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Dasa is a Sanskrit language
Sanskrit language
term found in ancient Hindu
Hindu
texts, such as the Rigveda
Rigveda
and Arthashastra.[1] It usually means either "enemy" or "servant".[2] A third usage, related to the second, is "servant of God", "devotee," "votary" or "one who has surrendered to God"; dasa may be a suffix of a given name to indicate a "servant" of a revered person or deity.[3] In some contexts, dasa is interchangeable with the Sanskrit words dasyu and asura, both of which have been translated into other languages as words equivalent to "demon", "harmful supernatural force", "slave", "servant" or "barbarian", depending on the context in which the word is used.[2][4]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Hindu
Hindu
Texts

2.1 Rig Veda

2.1.1 Dasa with the meaning of savage, barbarians 2.1.2 Dasa with the meaning of demon 2.1.3 Dasa with the meaning of servant or slave 2.1.4 Aryan- Dasa conflict

2.2 Later Vedic texts 2.3 Arthashastra

3 Buddhist texts 4 Jaina texts 5 Other uses

5.1 Use of religious "devotees" 5.2 As a surname or byname

6 Views of Sri Aurobindo 7 Comparative linguistics 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading

Etymology[edit] Dāsa (Sanskrit: दास) first appears in Vedic texts from the 2nd millennium BCE.[2] There is no consensus on its origins. Karl Heinrich Tzschucke in 1806, in his translations of the Roman geographer Pomponius Mela, noted etymological and phonological parallels between dasa and the ethonyms of the Dahae
Dahae
– Persian داها; Sanskrit Dasa; Latin Dahae; Greek Δάοι Daoi, Δάαι, Δᾶαι Daai and Δάσαι Dasai – a people who lived on the south-eastern shores of the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
in ancient times (and from whom modern Dehestan/Dehistan takes its name).[5] Likewise Max Muller proposed that dasa referred to indigenous peoples living in South Asia before the arrival of the Aryans. However, such theories have long been controversial and are considered by many scholars as inconsistent with the broader usage of dasa in the Vedas.[6][7] Monier Monier-Williams
Monier Monier-Williams
in 1899, stated that the meaning of dasa varies contextually and means "mysterious forces", "savages", "barbarians" or "demons" in the earliest layer of Vedic literature – in other contexts, is a self-effacing way to refer oneself as "worshipper" or "devotee aiming to honor a deity", or a "servant of god".[8] In later Indian literature, according to Monier-Williams, usage of dasa is used to refer to "a knowing man, or a knower of the universal spirit".[9] In the latter sense, dāsa is masculine, while the feminine equivalent is dāsi.[8] Some early 20th Century translations, such as P. T. Srinivas Iyengar (1912), translate dasa as "slave".[10] Kangle in 1960,[1] and others[11] suggest that, depending on the context, dasa may be translated as "enemy", "servant" or "religious devotee". More recent scholarly interpretations of the Sanskrit words dasa or dasyu suggest that these words used throughout the Vedas represents "disorder, chaos and dark side of human nature", and the verses that use the word dasa mostly contrast it with the concepts of "order, purity, goodness and light."[2] In some contexts, the word dasa may refer to enemies, in other contexts it may refer to those who had not adopted the Vedic beliefs, and yet other contexts it may refer to mythical enemies in the battle between good and evil.[2] Michael Witzel in his review of Indo-Iranian texts in 1995, states that dasa in the Vedic literature represented a North Iranian tribe, who were enemies of the Vedic Aryans, and das-yu meant "enemy, foreigner."[12] He notes that these enemies could have apparently become slaves if captured. Witzel compares the etymological root of dasa to words from other Indo-European languages that imply "enemy, foreigner", including the Avestan dahåka and dŋha, Latin dahi and Greek daai.[13] Asko Parpola
Asko Parpola
in 2015, has proposed that dasa is related to the ancient Iranian and proto-Saka word daha, which means "man".[14] Parpola states that dasa referred only to Central Asian peoples.[15] This is contrasted with arya, the word for "man" used by, and of, Indo-European people from Central Asia. Consequently, a Vedic text that include prayers for the defeat of the dasa as an "enemy people", according to Parpola, possibly refers to people from the so-called Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex
Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex
(BMAC), who spoke a different language and opposed Aryan
Aryan
religious practices.[15] Parpola uses archaeological and linguistic arguments to support his theory, but this is controversial.[16] Dasa in Buddhist texts can mean "servant".[3] In Pali language, it is used as suffix in Buddhist texts, where Amaya-dasa was translated by Davids and Stede in 1925, as a "slave by birth",[17] Kila-dasa translated as a "bought slave",[18] and Amata-dasa as "one who sees Amata (Sanskrit: Amrita, nectar of immortality) or Nibbana".[19] According to Dr Bhimrao Ambedkar, Regarding the Dasas, the question is whether there is any connection between the Azhi-Dahaka of the Zend Avesta. The name Azhi-Dahaka is a compound name which consists of two parts. Azhi means serpent, dragon and Dahaka comes from the root "Dah" meaning "to sting, to do harm" [20] Hindu
Hindu
Texts[edit] Rig Veda[edit] Dasa and related words such as Dasyu are found in the Rig Veda. They have been variously translated, depending on the context. These words represent in some context represent "disorder, chaos and dark side of human nature", and the verses that use the word dasa mostly contrast it with the concepts of "order, purity, goodness and light."[2] In other contexts, the word dasa refers to enemies and in other contexts, those who had not adopted the Vedic beliefs.[2][21] A. A. Macdonell
A. A. Macdonell
and A. B. Keith
A. B. Keith
in 1912 remarked that, "The great difference between the Dasyus and the Aryans was their religion... It is significant that constant reference is made to difference in religion between Aryans and Dasa and Dasyu."[citation needed] Dasa with the meaning of savage, barbarians[edit] Rig Veda
Rig Veda
10.22.8 describes Dasyus as "savages" who have no laws, different observances, a-karman (who do not perform rites) and who act against a person without knowing the person.[4]

अकर्मा दस्युरभि नो अमन्तुरन्यव्रतो अमानुषः । त्वं तस्यामित्रहन्वधर्दासस्य दम्भय ॥८॥[22]

Around us is the Dasyu, riteless, void of sense, inhuman, keeping alien laws. Baffle, thou Slayer of the foe, the weapon which this Dasa wields. – Translated by Ralph Griffith[23]

The Dasyu practising no religious rites, not knowing us thoroughly, following other observances, obeying no human laws, Baffle, destroyer of enemies [Indra], the weapon of that Dasa. – Translated by H. H. Wilson[24]

—  Rigveda
Rigveda
10.22.8

Dasa with the meaning of demon[edit] Within the Vedic texts, Dasa is the word used to describe supernatural demonic creatures with many eyes and many heads. This has led scholars to interpret that the word Dasa in Vedic times meant evil, supernatural, destructive forces. For example, Rigveda
Rigveda
in hymn 10.99.6 states,[25]

स इद्दासं तुवीरवं पतिर्दन्षळक्षं त्रिशीर्षाणं दमन्यत् । अस्य त्रितो न्वोजसा वृधानो विपा वराहमयोअग्रया हन् ॥६॥

The sovereign Indra
Indra
attacking him overcame the loud shouting, six eyed, three headed Dasa, Trita invigorated by his strength, smote the cloud with his iron-tipped finger.

—  Rigveda
Rigveda
10.99.6, translated by H. H. Wilson[26]

Dasa with the meaning of servant or slave[edit] Dasa is also used in Vedic literature, in some contexts, to refer to "servants", a few translate this as "slaves", but the verses do not describe how the Vedic society treats or mistreats the servants. R. S. Sharma, in his 1958 book, states that the only word which could possibly mean slave in Rigveda
Rigveda
is dāsa, and this sense of use is traceable to four verses out of 10,600 verses in Rigveda, namely 1.92.8, 1.158.5, 10.62.10 and 8.56.3.[27] The translation of word dasa to servant or slave varies by scholars.[2] HH Wilson, for example, translates Dasa in Rigvedic instances identified by Sharma, as servant rather than slave,[28] as in verse 10.62.10:[29]

उत दासा परिविषे स्मद्दिष्टी गोपरीणसा । यदुस्तुर्वश्च मामहे ॥१०॥[30]

Yadu and Indra
Indra
speaking auspiciously, and possessed of numerous cattle, gave them like servants, for the enjoyment.

—  Rigveda
Rigveda
10.62.10, Translated by HH Wilson[28]

R. S. Sharma translates dasi in a Vedic era Upanishad as "maid-servant".[31] Aryan- Dasa conflict[edit] See also: Vedic period Hermann Oldenberg states that no distinction between historical events and mythology existed for the Vedic poets. For them, the conflict between the Aryans and Dasas extended into the realms of gods and demons with the hostile demon being on the same level as the hated and despised savages.[32] Bridget Allchin and Raymond Allchin state that from the Vedas, it is evident that the Indo-Aryans were not the only inhabitants of the region they called Sapta-Sindhava or land of seven Indus rivers, nor their stay was entirely peaceful. We learn of Dasa or Dasyus (a word later meaning "slave") who were dark-complexioned, snub-nosed and worshipers of the phallus (śiśna deva). They had abundant cattle and lived in fortified settlements called puras. In addition, we also learn of the Panis who were wealthy in cattle and treasures. Although many hymns refer to conflicts between one Aryan
Aryan
tribe against another, there is an underlying sense of solidarity in conflict against the Dasas and Indra
Indra
is called Purandara or "breaker of cities". Destruction of many cities by fire is mentioned as is a battle on the banks of Ravi at a place called Hariyūpiyā. Professor Burrow showed the unambiguous character of such references like, "Through fear of thee the dark-coloured inhabitants fled, not waiting for battle, when, O Agni
Agni
(fire) burning brightly for Puru (an Aryan
Aryan
tribe), and destroying the cities, thou didst shine." (VII, 5, 3) he also recognized the importance of terms like arma, armaka, meaning ruin. The Rig Veda
Rig Veda
states, "Strike down, O Maghavan (Indra), the host of sorceresses in the ruined city of Vailashthānaka, in the ruined city of Mahāvailastha (Great Vailastha)" (I, 133, 3). By the end of Mature Vedic period, there were great ruin-mounds which Aryans associated with the earlier inhabitants of the area. A later Vedic text taittariya Barhama states, "The people to whom these ruined sites belonged, lacking posts, these many settlements, widely distributed, they, O Agni, having been expelled by thee, have emigrated to another land." Not all contacts were violent however. the name of the father of Sudas was Divodasa, suggesting the tribal ruler himself belonged to the Dasa stock.[33] Ram Sharan Sharma
Ram Sharan Sharma
states that the Rig-Vedic society was primarily organized on basis of tribe, kin and lineage. The "Aryan" tribes mentioned by the Rig Veda
Rig Veda
therefore may not have been of the same ethnicity, but may have been united by a common language and way of life. He states that while it has been argued that Dasyu and Dasa were not non-Aryans, it is more true in the case of the latter. Further the Dasas are said to be organized into tribes called viś, a term used for Vedic people or tribes. The god Indra
Indra
is said to be the conqueror of Dasas, who appear mostly human. There are more references to the destruction of Dasyus by Indra
Indra
instead of Dasas. He is said to have protected the Aryan
Aryan
varna by killing them.[34] The Aryans also fought between themselves. The god Manyu (deity) is invoked to overcome both Aryans and Dasyus. Indra
Indra
is asked to fight against the godless Dasyus and Aryans, who are the enemies of his followers. (X, 88, 3 & XX, 36, 10).[35] The fight between Aryans and their enemies consisted mostly of fortresses and walled settlements of the latter. Both Dasas and Dasyus were in the possession of them. Sharma states that this reminds us of the later discovery of fortifications of Harappan settlements, though there is no clear archaeological evidence of mass-scale confrontation between Aryans and Harappans. He adds that the Aryans seemed to be attracted to their wealth over which a regular warfare took place. The worshiper in the Rig Veda
Rig Veda
expects that those who offered no oblation should be killed and their wealth be divided (I, 176, 4). However, it was the cattle which held the most importance to Aryans who were cattle-herders. For example, it is argued that Kikatas didn't need cows because they made no use of milk products in sacrifice.[36] Sacrifice played an important part in Aryan
Aryan
way of life, however the Dasyus or Dasas did not offer sacrifices. An entire passage in the seventh book of Rig Veda
Rig Veda
uses adjectives such as akratün, aśraddhān and ayajñān applied to Dasyus emphasizes their non-sacrificing character. Indra
Indra
is asked to discriminate between them and the sacrificing Aryas. Sharma states that the word anindra (without Indra) may refer to Dasyus, Dasa and Aryan
Aryan
dissenters. Per the Aryan
Aryan
view, the Dasyus practiced black magic and Atharva Veda
Atharva Veda
refers to them as evil spirits to be scared away from the sacrifice. The Atharva Veda states that the god-blaspheming Dasyus are to be offered as victims. The Dasyus are believed to be treacherous, not practicing Aryan observances, and are hardly human.[37] Tony Ballantyne states that Rig Veda
Rig Veda
depicts the cultural differences between the Aryan
Aryan
invaders and non-Aryans of Indus valley. He states that although the inter- Aryan
Aryan
conflict is prominent in its hymns, a cultural opposition is drawn between Aryans and the indigenous people of North India. According to him, it depicts the indigenous tribes such as the Pani and Dasas as godless, savage and untrustworthy. Panis are cattle thieves who seek to deprive Aryans of them. He states Dasas were savages, whose godless society, darker complexion and different language were culturally different from Aryans. They are called barbarians (rakshas), those without fire (anagnitra) and flesh-eaters (kravyad). The Aryas were on the other hand presented as noble people protected by their gods Agni
Agni
and Indra. He adds that their names were extended beyond them to denote savage and barbarian people in general. He concurs that this continued into later Sanskritic tradition where dasa came to mean a slave while Arya meant noble.[38] Later Vedic texts[edit]

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The three words Dasa, Dasyu and Asura
Asura
(danav) are used interchangeably in almost identical verses that are repeated in different Vedic texts, such as the Rig Veda, the Saunaka recension of Atharva veda, the Paippalada Samhita
Samhita
of the Atharva Veda
Atharva Veda
and the Brahmanas
Brahmanas
text in various Vedas. Such comparative study has led scholars to interpret Dasa and Dasyu may have been a synonym of Asura
Asura
(demons or evil forces, sometimes simply lords with special knowledge and magical powers) of later Vedic texts.[39][need quotation to verify] Sharma states that the word dasa occurs in Aitareya and Gopatha Brahmanas, but not in the sense of a slave.[31] Arthashastra[edit] Kautilya's Arthashastra
Arthashastra
dedicates the thirteenth chapter on dasas, in his third book on law. This Sanskrit document from the Maurya Empire period (4th century BCE), has been translated by several authors. Shamasastry's translation in 1915,[40] Kangle's translation in 1960s[41] and Rangarajan's translation in 1987[42] all map dasa as slave. However, Kangle suggests that the context and rights granted to dasa by Kautilya, such as the right to the same wage as a free labourer and the right to freedom on payment of an amount, distinguish this form of slavery from that of contemporary Greece.[43] Edmund Leach points out that the Dasa was the antithesis of the concept of Arya. As the latter term evolved through successive meanings, so did Dasa: from "indigenous inhabitant" to "serf," "tied servant," and finally "chattel slave." He suggests the term "unfreedom" to cover all these meanings.[44] According to Arthashastra, anyone who had been found guilty of nishpatitah (Sanskrit: निष्पातित, ruined, bankrupt, a minor crime)[45] may mortgage oneself to become dasa for someone willing to pay his or her bail and employ the dasa for money and privileges.[40][43] According to Arthashastra, it was illegal to force a dasa (slave) to do certain types of work, to hurt or abuse him, or to force sex on a female dasa.[40]

Employing a slave (dasa) to carry the dead or to sweep ordure, urine or the leavings of food; keeping a slave naked; hurting or abusing him; or violating the chastity of a female slave shall cause the forfeiture of the value paid for him or her. Violation of the chastity shall at once earn their liberty for them. — Arthashastra, Translated by Shamasastry[40]

When a master has connection (sex) with a pledged female slave (dasa) against her will, he shall be punished. When a man commits or helps another to commit rape with a female slave pledged to him, he shall not only forfeit the purchase value, but also pay a certain amount of money to her and a fine of twice the amount to the government. — Arthashastra, Translated by Shamasastry[40]

A slave (dasa) shall be entitled to enjoy not only whatever he has earned without prejudice to his master's work, but also the inheritance he has received from his father. — Arthashastra, Translated by Shamasastry[40]

Buddhist texts[edit] Words related to dasa are found in early Buddhist texts, such as dāso na pabbājetabbo, which Davids and Stede translate as "the slave cannot become a Bhikkhu".[46] This restriction on who could become a Buddhist monk is found in Vinaya Pitakam i.93, Digha Nikaya, Majjhima Nikāya, Tibetan Bhiksukarmavakya and Upasampadajnapti.[46][47] Jaina texts[edit]

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Other uses[edit] Use of religious "devotees"[edit] In Tamil tontai, dasa, servant, commonly used to refer to devotees of Lord Vishnu
Vishnu
or Sri Krishna.[48] In Gaudiya Vaishnava
Gaudiya Vaishnava
theology Smriti
Smriti
statement dāsa-bhūto harer eva nānyasvaiva kadācana, living entities (bhuto) are eternally in the service (dasa) of the Supreme Lord (Hari).[49] Thus designation for Vaishnava
Vaishnava
followers of svayam bhagavan Krishna
Krishna
was the status title dasa as part of their names as in Hari
Hari
Dasa.[50] As a surname or byname[edit] Main article: Das (surname) Dasa or Das is also a surname or middle name found among Hindus and Sikhs, typically in northern half of India, where it literally means "votary, devotee, servant of God."[51] For example, Mohandas Gandhi's first name, Mohandas, means servant of Mohan or Krishna. Also, the name Surdas means servant of Sur or Deva. In the past, many saints of the Bhakti movement
Bhakti movement
added it to their names, signifying their total devotion or surrender to God.[50] Views of Sri Aurobindo[edit] Authors like Sri Aurobindo
Sri Aurobindo
believe that words like Dasa are used in the Rig Veda
Rig Veda
symbolically and should be interpreted spiritually, and that Dasa does not refer to human beings, but rather to demons who hinder the spiritual attainment of the mystic. Many Dasas are purely mythical and can only refer to demons. There is for example a Dasa called Urana with 99 arms (RV II.14.4), and a Dasa with six eyes and three heads in the Rig Veda.[52] Aurobindo[53] commented that in the RV III.34 hymn, where the word Arya varna occurs, Indra
Indra
is described as the increaser of the thoughts of his followers: "the shining hue of these thoughts, sukram varnam asam, is evidently the same as that sukra or sveta Aryan
Aryan
hue which is mentioned in verse 9. Indra
Indra
carries forward or increases the "colour" of these thoughts beyond the opposition of the Panis, pra varnam atiracchukram; in doing so he slays the Dasyus and protects or fosters and increases the Aryan
Aryan
"colour", hatvi dasyun pra aryam varnam avat."[54] According to Aurobindo (The Secret of the Veda), RV 5.14.4 is a key for understanding the character of the Dasyus:

Agni
Agni
born shone out slaying the Dasyus, the darkness by the light, he found the Cows, the Waters, Swar. (transl. Aurobindo)[55][56]

Aurobindo explains that in this verse the struggle between light and darkness, truth and falsehood, divine and undivine is described.[55] It is through the shining light created by Agni, god of fire, that the Dasyus, who are identified with the darkness, are slain. The Dasyus are also described in the Rig Veda
Rig Veda
as intercepting and withholding the Cows, the Waters and Swar ("heavenly world"; RV 5.34.9; 8.68.9). It is not difficult, of course, to find very similar metaphors, equating political or military opponents with evil and darkness, even in contemporary propaganda. K.D. Sethna (1992) writes: "According to Aurobindo,(...) there are passages in which the spiritual interpretation of the Dasas, Dasyus and Panis is the sole one possible and all others are completely excluded. There are no passages in which we lack a choice either between this interpretation and a nature-poetry or between this interpretation and the reading of human enemies." Comparative linguistics[edit] Dasa and related terms have been examined by several scholars.[57] While the terms Dasa and Dasyu have a negative meaning in Sanskrit, their Iranian counterparts Daha and Dahyu have preserved their positive (or neutral) meaning. This is similar to the Sanskrit terms Deva (a "positive" term) and Asura
Asura
(a "negative" term). The Iranian counterparts of these terms (Daeva and Ahura) have opposite meanings. Asko Parpola
Asko Parpola
states the original Dasa is related to the Old Persian word Daha which also means "man", but refers specifically to a regional ethnic minority of Persia.[58] Parpola contrasts Daha with Arya, stating that the latter also referred to "man" but specifically to the incoming Indo-Iranians from Central Asia. The Vedic text that include prayers to help defeat the " Dasa as enemy people", states Parpola, may refer to the wars of the Indo-Iranians against the bearers of the Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex
Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex
(BMAC) culture. The latter spoke a different language and opposed Indo-Iranian religious practices.[58] Parpola uses archaeological and linguistic arguments to support his theory, but his theory is controversial.[16] See also[edit]

Déisi Mleccha Adivasi

References[edit]

^ a b R.P. Kangle (1960), The Kautiliya Arthasastra – a critical edition, Vol. 2 and 3, University of Bombay Studies, ISBN 978-8120800427 ^ a b c d e f g h Barbara West (2008), Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania, ISBN 978-0816071098, page 182 ^ a b Gregory Schopen (2004), Buddhist Monks and Business Matters, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0824827748, page 201 ^ a b Wash Edward Hale (1999), Ásura in Early Vedic Religion, Motilal Barnarsidass, ISBN 978-8120800618, pages 159–169 ^ See, for example: Pomponius Melo (transl. and ed. by Karl Henrich Tzschucke) De sitv orbis libri tres: ad plvrimos codices mostos vel denvo vel primvm consvltos aliorvmqve editiones recensiticvm notis criticis et exegeticis vel integris vel selectis Hermolai Barbari [et al] conlectis praeterea et adpositis doctorvm virorvm animadversionibvs additis svis a Carolo Henrico Tzschvckio, Vol. II, Pt 1 (1806), p. 95 and; Pomponius Mela
Pomponius Mela
(transl. and ed. by Karl Henrich Tzschucke) Pomponii Melae de situ orbis: libri tres, ad plurimos codices msstos vel denvo vel primum consultos aliorumque editiones recensiti, Vol. II, Pt 3 (1806), p. 136. ^ Wash Edward Hale (1999), Ásura- in Early Vedic Religion, Motilal Barnarsidass, ISBN 978-8120800618, pages 162–165 ^ Edwin Bryant (2004), The Quest for the Origins of Vedic Culture: The Indo- Aryan
Aryan
Migration Debate, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195169478, pages 59–67 ^ a b Monier Monier-Williams, A Sanskrit-English Dictionary” Etymologically and Philologically Arranged to cognate Indo-European Languages, Motilal Banarsidass, page 475 ^ Monier Monier-Williams, A Sanskrit-English Dictionary” Etymologically and Philologically Arranged to cognate Indo-European Languages, Motilal Banarsidass, page 476 ^ P. T. Srinivas Iyengar (1912), The Myth of the Aryan
Aryan
Invasion of India, Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, Vol. 60, No. 3113 pages 841–846 ^ B. Breloer (1934), Kautiliya Studien, Bd. III, Leipzig, pages 10–16, 30–71 ^ Witzel, Michael (2001). "Autochthonous Aryans?". Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies. 7 (3): 16.  ^ Michael Witzel (1995), Early Indian history: Linguistic and textual parameters, in The Indo-Aryans of Ancient South Asia (Editor: G. Erdosy), de Gruyter, pages 85–125 ^ Parpola 2015, pp. 100–106. ^ a b Parpola 2015, pp. 82–85, 96–106. ^ a b Colin Renfrew (1991), The Coming of the Aryans to Iran and India and the Cultural and Ethnic Identity of the Dāsas by Asko Parpola, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Third Series, Vol. 1, No. 1, pages 106–109 ^ Thomas William Rhys Davids, William Stede (2015), Pali-English Dictionary, 2nd Edition, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120811447, page 104 ^ Thomas William Rhys Davids, William Stede (2015), Pali-English Dictionary, 2nd Edition, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120811447, page 217 ^ Thomas William Rhys Davids, William Stede (2015), Pali-English Dictionary, 2nd Edition, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120811447, page 73 ^ Who Were the Shudras. 1946.  ^ R. C. Majumdar and A. D. Pusalker (editors): The History and Culture of the Indian People. Volume I, The Vedic age. Bombay : Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan 1951, p.253. Keith and Macdonell 1922, ISBN 978-8172764401 ^ Rigveda
Rigveda
Sanskrit text, Wikisource ^ Rigveda, Mandala 10, Hymn 22 Ralph T Griffith, Wikisource ^ Rigveda
Rigveda
10.22.8 H. H. Wilson
H. H. Wilson
(Translator), Trubner & Co, pages 57–58 ^ Wash Edward Hale (1999), Ásura- in Early Vedic Religion, Motilal Barnarsidass, ISBN 978-8120800618, page 163 ^ Rigveda
Rigveda
10.99.6 HH Wilson (Translator), Trubner & Co, page 285 ^ Sharma, R. S. (1990) [first published in 1958]. Sudras in Ancient India. Motilal Banarasidass. pp. 24–25, 50–51.  ^ a b Rigveda
Rigveda
10.62.10 HH Wilson (Translator), Trubner & Co, page 167 ^ Wash Edward Hale (1999), Ásura- in Early Vedic Religion, Motilal Barnarsidass, ISBN 978-8120800618, page 162 ^ Rigveda
Rigveda
10.62 Sanskrit text, Wikisource ^ a b Sharma, R. S. (1990) [first published in 1958]. Sudras in Ancient India. Motilal Banarasidass. pp. 50–51.  ^ Hermann Oldenberg. The Religion of the Veda. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 81.  ^ Bridget Allchin, Raymond Allchin. The Rise of Civilization in India and Pakistan. Cambridge University Press. pp. 307–208.  ^ Ram Sharan Sharma. Śūdras in Ancient India: A Social History of the Lower Order Down ..., Part 600. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 10–11.  ^ Ram Sharan Sharma. Śūdras in Ancient India: A Social History of the Lower Order Down ..., Part 600. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 13.  ^ Ram Sharan Sharma. Śūdras in Ancient India: A Social History of the Lower Order Down ..., Part 600. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 12.  ^ Ram Sharan Sharma. Śūdras in Ancient India: A Social History of the Lower Order Down ..., Part 600. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 13.  ^ Ballantyne, Tony (2016). Orientalism and Race: Aryanism in the British Empire. Springer Publishing. p. 170.  ^ Wash Edward Hale (1999), Ásura- in Early Vedic Religion, Motilal Barnarsidass, ISBN 978-8120800618, pages 157–174 ^ a b c d e f Shamasastry (Translator, 1915), Arthashastra
Arthashastra
of Chanakya ^ Kangle, R. P. (1986) [first published 1969], The Kauṭilīya Arthaśāstra (Part II) (Second ed.), Motilal Banarsidass
Motilal Banarsidass
Publ., pp. 237–, ISBN 978-81-208-0042-7  ^ Rangarajan, L. N. (1992) [first published in 1987], Kautilya
Kautilya
— The ARTHASHASTRA, Penguin Books Limited, Chapter VIII.x, ISBN 978-81-8475-011-9  ^ a b Kangle, R. P. (1997) [first published 1960], The Kauṭilīya Arthaśāstra (Part III), Motilal Banarsidass
Motilal Banarsidass
Publ., p. 186, ISBN 978-81-208-0041-0  ^ Leach, Edmund (1962), "Slavery in Ancient India by Dev Raj Chanana (Book review)", Science & Society, 26 (3): 335–338, JSTOR 40400852  ^ निष्पातित Sanskrit English dictionary ^ a b Thomas William Rhys Davids and William Stede (2015), Pali-English Dictionary, 2nd Edition, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120811447, page 320 ^ Gregory Schopen (2010), On Some Who Are Not Allowed to Become Buddhist Monks or Nuns: An Old List of Types of Slaves or Unfree Laborers, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 130, No. 2, pages 225–234 ^ Steven P. Hopkins (2007). An ornament for jewels: love poems for the Lord of Gods. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. p. 160. ISBN 0-19-532639-3.  ^ Bhaktivedanta Swami, A. C. (1972). The Bhagavad-gita As It Is, second edition. New York City: Macmillan. ^ a b Talbot, Cynthia (2001). Precolonial India in practice: society, region, and identity in medieval Andhra. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. p. 81. ISBN 0-19-513661-6.  ^ D Roy (2013), Rural Politics in India: Political Stratification and Governance in West Bengal, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 1107042356, page 67 ^ Parpola 1988, Sethna 1992:329 ^ Sethna 1992:114 and 340, Aurobindo, The Secret of the Veda, p. 220-21 ^ Sethna 1992:114 and 340 ^ a b Sethna 1992:114–115 and 348–349 ^ Which is translated by Griffith thus: Agni
Agni
shone bright when born, with light killing the Dasyus and the dark He found the Kine, the Floods, the Sun. (trans. Griffith) ^ e.g., Asko Parpola
Asko Parpola
(1988), Mayrhofer (1986–1996), Benveniste (1973), Lecoq (1990), Windfuhr (1999) ^ a b Asko Parpola
Asko Parpola
(2015), The Roots of Hinduism: The Early Aryans and the Indus Civilization, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0190226923, pages 100–106

Sources

Parpola, Asko (2015), The Roots of Hinduism: The Early Aryans and the Indus Civilization, Oxford University Press Incorporated, ISBN 0190226927 

Further reading[edit]

Bryant, Edwin: The Quest for the Origins of Vedic Culture. 2001. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-513777-9 J. Bronkhorst and M.M. Deshpande. 1999. Aryan
Aryan
and Non- Aryan
Aryan
in South Asia. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Hock, Hans. 1999b, Through a Glass Darkly: Modern "Racial" Interpretations vs. Textual and General Prehistoric Evidence on Arya and Dasa/ Dasyu in Vedic Indo- Aryan
Aryan
Society." in Aryan
Aryan
and Non- Aryan
Aryan
in South Asia. Iyengar, Srinivas. 1914. "Did the Dravidians of India Obtain Their Culture from Aran Immigrant [sic]." Anthropos 1–15. Macdonell, A.A. and Keith, A.B. 1912. The Vedic Index of Names and Subjects. Parpola, Asko: 1988, The Coming of the Aryans to Iran and India and the Cultural and Ethnic Identity of the Dasas; The problem of the Aryans and the Soma. Rg Veda 1854–57. Rig-Veda Samhita. tr. H.H. Wilson. London: H.Allen and Co. Schetelich, Maria. 1990, "The problem of the "Dark Skin" (Krsna Tvac) in the Rgveda." Visva Bharati Annals 3:244–249. Sethna, K.D. 1992. The Problem of Aryan
Aryan
Origins. New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan. Trautmann, Thomas R. 1997, Aryans and British India. Berkeley: University of California Press. Witzel, Michael. 1995b, 325, fn, "Rgvedic History" in The Indo-Ary

.