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Darmstadt
Darmstadt
(German pronunciation: [ˈdaʁmʃtat] ( listen)) is a city in the state of Hesse
Hesse
in Germany, located in the southern part of the Rhine-Main-Area ( Frankfurt
Frankfurt
Metropolitan Region). Darmstadt has a population around 150,000 (2013).[2] The Darmstadt
Darmstadt
Larger Urban Zone has 430,993 inhabitants.[3] Darmstadt
Darmstadt
holds the official title "City of Science" (German: Wissenschaftsstadt) as it is a major centre of scientific institutions, universities, and high-technology companies. The European Space Operations Centre
European Space Operations Centre
(ESOC) is located in Darmstadt, as well as GSI Centre for Heavy Ion Research, where several chemical elements such as bohrium (1981), meitnerium (1982), hassium (1984), darmstadtium (1994), roentgenium (1994), and copernicium (1996) were discovered.[4] The existence of the following elements were also confirmed at GSI Centre for Heavy Ion Research: nihonium (2012), flerovium (2009), moscovium (2012), livermorium (2010), and tennessine (2012).[5] Darmstadt
Darmstadt
is also the seat of the world's oldest pharmaceutical company, Merck, which is the city's largest employer.

View across Darmstadt
Darmstadt
towards Frankfurt
Frankfurt
skyline

Darmstadt
Darmstadt
was formerly the capital of a sovereign country, the Grand Duchy of Hesse
Hesse
and its successor, the People's State of Hesse, a federal state of Germany. As the capital of an increasingly prosperous duchy, the city gained some international prominence and remains one of the wealthiest cities in Europe.[6] In the 20th century, industry (especially chemicals), as well as large science and electronics (later information technology) sectors became increasingly important, and are still a major part of the city's economy. It is also home to the football club SV Darmstadt
Darmstadt
98. Darmstadt, Indiana
Darmstadt, Indiana
was named after Darmstadt
Darmstadt
and for the former Royal Family.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Origins 1.2 Industrial age 1.3 Nazi Germany 1.4 Post–World War II

2 Boroughs 3 Population development 4 Lord mayors since 1945 5 Transport

5.1 Roads 5.2 Public transport in Darmstadt 5.3 Regional rail links 5.4 National rail links 5.5 Airports 5.6 National Coach Services

6 Parks, architecture and attractions

6.1 Castles and historical buildings 6.2 Modern architecture 6.3 Art Nouveau 6.4 Squares 6.5 Parks 6.6 Churches 6.7 Festivals

7 Culture 8 Geography

8.1 Climate

9 Education

9.1 Schools 9.2 Universities

10 Institutions

10.1 Technology 10.2 United States
United States
military presence

11 Tourist sights in Darmstadt

11.1 City 11.2 Region

12 Notable persons 13 International relations

13.1 Twin towns / Sister cities

14 See also 15 References 16 External links

History[edit]

Darmstadt
Darmstadt
in 1626.

The 'Schlossplatz', a market square in front of the Ducal Palace around 1900: One of the few areas to survive in similar style after World War II

Origins[edit] The name Darmstadt
Darmstadt
first appears towards the end of the 11th century, then as Darmundestat. Its origins are unknown.[7] 'Dar-mund' in Middle Low German is translated as "Boggy Headlands", but it could be a misspelling in local dialect of another name. It is sometimes stated that the name derives from the 'Darmbach' (a small stream formerly running through the city).[citation needed] In fact, the stream received its current name much later, after the city, not vice versa.[7] Darmstadt
Darmstadt
was chartered as a city by the Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
Ludwig the Bavarian in 1330, at which time it belonged to the counts of Katzenelnbogen.[8] The city, then called Darmstait, became a secondary residence for the counts, with a small castle established at the site of the current, much larger edifice.[9] When the house of Katzenelnbogen became extinct in 1479, the city was passed to the Landgraviate of Hesse, and was seat of the ruling landgraves (1567–1806) and thereafter (to 1918) of the grand dukes of Hesse.[10] Industrial age[edit]

Darmstadt
Darmstadt
in 1909

The city grew in population during the 19th century from little over 10,000 to 72,000 inhabitants.[11] A polytechnical school, which later became a Technical University now known as TU Darmstadt, was established in 1877.[12] In the beginning of the 20th century, Darmstadt
Darmstadt
was an important centre for the art movement of Jugendstil, the German variant of Art Nouveau. Annual architectural competitions led to the building of many architectural treasures of this period. Also during this period, in 1912 the chemist Anton Kollisch, working for the pharmaceutical company Merck, first synthesised the chemical MDMA
MDMA
(ecstasy) in Darmstadt. Darmstadt's municipal area was extended in 1937 to include the neighbouring localities of Arheilgen and Eberstadt, and in 1938 the city was separated administratively from the surrounding district (Kreis). Nazi Germany[edit] Darmstadt
Darmstadt
was the first city in Germany
Germany
to force Jewish shops to close in early 1933, shortly after the Nazis took power in Germany. The shops were only closed for one day, for "endangering communal order and tranquility".[13] In 1942, over 3,000 Jews from Darmstadt
Darmstadt
were first forced into a collection camp located in the Liebigschule, and later deported to concentration camps[14] where most eventually died. Several prominent members of the German resistance movement against the Nazis were citizens of Darmstadt, including Wilhelm Leuschner and Theodor Haubach, both executed for their opposition to Hitler's regime. Allied bombing destroyed 70% of the built up area of the city during World War II. Darmstadt
Darmstadt
was first bombed on 30 July 1940, and 34 other air raids would follow before the war's end. The old city centre was largely destroyed in a British bombing raid on 11 September 1944. This attack was an example of the firestorm technique, which was subsequently used against the historic city of Dresden
Dresden
in February 1945. To create a firestorm, a number of incendiary bombs are dropped around the city before the explosive blast bombs are dropped, thus beginning a self-sustaining combustion process in which winds generated by the fire ensure it continues to burn until everything possible has been consumed. Darmstadt
Darmstadt
was selected as the secondary target for the raid, but was promoted to the primary target after clouds were observed over the primary which would have hindered any reconnaissance of the after-effects. During this fire attack an estimated 11,000 to 12,500 of the inhabitants burned to death, and 66,000 to 70,000 were left homeless.[14] Over three quarters of Darmstadt's inner city was destroyed.[15] Post-war
Post-war
rebuilding was done in a relatively plain architectural style, although a number of the historic buildings were rebuilt to their original appearance following the city's capture on 20 March 1945 by American 4th Armored Division. Post–World War II[edit]

Largest groups of foreign residents

Nationality Population (2018)

 Turkey 4,454

 Italy 2,222

 Poland 1,939

 China 1,313

 Morocco 1,042

 Spain 1,006

 Croatia 887

 Romania 850

Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, Darmstadt
Darmstadt
became home to many technology companies and research institutes, and has been promoting itself as a "city of science" since 1997. It is well known as a high-tech centre in the vicinity of Frankfurt
Frankfurt
Airport, with important activities in spacecraft operations (the European Space Operations Centre, European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites), chemistry, pharmacy, information technology, biotechnology, telecommunications (substantial Deutsche Telekom presence) and mechatronics. In 2000, its region also scored Rank 3 amongst 97 German regions in the WirtschaftsWoche
WirtschaftsWoche
test ranking Germany's high-tech regions.[8] The roots of Darmstadt
Darmstadt
University of Applied Sciences goes back to 1876[16] along with Technische Universität Darmstadt(the first electrical engineering chair and inventions fame), when both these Universities were an integrated entities, a need for a separate industry based research educational institution was felt in the early 1930s, finally University of Applied sciences emerged as a separate industry based research educational institution in 1971 and is the largest University of Applied Sciences in Hesse
Hesse
(German: Hessen) with about 11,000 students. The TU Darmstadt
Darmstadt
is one of the important technical institutes in Germany
Germany
and is well known for its research and teaching in the Electrical, Mechanical and Civil Engineering disciplines. Together with other tertiary institutions, the TU is responsible for the large student population of the city, which stood at 33,547 in 2004.[8] Boroughs[edit]

Karolinenplatz

Hauptbahnhof Railway Station

Darmstadt
Darmstadt
at night

Rheinstrasse in central Darmstadt

Darmstadt
Darmstadt
has nine official 'Stadtteile' (boroughs). These are:[17]

Darmstadt-Arheilgen Darmstadt-Bessungen Darmstadt-Eberstadt

Darmstadt-Kranichstein Darmstadt-Mitte ("Central Darmstadt") Darmstadt-Nord ("North")

Darmstadt-Ost ("East") Darmstadt-West Darmstadt-Wixhausen

Population development[edit]

1871: 33.800 1890: 55.883 1900: 72.381 1925: 89.465 1933: 93.222 1945: 69.539 1956: 123.306 1975: 137.018 1990: 138.920 2000: 138.242 2010: 144.402[18] 2015: 155.353

Lord mayors since 1945[edit]

Term of office Name Party

1945–1950 Ludwig Metzger (1902-1993) SPD

1951–1971 Ludwig Engel (1906-1975) SPD

1971–1981 Heinz Winfried Sabais (1922-1981) SPD

1981–1993 Günther Metzger (1933-2013) SPD

1993–2005 Peter Benz (born 1942) SPD

2005–2011 Walter Hoffmann (born 1952) SPD

since 2011 Jochen Partsch (born 1962) Greens

Transport[edit]

A tram near Schloss station.

Darmstadt
Darmstadt
is highly connected to all means of transportation, including the Autobahn
Autobahn
Network, the Intercity-Express
Intercity-Express
Network and a major international airport. Roads[edit] Darmstadt
Darmstadt
is connected to a number of major roads, including two Autobahnen ( Bundesautobahn 5
Bundesautobahn 5
and Bundesautobahn 67). The main road passing west-east is the Bundesstraße 26, the Bundesstraße 3
Bundesstraße 3
runs north-south. The rural areas east of the city in the Odenwald
Odenwald
are accessed by several secondary roads. Public transport in Darmstadt[edit] Main article: Trams in Darmstadt The extensive public transport system of Darmstadt
Darmstadt
is integrated in the RMV (the transportation authority of the Frankfurt
Frankfurt
Metropolitan Area). The backbone of public transport in Darmstadt
Darmstadt
is its modern tram system with 9 lines and a local bus service serving all parts of the city. Darmstadt
Darmstadt
is furthermore connected to the Frankfurt
Frankfurt
S-Bahn system and being served by regional bus lines. Furthermore, regional rail lines (R64, R65, R66) connect six secondary railway stations within the city.

Regional train at Darmstadt
Darmstadt
Lichtwiese station.

Regional rail links[edit] Darmstadt
Darmstadt
is connected to the Frankfurt
Frankfurt
rapid transit network by S-Bahn
S-Bahn
line S3. Besides that, a number of regional trains connect secondary railway stations within Darmstadt
Darmstadt
and the region with Darmstadt
Darmstadt
Hauptbahnhof (main station), offering a net of inner city and regional train links. National rail links[edit]

Darmstadt
Darmstadt
Hauptbahnhof - Train hub for southern Hesse

By its main railway station " Darmstadt
Darmstadt
Hauptbahnhof", which is located in the western part of the central city, Darmstadt
Darmstadt
is connected to the rest of Germany
Germany
and Europe by the Intercity-Express
Intercity-Express
network and other long-distance trains. Darmstadt
Darmstadt
Hauptbahnhof is a busy station with 12 platforms which serves as a transportation hub for the southern Hesse/ Odenwald
Odenwald
region. Airports[edit]

Frankfurt
Frankfurt
International Airport

Darmstadt
Darmstadt
can be easily accessed from around the world via Frankfurt Airport (Flughafen Frankfurt
Frankfurt
am Main) which is located 20 km (12 mi) from central Darmstadt
Darmstadt
and connected to it via Autobahn 5, S-Bahn, several bus lines and a direct express bus-link ("Airliner"). The airport ranks among the world's busiest airports by passenger traffic and is the second-busiest airport by cargo traffic in Europe. The airport also serves as the main hub for German flag carrier Lufthansa.

Frankfurt
Frankfurt
Egelsbach
Egelsbach
Airport

Frankfurt Egelsbach Airport
Frankfurt Egelsbach Airport
(Flugplatz Frankfurt-Egelsbach) is a busy general aviation airport located 5 km north of Darmstadt, near the town of Egelsbach.

Frankfurt
Frankfurt
Hahn Airport

Despite the name, Frankfurt Hahn Airport
Frankfurt Hahn Airport
(Flughafen Frankfurt-Hahn) is located far outside the Frankfurt
Frankfurt
Metro Area, approximately 120 km (75 mi) away in Lautzenhausen
Lautzenhausen
(Rhineland-Palatinate). Hahn Airport is a major base for Low-cost carrier
Low-cost carrier
Ryanair. This airport can only be reached by car or bus. National Coach Services[edit] Darmstadt
Darmstadt
is being served by several national and European bus links which connect Darmstadt
Darmstadt
with other German and European cities. Parks, architecture and attractions[edit]

The Mathildenhöhe

Castles and historical buildings[edit]

Ducal Palace and Market Square

Darmstadt
Darmstadt
was the capital of an independent country (the Grand Duchy of Hesse) until 1871 and the capital of the German state of Hesse until 1945. It is due to its past as a capital city that it has many architectural testimonies of this period. Many of its major architectural landmarks were created by Georg Moller
Georg Moller
who was appointed the court master builder of the Grand Duchy of Hesse. Due to the fact that the last ruling Grand Duke of Hesse, Ernst Ludwig was a grandson of Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
and brother to Empress Alexandra of Russia, the architecture of Darmstadt
Darmstadt
has been influenced by British and Russian imperial architecture with many examples still existing, such as the Luisenplatz with its grand-ducal column, the old Hessian State Theatre (at Karolinenplatz) and the Russian Chapel by Leon Benois. The Russian church, St. Mary Magdalene Chapel, is named in honor of the patron saint of Tsar
Tsar
Nicholas' mother and was built of Russian stone on Russian soil brought to Darmstadt
Darmstadt
by train. It was used by the Russian imperial family and court during regular visits to the Tsarina's brother and family in Darmstadt.[19] The grand-ducal palace of Darmstadt
Darmstadt
is located in the city centre. It was the residence of the counts of Hesse-Darmstadt, later as Grand Dukes of Hesse
Hesse
by the grace of Napoleon. The rulers of Hesse
Hesse
also owned a hunting lodge in Kranichstein
Kranichstein
which is a nowadays used as a five star hotel. The most famous castle in the Darmstadt
Darmstadt
region is Frankenstein Castle
Frankenstein Castle
due to claims that the real castle may have had an influence on Mary Shelley's decision to choose the name Frankenstein
Frankenstein
for her monster-creating scientist. This castle dates back to the 13th century, but it was acquired by the counts of Hesse- Darmstadt
Darmstadt
in 1662. Modern architecture[edit]

The Waldspirale

Darmstadt
Darmstadt
has a rich tradition in modern architecture. After 1945 several "Meisterbauten" (Masterful Architectonic Creations) were built that set standards for modern architecture. These buildings still exist and are used for various public and private purposes. In the late 1990s the Waldspirale
Waldspirale
('Forest Spiral') was built, a residential complex by Austrian Friedensreich Hundertwasser. As an almost surreal building, it is internationally famous for its almost absolute rejection of rectangular forms, down to every window having a different shape, the style being a trademark of Hundertwasser's work. Hundertwasser
Hundertwasser
died before the Waldspirale
Waldspirale
was finished. Art Nouveau[edit] Darmstadt
Darmstadt
was a centre of the Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
movement. Surviving examples of the Jugendstil
Jugendstil
period include the Rosenhöhe, a landscaped English-style rose garden from the 19th century, recently renovated and replanted,[20] the Mathildenhöhe,[21] with the Hochzeitsturm ('Wedding tower', also commonly known as the 'Five-Finger-Tower') by Joseph Maria Olbrich, the Russian Chapel in Darmstadt
Darmstadt
and large exhibition halls as well as many private villas built by Jugendstil architects who had settled in Darmstadt. German Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
is commonly known by its German name, Jugendstil. The name is taken from the artistic journal, Die Jugend, which was published in Munich
Munich
and which espoused the new artistic movement. It was founded in 1896 by Georg Hirth (Hirth remained editor until his death in 1916, and the magazine continued to be published until 1940). The magazine was instrumental in promoting the style in Germany. As a result, its name was adopted as the most common German-language term for the style: Jugendstil
Jugendstil
("young style"). Although, during the early 20th century, the word was applied to only two-dimensional examples of the graphic arts, especially the forms of organic typography and graphic design found in and influenced by German magazines like Jugend, Pan, and Simplicissimus, it is now applied to more general manifestations of Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
visual arts in Germany, the Netherlands, the Baltic states, and Nordic countries. The two main centres for Jugendstil
Jugendstil
art in Germany
Germany
were Munich
Munich
and Darmstadt. Squares[edit] The Luisenplatz, the central square of the city, forms the centre of the city and is the main public transport hub. In 1844 the Ludwigsäule (called Langer Lui, meaning Long Ludwig), a 33-metre column commemorating Ludwig I, first Grand Duke of Hesse, was placed in the middle of the square. While the column still stands, the square is today surrounded by mostly modern buildings. Other important squares are the Marktplatz (see image) near the old city hall and the Sabaisplatz at the Mathildenhöhe. Parks[edit]

Park Rosenhöhe

The city has a high density of parks. Among the most important parks are the English style Herrngarten in central Darmstadt. In former times it was part of the Royal Gardens used exclusively by the dukes of Darmstadt. Today it is a public park, heavily used in every season of the year. Other important parks are the French style parks Prinz-Georgs-Garten and Orangerie, the modern style Bürgerpark ("People's Park") in northern Darmstadt
Darmstadt
and the mystical Park Rosenhöhe, ("Rose Heights") which also serves as the cemetery for the dukes, with two impressive mausoleum buildings in its remote parts. The Botanischer Garten in eastern Darmstadt
Darmstadt
is a botanical garden maintained by the Darmstadt
Darmstadt
University of Technology with a fine collection of rare plants and trees. Churches[edit]

Russian Chapel Darmstadt

The Protestant
Protestant
Stadtkirche church,[22] built in 1369, is in the pedestrian zone of the downtown city center, next to the historic Hotel Bockshaut.[23] The church has gothic elements along with renaissance and baroque, it houses the royal crypt. Hotel Bockshaut was built in 1580 for a church presbytery. The most important Catholic Church is St. Ludwig in central Darmstadt. The Russian Chapel in Darmstadt
Darmstadt
is a Russian orthodox church
Russian orthodox church
which is still in use. It was built and used as a private chapel by the last Tsar
Tsar
of Russia, Nicholas II, whose wife Alexandra was born in Darmstadt. Although Russian orthodox churches also exist in other cities outside Russia, the Russian Chapel in Darmstadt
Darmstadt
was the only official Russian church used by the Tsar
Tsar
outside the Russian Empire. It is said that the chapel was built on Russian soil that was brought to Darmstadt exclusively for the purpose of building the Tsar's private chapel on it. Festivals[edit] Every year around early July the Heinerfest festival is held in the streets surrounding the old ducal palace. It is a traditional German festival with music acts, beer halls, amusement rides and booths selling trinkets and food. The similar 'Schloßgrabenfest', which is more live music-oriented, is held in the same location every year in May. These two festivals attract 700,000[24] and 400,000[25] visitors respectively. Culture[edit]

State Theater Darmstadt
Darmstadt
- Grand Hall

Darmstadt
Darmstadt
has a rich cultural heritage. The Staatstheater Darmstadt (State Theatre Darmstadt) dates back to the year 1711. The present building has been in use since 1972 and has three halls which can be used independently. The "Grand Hall" (Großes Haus) provides seats for 956 people and serves as Darmstadt's opera house. The "Small Hall" (Kleines Haus) is mostly used for plays and dance and has 482 seats. A separate small hall (Kammerspiele) with 120 seats is used for chamber plays. Among the museums in Darmstadt
Darmstadt
the most important are the Hessisches Landesmuseum (Hessian State Museum), the Porcelain
Porcelain
Museum (exhibition of the ducal porcelain), the Schlossmuseum (exhibition of the ducal residence and possessions), the Kunsthalle Darmstadt
Darmstadt
(exhibitions of modern art), the exhibition centre Mathildenhöhe
Mathildenhöhe
and the Museum Künstlerkolonie ( Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
museum). The Jazz-Institut Darmstadt
Darmstadt
is Germany's largest publicly accessible jazz archive.[26] The Internationales Musikinstitut Darmstadt, harboring one of the world's largest collections of post-war sheet music,[27] also hosts the biennial Internationale Ferienkurse für Neue Musik, a summer school in contemporary classical music founded by Wolfgang Steinecke. A large number of avant-garde composers have attended and given lectures there, including Olivier Messiaen, Luciano Berio, Milton Babbitt, Pierre Boulez, Luigi Nono, John Cage, György Ligeti, Iannis Xenakis, Karlheinz Stockhausen, Mauricio Kagel, and Helmut Lachenmann. The Deutsche Akademie für Sprache und Dichtung provides writers and scholars with a place to research the German language.[28] The Academy's annual Georg Büchner
Georg Büchner
Prize, named in memory of Georg Büchner, is considered the most prestigious literary award for writers of German language. Geography[edit]

Vineyards
Vineyards
south of Darmstadt
Darmstadt
- View to the Rhine Plain

Darmstadt
Darmstadt
is located in the Upper Rhine Plain
Upper Rhine Plain
(German: Oberrheinische Tiefebene), a major rift, about 350 km long and on average 50 km wide, between the cities of Frankfurt
Frankfurt
in the north and Basel in the south. Darmstadt's southeastern boroughs are located in the spurs of the Odenwald, a low mountain range in Southern Hesse between the Main and Neckar rivers. Climate[edit] Southern Hesse
Hesse
is well known for its mild climate which allows winegrowing on a large scale in the region south of Darmstadt. The weather is often volatile with the summers being warm and humid with frequent thunderstorms, the winters mostly relatively mild with frequent periods of high fog. Snowfall is most likely in January and February, but mild winters without considerable snowfall can occur.

Climate data for Darmstadt

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 15 (59) 17 (63) 24 (75) 29 (84) 31 (88) 35 (95) 35 (95) 38 (100) 30 (86) 26 (79) 18 (64) 15 (59) 38 (100)

Average high °C (°F) 5 (41) 7 (45) 11 (52) 15 (59) 20 (68) 23 (73) 25 (77) 25 (77) 20 (68) 14 (57) 8 (46) 5 (41) 15 (59)

Daily mean °C (°F) 1.4 (34.5) 2.1 (35.8) 5.9 (42.6) 9.7 (49.5) 14.3 (57.7) 17.3 (63.1) 19.3 (66.7) 18.7 (65.7) 14.5 (58.1) 10 (50) 5.3 (41.5) 2.2 (36) 10.1 (50.2)

Average low °C (°F) −1 (30) 1 (34) 3 (37) 6 (43) 11 (52) 13 (55) 15 (59) 15 (59) 11 (52) 7 (45) 4 (39) 1 (34) 7 (45)

Record low °C (°F) −14 (7) −12 (10) −10 (14) −4 (25) 1 (34) 3 (37) 6 (43) 7 (45) 2 (36) −4 (25) −8 (18) −11 (12) −14 (7)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 55 (2.17) 53 (2.09) 66 (2.6) 49 (1.93) 76 (2.99) 67 (2.64) 75 (2.95) 66 (2.6) 63 (2.48) 66 (2.6) 63 (2.48) 66 (2.6) 765 (30.12)

Mean monthly sunshine hours 47 80 120 176 208 214 232 218 158 103 50 37 1,643

Source: Daily mean / Avg. precipitation / Mean sunshine hours (1981 - 2010), DWD[29]

Education[edit] Schools[edit] The City of Darmstadt
Darmstadt
offers students a broad variety of public primary, secondary and tertiary schools. Besides them private schools exist, e.g. the catholic secondary school Edith-Stein-Schule, the Adventists' Schulzentrum Marienhöhe, an anthroposophic Waldorf School, a Comenius
Comenius
School and other faith based private schools. Universities[edit]

Darmstadt
Darmstadt
University of Applied Sciences - Main Building

Darmstadt
Darmstadt
University of Applied Sciences (German: Hochschule Darmstadt) is internationally known for its achievements in the areas of engineering and computer science. The University has the highest number of industrial linkage programs, compared to the rest of the universities of applied sciences. The roots of University of Applied Sciences Darmstadt
Darmstadt
dates back to 1876. However, it has not emerged as a separate institution before 1971. Today (2017) it is the largest University of Applied Sciences in the State of Hesse
Hesse
with about 16,000 students offering courses in architecture, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computer science, design, economics, electrical engineering and information technology, mathematics and science, mechanical engineering, media (including information science and engineering), plastics engineering, social and cultural studies, and several social sciences.

Technical University - Main Entrance

Technical University of Darmstadt
Darmstadt
(German: Technische Universität Darmstadt), commonly referred to as TU Darmstadt, is a prestigious research university in Germany. It was founded in 1877 and received the right to award doctorates in 1899. In 1882 it was the first university in the world to set up a chair in electrical engineering, in 1883 the first faculty for electrical engineering was founded there. The University is organized in 13 departments and 5 fields of study, which all together offer about 100 courses of studies. The fields of study offer interdisciplinary degree courses in which students take lectures in multiple departments. The University, as its title suggests, offers degree courses in the fields of electrical, mechanical and civil engineering, architecture, computer science, mathematics and the natural sciences. It also offers courses in economics, law, history, politics, sociology, psychology, sport science and linguistics. It also offers degree courses for teaching positions at German vocational schools and Gymnasiums.

The Protestant
Protestant
University of Applied Sciences Darmstadt
Darmstadt
(EHD) is an officially recognised and Church-sponsored University. The sponsors are the Protestant
Protestant
Church in Hesse
Hesse
and Nassau, the Protestant
Protestant
Church of Kurhesse-Waldeck and the social welfare organisation of both Hessian Protestant
Protestant
Churches, the Diakonie Hesse. The EHD has approximately 1,700 students, 40 professors and 10 scientific employees and about 100 visiting lecturers every semester.

Institutions[edit] Technology[edit]

The ESOC European Space Operations Command in Darmstadt.

Darmstadt
Darmstadt
is home to many research institutions such as the Fraunhofer Society (Fraunhofer IGD, Fraunhofer LBF, Fraunhofer SIT) and the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung
Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung
(GSI, "Society for Heavy Ion Research"), which operates a particle accelerator in northern Darmstadt. The GSI, amongst other elements, discovered the chemical element darmstadtium (atomic number: 110), named after the city in 2003. This makes Darmstadt
Darmstadt
one of only eight settlements with elements named after them (the others being Ytterby
Ytterby
in Sweden (four elements); Stockholm
Stockholm
in Sweden (holmium); Strontian
Strontian
in Scotland; Copenhagen
Copenhagen
in Denmark (whose Latin name gives hafnium); Paris (whose Latin name gives lutetium); Berkeley, California; and Dubna
Dubna
in Russia). Various other elements, including meitnerium (atomic number: 109) (1982), hassium (atomic number: 108) (1984), roentgenium (atomic number: 111) (1994) and copernicium (atomic number: 112) (1996) were also synthesized in the Darmstadt
Darmstadt
facility. The European Space Operations Centre
European Space Operations Centre
(ESOC) of the European Space Agency is located in Darmstadt. From here, various deep-space exploration spacecraft and Earth-orbiting satellites are operated for the purposes of scientific research, and technology development and demonstration. EUMETSAT, the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological
Meteorological
Satellites, operates the principal European meteorological satellites from its headquarters, including the first and second generations of Meteosat
Meteosat
geostationary satellites, and the polar-orbiting Metop
Metop
series. Darmstadt
Darmstadt
is a centre for the pharmaceutical and chemical industry, with Merck, Röhm and Schenck RoTec (part of The Dürr Group) having their main plants and centres here. United States
United States
military presence[edit] U.S. forces entered the city of Darmstadt
Darmstadt
on 25 March 1945. At the end of World War II, Darmstadt
Darmstadt
was among the 112 communities where U.S. Forces were stationed. Early units stationed here included elements of the U.S. Constabulary, Air Force units and a Quartermaster School. Over the years, the U.S. military community Darmstadt
Darmstadt
— under a variety of designations — served as home for thousands of American soldiers and their families. It included six principal installations in Darmstadt
Darmstadt
and nearby Babenhausen, Griesheim and Münster, plus several housing areas, an airfield and a large number of smaller facilities as far away as Bensheim
Bensheim
and Aschaffenburg. The military newspaper European Stars and Stripes also had its headquarters there. As of 1993, the Darmstadt
Darmstadt
military community also assumed responsibility for the remaining U.S. Army facilities in the Frankfurt area. As part of the U.S. Army's ongoing transformation in Germany, the Darmstadt
Darmstadt
military community, by then designated U.S. Army Garrison Darmstadt, inactivated on 30 September 2008. Even after the garrison inactivation, however, there is still one unit active in Darmstadt: The 66th Military Intelligence Group at the Dagger Complex on Eberstädter Weg,.[30] It draws its support from the nearby U.S. Army Garrison Wiesbaden. The website of the 66th Military Intelligence Brigade claims they moved out in 2008, but Google Maps and Bing satellite imagery still show a respectively full and quarter-full parking lot,[original research?] and the U.S. Army Garrison Wiesbaden's website mentions the unit still being active in Darmstadt, and a Marine Corps company being stationed there as well. With the exception of Dagger Complex, all remaining US installations are now empty and closed to the public, pending property disposal by the German authorities. Tourist sights in Darmstadt[edit]

Waldspirale

Wedding Tower and the Russian Tsar's Chapel at Mathildenhöhe

City[edit]

Mathildenhoehe with the Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
Museum

Wedding Tower (Hochzeitsturm) at Sabaisplatz The former private chapel of the last Tsar
Tsar
of Russia

State Theatre and Opera House Waldspirale
Waldspirale
Hundertwasser
Hundertwasser
Building City Center with Luisenplatz, the Castle and the Market Square Hauptbahnhof - Central Train Station ( Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
style) Parks

Herrngarten Park Botanical Garden (Botanischer Garten) Vortex Garden Park Rosenhöhe (Rose Heights Park) with the Dukal
Dukal
Cemetery

Porcelain
Porcelain
Museum at Schlossgartenplatz St. Ludwig Church State Museum (Landesmuseum) State Archive/Old Theatre Train Museum Kranichstein

Frankenstein
Frankenstein
Castle

Region[edit]

Odenwald Bergstrasse Vineyards
Vineyards
at Zwingenberg Frankenstein
Frankenstein
Castle Messel
Messel
Pit Fossil Site Melibokus

Notable persons[edit]

Justus von Liebig
Justus von Liebig
around 1866

Friedrich von Flotow
Friedrich von Flotow
1866

Friedrich August Kekulé
Friedrich August Kekulé
in 1890

Justus Freiherr von Liebig (1803–1873) was born in Darmstadt, German chemist who made major contributions to agricultural and biological chemistry, and was considered the founder of organic chemistry Christoph Graupner
Christoph Graupner
(1683–1760), composer and Hofkapellmeister (chapel master) at the court of Hesse- Darmstadt
Darmstadt
from 1711 to 1754 Friedrich von Flotow
Friedrich von Flotow
(1812–1883), opera composer, died in Darmstadt. Georg Büchner
Georg Büchner
(1813–1837), 19th-century dramatist, poet and revolutionist Carl Amand Mangold (1813–1889), composer and conductor Friedrich August Kekulé
Friedrich August Kekulé
(1829–1896), prominent German 19th-century organic chemist, and the principal founder of the theory of chemical structure Eugen Bracht
Eugen Bracht
(1842–1921), German landscape painter Karl Wolfskehl
Karl Wolfskehl
(1869–1948), poet, editor and translator Alexandra Feodorovna (1872–1918), Russian Empress, born as Alix of Hesse, married Tsar
Tsar
Nicholas II of Russia Anton Köllisch (1888–1916), German chemist who first synthesized MDMA
MDMA
(known as "ecstasy") Beno Gutenberg (1889–1960), German-American seismologist Karl Plagge
Karl Plagge
(1897–1957), German Wehrmacht officer, saved Lithuanian Jews from extermination during The Holocaust, Righteous among the Nations Karl-Otto Koch (1897–1945), commandant of the Nazi concentration camps at Buchenwald and Sachsenhausen Josef Ganz (1898–1967), automotive engineer and pioneer, studied at the Technical University of Darmstadt Heinrich von Brentano
Heinrich von Brentano
(1904–1964), Federal Minister for Foreign Affairs from 1955 to 1961 Hans Möser
Hans Möser
(1906–1948), German Nazi SS concentration camp officer executed for war crimes Walter Schmiele
Walter Schmiele
(1909–1998), author and translator Arno Schmidt
Arno Schmidt
(1914–1979), author and translator Karlheinz Stockhausen
Karlheinz Stockhausen
(1928–2007), leading 20th-century electronic composer Günter Strack
Günter Strack
(1929–1999), actor Maciej Łukaszczyk (1934–2014), Polish pianist at the Staatstheater Darmstadt, founder and president of the Chopin organisation, porter of the Polish and German order Annegret Soltau (born 1946), German artist Markus Rühl
Markus Rühl
(born 1972), professional bodybuilder Andrea Petkovic
Andrea Petkovic
(born 1987), German professional tennis player

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany Twin towns / Sister cities[edit]

Darmstadt
Darmstadt
train showcasing the Sister City partnership with San Antonio

Darmstadt
Darmstadt
is twinned with:[31]

Alkmaar, Netherlands Brescia, Italy Bursa, Turkey[32] Chesterfield, England[33] Freiberg, Germany Graz, Austria[34] Gyönk
Gyönk
(Tolna County), Hungary Liepāja, Latvia Logroño, Spain Płock, Poland Saanen-Gstaad, Switzerland San Antonio, Texas, USA Szeged, Hungary
Hungary
(since 1990) Trondheim, Norway
Norway
(since 1968)[35] Troyes, France Uzhhorod, Ukraine

See also[edit]

Darmstadt
Darmstadt
University of Applied Sciences Technical University of Darmstadt Rhein-Main-Area

References[edit]

^ "Bevölkerung der hessischen Gemeinden". Hessisches Statistisches Landesamt (in German). January 2018.  ^ Hessisches Landesamt für Statistik (State of Hessen): Bevölkerung der hessischen Gemeinden [1] Retrieved 14 October 2014 ^ European Union, City Audits: "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 27 May 2012.  ^ "Wanted: Suitable name for unstable, heavyweight element". The Guardian. 2009. Retrieved 22 December 2014.  ^ "Discovery of new elements". GSI Darmstadt. 2016. Archived from the original on 29 January 2016.  ^ City of London richest area in Europe, The Guardian, 30 January 2002 ^ a b "Wo kommt er her, wo will er hin?" – Darmstädter Echo, 2007-12-03, in German. Retrieved 28 July 2015. ^ a b c "Essential Facts (brochure from the official city website)" (PDF). 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-19.  ^ Nebenresidenz Darmstadt
Darmstadt
(darmstait) (from the 'Graf v. Katzenelnbogen' website, in German. Retrieved 5 January 2008.) ^ Die Geschichte des Grafenhauses (from the 'Graf v. Katzenelnbogen' website, in German. Retrieved 5 January 2008.) ^ "Population growth in Darmstadt". (from the official city website).  ^ "Establishment of TU Darmstadt
Darmstadt
(in German)". TU Damrstadt.  ^ Beginning of the End Archived 30 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. – Musman, Moshe; from Borne Aloft On The Wings Of A Dove (in-depth feature on Dei'ah veDibur website) ^ a b Darmstädter Stadtgeschichte 20. Jahrhundert Archived 10 April 2007 at the Wayback Machine. (from the official city website, in German, less detailed also in English) ^ Darmstadt
Darmstadt
history (from the website of the Technical University of Darmstadt) ^ http://www2.h-da.de/mse/msc_brochure.pdf[permanent dead link] ^ Statistischer Ueberblick ('Statistical overview', from the official city website, in German) ^ statistik-hessen.de Archived 23 May 2012 at Archive.is ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 29 April 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2014.  ^ Rosenhöhe – planted with roses (from the official city website) ^ Mathildenhöhe
Mathildenhöhe
(Artists' Colony) (from the official city website) ^ German Protestant
Protestant
Stadtkirche church ^ Historic hotel Bockshaut ^ Information about the Heinerfest (in German) ^ Schloßgrabenfest 2006 (in German) ^ Jazz-Institut Darmstadt
Darmstadt
Archived 27 April 2007 at the Wayback Machine. (official institute website) ^ Internationales Musikinstitut Darmstadt
Darmstadt
(official institute website, in German) ^ Deutsche Akademie für Sprache und Dichtung (official academy website, in German) ^ "Mittelwerte 30-jähriger Perioden, Tabelle A, 1981 - 2010". Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD). Retrieved 3 July 2015.  ^ 49°50′38″N 8°35′03″E / 49.843786°N 8.584211°E / 49.843786; 8.584211 ^ "Town Twinnings and international relations". Büro für Städtepartnerschaften und internationale Beziehungen (in German). Retrieved 2014-12-19.  ^ "Kardeş Şehirler". Bursa Büyükşehir Belediyesi Basın Koordinasyon Merkez. Tüm Hakları Saklıdır. Retrieved 2013-07-27.  ^ " Chesterfield
Chesterfield
Twinning Links". Chesterfield
Chesterfield
Borough Council. Archived from the original on 29 July 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-27.  ^ "Twin Towns – Graz
Graz
Online – English Version". www.graz.at. Archived from the original on 8 November 2009. Retrieved 5 January 2010.  ^ Trondheims offisielle nettsted – Vennskapsbyer Archived 27 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Darmstadt.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Darmstadt.

Official website of the city of Darmstadt
Darmstadt
(German and parts in English)

Discover Darmstadt
Darmstadt
- City Tourist Website (in English)

Germany
Germany
Travel - Darmstadt  "Darmstadt". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (9th ed.). 1878. 

v t e

Cities in Germany
Germany
by population

1,000,000+

Berlin Cologne Hamburg Munich

500,000+

Bremen Dortmund Dresden Düsseldorf Essen Frankfurt Hanover Leipzig Nuremberg Stuttgart

200,000+

Aachen Augsburg Bielefeld Bochum Bonn Braunschweig Chemnitz Duisburg Erfurt Freiburg im Breisgau Gelsenkirchen Halle (Saale) Karlsruhe Kiel Krefeld Lübeck Magdeburg Mainz Mannheim Münster Mönchengladbach Oberhausen Rostock Wiesbaden Wuppertal

100,000+

Bergisch Gladbach Bottrop Bremerhaven Cottbus Darmstadt Erlangen Fürth Göttingen Hagen Hamm Heidelberg Heilbronn Herne Hildesheim Ingolstadt Jena Kassel Koblenz Leverkusen Ludwigshafen Moers Mülheim
Mülheim
an der Ruhr Neuss Offenbach am Main Oldenburg Osnabrück Paderborn Pforzheim Potsdam Recklinghausen Regensburg Remscheid Reutlingen Saarbrücken Salzgitter Siegen Solingen Trier Ulm Wolfsburg Würzburg

complete list municipalities metropolitan regions cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants

v t e

Urban and rural districts in the state of Hesse
Hesse
in Germany
Germany

Urban districts

Darmstadt Frankfurt Kassel Offenbach Wiesbaden

Rural districts

Bergstraße Darmstadt-Dieburg Fulda Gießen Groß-Gerau Hersfeld-Rotenburg Hochtaunuskreis Kassel Lahn-Dill-Kreis Limburg-Weilburg Main-Kinzig-Kreis Main-Taunus-Kreis Marburg-Biedenkopf Odenwaldkreis Offenbach Rheingau-Taunus-Kreis Schwalm-Eder-Kreis Vogelsbergkreis Waldeck-Frankenberg Werra-Meißner-Kreis Wetteraukreis

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 121971493 LCCN: n80104951 ISNI: 0000 0001 2321 689X GND: 4011077-1 SUDOC: 028343468 BNF:

.