Up to 8th Century A.D. Columbia, Mo: South Asia Books. p. 40. ISBN 81-85182-99-X.  ^ Indian, History. "(Prabha IAS-IPS Coaching Centre - Indian History 2003 exam - "The crystallization Of the Avatara Concept and the worship of the incarnations of Vishnu
Vishnu
were features of Bhagavatism during the Gupta period"". Arumbakkam, Chennai. Archived from the original on 15 September 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2008.  ^ Krishna
Krishna
2009. ^ Pathak, Dr. Arunchandra S. (2006). "Junnar". The Gazetteers Dept, Government of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
(first published: 1885). Archived from the original on 16 October 2009. Retrieved 2008-11-03.  ^ Mukherjee, Prabhat The history of medieval Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
in Orissa. P.155 ^ Bhag-P 1.3 Archived 2013-05-21 at the Wayback Machine. Canto 1, Chapter 3 ^ Sullivan 2001, p. 32. ^ Schrader, Friedrich Otto (1916). Introduction to the Pāñcarātra and the Ahirbudhnya saṃhitā. Adyar Library. p. 42.  ^ Mishra, Vibhuti Bhushan (1973). Religious beliefs and practices of North India during the early mediaeval period, Volume 1. BRILL. pp. 4–5. ISBN 978-90-04-03610-9.  ^ শ্ৰীমন্ত শংকৰদেৱৰ কীৰ্ত্তন পুঠি, চতুৰ্বিংশতি অৱতাৰ। Collected: 8/10/2015 IST ^ Orissa Review ^ Religion of the Hindus By Kenneth W Morgan, D S Sarma p.55 ^ Iconography of Balarama
Balarama
By N.P. Joshi p.25 ^ Kennedy, M.T. (1925). The Chaitanya Movement: A Study of the Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
of Bengal. H. Milford, Oxford university press.  ^ Flood, Gavin D. (1996). An introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 341. ISBN 0-521-43878-0. Retrieved 2008-04-21. "Early Vaishnava worship focuses on three deities who become fused together, namely Vasudeva-Krishna, Krishna-Gopala and Narayana, who in turn all become identified with Vishnu. Put simply, Vasudeva- Krishna
Krishna
and Krishna-Gopala were worshiped by groups generally referred to as Bhagavatas, while Narayana
Narayana
was worshipped by the Pancaratra sect." ^ Essential Hinduism
Hinduism
S. Rosen, 2006, Greenwood Publishing Group p.124 ISBN 0-275-99006-0 ^ a b Nanda, Meera (19 November 2010). "Madame Blavatsky's children: Modern Hinduism's encounters with Darwinism". In James R. Lewis; Olav Hammer. Handbook of Religion and the Authority of Science. BRILL. pp. 279–344. ISBN 90-04-18791-X.  ^ Brown, C. Mackenzie (June 2007). "The Western roots of Avataric Evolutionism in colonial India". Zygon. 42 (2): 423–448. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9744.2007.00423.x.  ^ Brown, C Mackenzie (19 November 2010). "Vivekananda and the scientific legitimation of Advaita Vedanta". In James R. Lewis; Olav Hammer. Handbook of Religion and the Authority of Science. BRILL. p. 227. ISBN 90-04-18791-X.  ^ "Cover Story: Haldane: Life Of A Prodigious Mind". Science Reporter. Council of Scientific & Industrial Research. 29: 46. 1992.  ^ Amiya P. Sen (2010). Explorations in Modern Bengal, C. 1800-1900: Essays on Religion, History, and Culture. Primus Books. p. 196. ISBN 978-81-908918-6-8.  ^ Chintaman Dwarkanath Deshmukh (1972). Aspects of Development. Young Asia Publication. p. 33. 

Bibliography[edit]

Carman, John Braisted (1994), Majesty and Meekness: A Comparative Study of Contrast and Harmony in the Concept of God, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing  Holt, John C. (2013), The Buddhist Visnu: Religious Transformation, Politics, and Culture, Columbia University Press  Klostermaier, Klaus K. (2007). A survey of Hinduism. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-7081-4.  Krishna, Nanditha (2009), Book of Vishnu, Penguin UK  Sikand, Yoginder (2004). Muslims in India since 1947: Islamic perspectives on inter-faith relations. London: RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 0-415-31486-0.  Snyder, David. The Complete Book of Buddha's Lists -- Explained. David Snyder. GGKEY:EP57DW1UD6T.  Sullivan, Bruce M. (2001), The A to Z of Hinduism, Scarecrow Press  Wuaku, Albert (11 July 2013). Hindu Gods in West Africa: Ghanaian Devotees of Shiva
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External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dashavatara.

Avataras as categorized within Gaudiya Vaishnavism Avatars (Incarnations or Descents) of Vishnu

v t e

Avatars of Vishnu

Dashavatara

Matsya Kurma Varaha Narasimha Vamana Parashurama Rama Balarama1 Krishna1 Buddha1 Kalki

Other avatars

Four Kumaras Narada Nara-Narayana Kapila Dattatreya Yajna Rishabha Prithu Dhanvantari Mohini Vyasa Prsnigarbha Hayagriva Hamsa

1 The list of ten avatars varies regionally. The two substitutions involve Balarama, Krishna
Krishna
and Buddha
Buddha
is considered the avatar of Vishnu. Krishna
Krishna
is almost always included; in exceptions, he is considered the sour

.