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DARMSTADT (German pronunciation: ( listen )) is a city in the state of Hesse
Hesse
in Germany
Germany
, located in the southern part of the Rhine-Main-Area ( Frankfurt
Frankfurt
Metropolitan Region) . Darmstadt
Darmstadt
has a population around 150,000 (2013). The Darmstadt
Darmstadt
Larger Urban Zone has 430,993 inhabitants.

Darmstadt
Darmstadt
holds the official title "City of Science" (German : Wissenschaftsstadt) as it is a major centre of scientific institutions, universities, and high-technology companies. The European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) is located in Darmstadt, as well as GSI Centre for Heavy Ion Research , where several chemical elements such as bohrium (1981), meitnerium (1982), hassium (1984), darmstadtium (1994), roentgenium (1994), and copernicium (1996) were discovered. The existence of the following elements were also confirmed at GSI Centre for Heavy Ion Research : nihonium (2012), flerovium (2009), moscovium (2012), livermorium (2010), and tennessine (2012). Darmstadt
Darmstadt
is also the seat of the world's oldest pharmaceutical company, Merck , which is the city's largest employer.

Darmstadt
Darmstadt
was formerly the capital of a sovereign country, the Grand Duchy
Duchy
of Hesse
Hesse
and its successor, the People\'s State of Hesse
Hesse
, a federal state of Germany. As the capital of an increasingly prosperous duchy , the city gained some international prominence and remains one of the wealthiest cities in Europe. In the 20th century, industry (especially chemicals), as well as large science and electronics (later information technology) sectors became increasingly important, and are still a major part of the city's economy. It is also home to the football club SV Darmstadt
Darmstadt
98 . Darmstadt, Indiana was named after Darmstadt
Darmstadt
and for the former Royal Family.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Origins * 1.2 Industrial age * 1.3 Nazi Germany
Germany
* 1.4 Post–World War II

* 2 Boroughs * 3 Population development * 4 Lord mayors since 1945

* 5 Transport

* 5.1 Roads * 5.2 Public transport in Darmstadt
Darmstadt
* 5.3 Regional rail links * 5.4 National rail links * 5.5 Airports * 5.6 National Coach Services

* 6 Parks, architecture and attractions

* 6.1 Castles and historical buildings * 6.2 Modern architecture * 6.3 Art Nouveau * 6.4 Squares * 6.5 Parks * 6.6 Churches * 6.7 Festivals

* 7 Culture

* 8 Geography

* 8.1 Climate

* 9 Education

* 9.1 Schools * 9.2 Universities

* 10 Institutions

* 10.1 Technology * 10.2 United States
United States
military presence

* 11 Tourist sights in Darmstadt
Darmstadt

* 11.1 City * 11.2 Region

* 12 Notable persons

* 13 International relations

* 13.1 Twin towns / Sister cities

* 14 See also * 15 References * 16 External links

HISTORY

Darmstadt
Darmstadt
in 1626. The 'Schlossplatz', a market square in front of the Ducal Palace around 1900: One of the few areas to survive in similar style after World War II

ORIGINS

The name Darmstadt
Darmstadt
first appears towards the end of the 11th century, then as Darmundestat. The origins of the name are unknown. 'Dar-mund' in Middle Low German is translated as "Boggy Headlands", but it could be a misspelling in local dialect of another name. Even locals often believe, incorrectly, that the name derives from the 'Darmbach' (a small stream formerly running through the city). In fact, the stream received its current name much later, after the city, not vice versa.

Darmstadt
Darmstadt
was chartered as a city by the Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
Ludwig the Bavarian in 1330, at which time it belonged to the counts of Katzenelnbogen . The city, then called Darmstait, became a secondary residence for the counts, with a small castle established at the site of the current, much larger edifice.

When the house of Katzenelnbogen became extinct in 1479, the city was passed to the Landgraviate of Hesse
Hesse
, and was seat of the ruling landgraves (1567–1806) and thereafter (to 1918) of the grand dukes of Hesse
Hesse
.

INDUSTRIAL AGE

Darmstadt
Darmstadt
in 1909

The city grew in population during the 19th century from little over 10,000 to 72,000 inhabitants. A polytechnical school, which later became a Technical University now known as TU Darmstadt
Darmstadt
, was established in 1877.

In the beginning of the 20th century, Darmstadt
Darmstadt
was an important centre for the art movement of Jugendstil , the German variant of Art Nouveau . Annual architectural competitions led to the building of many architectural treasures of this period. Also during this period, in 1912 the chemist Anton Kollisch , working for the pharmaceutical company Merck , first synthesised the chemical MDMA
MDMA
(ecstasy) in Darmstadt. Darmstadt's municipal area was extended in 1937 to include the neighbouring localities of Arheilgen and Eberstadt, and in 1938 the city was separated administratively from the surrounding district (Kreis).

NAZI GERMANY

Darmstadt
Darmstadt
was the first city in Germany
Germany
to force Jewish shops to close in early 1933, shortly after the Nazis took power in Germany. The shops were only closed for one day, for "endangering communal order and tranquility". In 1942, over 3,000 Jews from Darmstadt
Darmstadt
were first forced into a collection camp located in the Liebigschule, and later deported to concentration camps where most eventually died.

Several prominent members of the German resistance movement against the Nazis were citizens of Darmstadt, including Wilhelm Leuschner and Theodor Haubach , both executed for their opposition to Hitler's regime.

Darmstadt
Darmstadt
was first bombed on 30 July 1940, and 34 other air raids would follow before the war's end. The old city centre was largely destroyed in a British bombing raid on 11 September 1944. This attack was an example of the firestorm technique, which was subsequently used against the historic city of Dresden
Dresden
in February 1945. To create a firestorm, a number of incendiary bombs are dropped around the city before the explosive blast bombs are dropped, thus beginning a self-sustaining combustion process in which winds generated by the fire ensure it continues to burn until everything possible has been consumed. Darmstadt
Darmstadt
was selected as the secondary target for the raid, but was promoted to the primary target after clouds were observed over the primary which would have hindered any reconnaissance of the after-effects. During this fire attack an estimated 11,000 to 12,500 of the inhabitants burned to death, and 66,000 to 70,000 were left homeless. Over three quarters of Darmstadt's inner city was destroyed. Post-war
Post-war
rebuilding was done in a relatively plain architectural style, although a number of the historic buildings were rebuilt to their original appearance following the city's capture on 20 March 1945 by American 4th Armored Division .

POST–WORLD WAR II

LARGEST GROUPS OF FOREIGN RESIDENTS

NATIONALITY POPULATION (2015)

Turkey
Turkey
4,796

Italy
Italy
2,123

Poland
Poland
1,642

India
India
1,258

China
China
1,003

Morocco
Morocco
954

Spain
Spain
771

Portugal
Portugal
567

Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, Darmstadt
Darmstadt
became home to many technology companies and research institutes, and has been promoting itself as a "city of science" since 1997. It is well known as a high-tech centre in the vicinity of Frankfurt
Frankfurt
Airport , with important activities in spacecraft operations (the European Space Operations Centre , European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites ), chemistry, pharmacy, information technology, biotechnology, telecommunications (substantial Deutsche Telekom presence) and mechatronics. In 2000, its region also scored Rank 3 amongst 97 German regions in the WirtschaftsWoche test ranking Germany's high-tech regions.

The TU Darmstadt
Darmstadt
is one of the important technical institutes in Germany
Germany
and is well known for its research and teaching in the Electrical, Mechanical and Civil Engineering disciplines. Together with other tertiary institutions, the TU is responsible for the large student population of the city, which stood at 33,547 in 2004.

BOROUGHS

Karolinenplatz Hauptbahnhof Railway Station Darmstadt
Darmstadt
at night Rheinstrasse in central Darmstadt
Darmstadt

Darmstadt
Darmstadt
has nine official 'Stadtteile' (boroughs ). These are:

* Darmstadt-Arheilgen * Darmstadt-Bessungen * Darmstadt-Eberstadt

* Darmstadt-Kranichstein * Darmstadt-Mitte ("Central Darmstadt") * Darmstadt-Nord ("North")

* Darmstadt-Ost ("East") * Darmstadt-West * Darmstadt- Wixhausen

POPULATION DEVELOPMENT

* 1871: 33.800 * 1890: 55.883 * 1900: 72.381 * 1925: 89.465 * 1933: 93.222 * 1945: 69.539 * 1956: 123.306 * 1975: 137.018 * 1990: 138.920 * 2000: 138.242 * 2010: 144.402 * 2015: 155.353

LORD MAYORS SINCE 1945

TERM OF OFFICE NAME PARTY

1945–1950 Ludwig Metzger (1902-1993) SPD

1951–1971 Ludwig Engel (1906-1975) SPD

1971–1981 Heinz Winfried Sabais (1922-1981) SPD

1981–1993 Günther Metzger (1933-2013) SPD

1993–2005 Peter Benz (born 1942) SPD

2005–2011 Walter Hoffmann (born 1952) SPD

since 2011 Jochen Partsch (born 1962) Greens

TRANSPORT

A tram near Schloss station.

Darmstadt
Darmstadt
is highly connected to all means of transportation, including the Autobahn
Autobahn
Network , the Intercity-Express Network and a major international airport.

ROADS

Darmstadt
Darmstadt
is connected to a number of major roads, including two Autobahnen ( Bundesautobahn 5
Bundesautobahn 5
and Bundesautobahn 67 ). The main road passing west-east is the Bundesstraße 26 , the Bundesstraße 3
Bundesstraße 3
runs north-south. The rural areas east of the city in the Odenwald
Odenwald
are accessed by several secondary roads.

PUBLIC TRANSPORT IN DARMSTADT

Main article: Trams in Darmstadt
Darmstadt

The extensive public transport system of Darmstadt
Darmstadt
is integrated in the RMV (the transportation authority of the Frankfurt
Frankfurt
Metropolitan Area ). The backbone of public transport in Darmstadt
Darmstadt
is its modern tram system with 9 lines and a local bus service serving all parts of the city. Darmstadt
Darmstadt
is furthermore connected to the Frankfurt
Frankfurt
S-Bahn system and being served by regional bus lines. Furthermore, regional rail lines (R64, R65, R66) connect six secondary railway stations within the city. Regional train at Darmstadt
Darmstadt
Lichtwiese station.

REGIONAL RAIL LINKS

Darmstadt
Darmstadt
is connected to the Frankfurt
Frankfurt
rapid transit network by S-Bahn line S3. Besides that, a number of regional trains connect secondary railway stations within Darmstadt
Darmstadt
and the region with Darmstadt
Darmstadt
Hauptbahnhof (main station), offering a net of inner city and regional train links.

NATIONAL RAIL LINKS

Darmstadt
Darmstadt
Hauptbahnhof - Train hub for southern Hesse
Hesse

By its main railway station " Darmstadt
Darmstadt
Hauptbahnhof ", which is located in the western part of the central city, Darmstadt
Darmstadt
is connected to the rest of Germany
Germany
and Europe by the Intercity-Express network and other long-distance trains. Darmstadt
Darmstadt
Hauptbahnhof is a busy station with 12 platforms which serves as a transportation hub for the southern Hesse/ Odenwald
Odenwald
region.

AIRPORTS

* FRANKFURT INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT

Darmstadt
Darmstadt
can be easily accessed from around the world via Frankfurt Airport (Flughafen Frankfurt
Frankfurt
am Main) which is located 20 km (12 mi) from central Darmstadt
Darmstadt
and connected to it via Autobahn
Autobahn
5, S-Bahn , several bus lines and a direct express bus-link ("Airliner"). The airport ranks among the world\'s busiest airports by passenger traffic and is the second-busiest airport by cargo traffic in Europe. The airport also serves as the main hub for German flag carrier Lufthansa .

* FRANKFURT EGELSBACH AIRPORT

Frankfurt Egelsbach Airport (Flugplatz Frankfurt-Egelsbach) is a busy general aviation airport located 5 km north of Darmstadt, near the town of Egelsbach .

* FRANKFURT HAHN AIRPORT

Despite the name, Frankfurt Hahn Airport (Flughafen Frankfurt-Hahn) is located far outside the Frankfurt
Frankfurt
Metro Area, approximately 120 km (75 mi) away in Lautzenhausen ( Rhineland-Palatinate ). Hahn Airport is a major base for Low-cost carrier Ryanair
Ryanair
. This airport can only be reached by car or bus.

NATIONAL COACH SERVICES

Darmstadt
Darmstadt
is being served by several national and European bus links which connect Darmstadt
Darmstadt
with other German and European cities.

PARKS, ARCHITECTURE AND ATTRACTIONS

The Mathildenhöhe

CASTLES AND HISTORICAL BUILDINGS

Ducal Palace and Market Square

Darmstadt
Darmstadt
was the capital of an independent country (the Grand Duchy of Hesse
Hesse
) until 1871 and the capital of the German state of Hesse until 1945. It is due to its past as a capital city that it has many architectural testimonies of this period. Many of its major architectural landmarks were created by Georg Moller
Georg Moller
who was appointed the court master builder of the Grand Duchy
Duchy
of Hesse. Due to the fact that the last ruling Grand Duke of Hesse, Ernst Ludwig was a grandson of Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
and brother to Empress Alexandra of Russia the architecture of Darmstadt
Darmstadt
has been influenced by British and Russian imperial architecture with many examples still existing, such as the Luisenplatz with its ducal column, the old Hessian State Theatre (at Karolinenplatz) and the Russian Chapel by Leon Benois
Leon Benois
. The Russian church, St. Mary Magdalene Chapel, is named in honor of the patron saint of Tzar Nicholas' mother and was built of Russian stone on Russian soil brought to Darmstadt
Darmstadt
by train. It was used by the Russian royal family and court during regular visits to the Tsarina's ducal brother and family in Darmstadt. The ducal palace of Darmstadt
Darmstadt
is located in the city centre. It was the residence of the counts of Hesse- Darmstadt
Darmstadt
, later as Grand Dukes of Hesse
Hesse
by the grace of Napoleon. The rulers of Hesse
Hesse
also owned a hunting lodge in Kranichstein which is a nowadays used as a five star hotel. The most famous castle in the Darmstadt
Darmstadt
region is Frankenstein Castle due to claims that the real castle may have had an influence on Mary Shelley's decision to choose the name Frankenstein
Frankenstein
for her monster-creating scientist. This castle dates back to the 13th century, but it was acquired by the counts of Hesse- Darmstadt
Darmstadt
in 1662.

MODERN ARCHITECTURE

The Waldspirale
Waldspirale

Darmstadt
Darmstadt
has a rich tradition in modern architecture. After 1945 several "Meisterbauten" (Masterful Architectonic Creations) were built that set standards for modern architecture. These buildings still exist and are used for various public and private purposes. In the late 1990s the Waldspirale
Waldspirale
('Forest Spiral') was built, a residential complex by Austrian Friedensreich Hundertwasser
Hundertwasser
. As an almost surreal building, it is internationally famous for its almost absolute rejection of rectangular forms, down to every window having a different shape, the style being a trademark of Hundertwasser's work. Hundertwasser
Hundertwasser
died before the Waldspirale
Waldspirale
was finished.

ART NOUVEAU

Darmstadt
Darmstadt
was a centre of the Art Nouveau movement . Surviving examples of the Jugendstil period include the Rosenhöhe, a landscaped English-style rose garden from the 19th century, recently renovated and replanted, the Mathildenhöhe , with the Hochzeitsturm ('Wedding tower', also commonly known as the 'Five-Finger-Tower') by Joseph Maria Olbrich , the Russian Chapel in Darmstadt
Darmstadt
and large exhibition halls as well as many private villas built by Jugendstil architects who had settled in Darmstadt. German Art Nouveau is commonly known by its German name, Jugendstil. The name is taken from the artistic journal, Die Jugend, which was published in Munich
Munich
and which espoused the new artistic movement. It was founded in 1896 by Georg Hirth (Hirth remained editor until his death in 1916, and the magazine continued to be published until 1940). The magazine was instrumental in promoting the style in Germany. As a result, its name was adopted as the most common German-language term for the style: Jugendstil ("young style"). Although, during the early 20th century, the word was applied to only two-dimensional examples of the graphic arts, especially the forms of organic typography and graphic design found in and influenced by German magazines like Jugend, Pan, and Simplicissimus, it is now applied to more general manifestations of Art Nouveau visual arts in Germany, the Netherlands, the Baltic states, and Nordic countries. The two main centres for Jugendstil art in Germany
Germany
were Munich
Munich
and Darmstadt.

SQUARES

The Luisenplatz, the central square of the city, forms the centre of the city and is the main public transport hub. In 1844 the Ludwigsäule (called Langer Lui, meaning Long Ludwig), a 33-metre column commemorating Ludwig I , first Grand Duke of Hesse
Hesse
, was placed in the middle of the square. While the column still stands, the square is today surrounded by mostly modern buildings. Other important squares are the Marktplatz (see image) near the old city hall and the Sabaisplatz at the Mathildenhöhe.

PARKS

Park Rosenhöhe

The city has a high density of parks. Among the most important parks are the English style Herrngarten in central Darmstadt. In former times it was part of the Royal Gardens used exclusively by the duches of Darmstadt. Today it is a public park, heavily used in every season of the year. Other important parks are the French style parks Prinz-Georgs-Garten and Orangerie, the modern style Bürgerpark ("People's Park") in northern Darmstadt
Darmstadt
and the mystical Park Rosenhöhe ("Rose Heights") which also serves as the cemetery for the Duches of Darmstadt
Darmstadt
with two impressive mausoleum buildings in its remote parts. The Botanischer Garten in eastern Darmstadt
Darmstadt
is a botanical garden maintained by the Darmstadt
Darmstadt
University of Technology with a fine collection of rare plants and trees.

CHURCHES

Russian Chapel Darmstadt
Darmstadt

The Protestant
Protestant
Stadtkirche church , built in 1369, is in the pedestrian zone of the downtown city center, next to the historic Hotel Bockshaut. The church has gothic elements along with renaissance and baroque , it houses the royal crypt . Hotel Bockshaut was built in 1580 for a church presbytery. The most important Catholic Church is St. Ludwig in central Darmstadt. The Russian Chapel in Darmstadt
Darmstadt
is a Russian orthodox church
Russian orthodox church
which is still in use. It was built and used as a private chapel by the last Tsar
Tsar
of Russia, Nicholas II , whose wife Alexandra was born in Darmstadt. Although Russian orthodox churches also exist in other cities outside Russia, the Russian Chapel in Darmstadt
Darmstadt
was the only official Russian church used by the Russian Tsar
Tsar
outside the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
. It is said that the chapel was built on Russian soil that was brought to Darmstadt exclusively for the purpose of building the Tsar's private chapel on it.

FESTIVALS

Every year around early July the Heinerfest festival is held in the streets surrounding the old ducal palace. It is a traditional German festival with music acts, beer halls , amusement rides and booths selling trinkets and food. The similar 'Schloßgrabenfest', which is more live music -oriented, is held in the same location every year in May. These two festivals attract 700,000 and 400,000 visitors respectively.

CULTURE

State Theater Darmstadt
Darmstadt
- Grand Hall

Darmstadt
Darmstadt
has a rich cultural heritage. The Staatstheater Darmstadt (State Theatre Darmstadt) dates back to the year 1711. The present building has been in use since 1972 and has three halls which can be used independently. The "Grand Hall" (Großes Haus) provides seats for 956  people and serves as Darmstadt's opera house. The "Small Hall" (Kleines Haus) is mostly used for plays and dance and has 482 seats. A separate small hall (Kammerspiele) with 120 seats is used for chamber plays .

Among the museums in Darmstadt
Darmstadt
the most important are the Hessisches Landesmuseum (Hessian State Museum), the Porcelain
Porcelain
Museum (exhibition of the ducal porcelain ), the Schlossmuseum (exhibition of the ducal residence and possessions), the Kunsthalle Darmstadt
Darmstadt
(exhibitions of modern art), the exhibition centre Mathildenhöhe and the Museum Künstlerkolonie ( Art Nouveau museum).

The Jazz-Institut Darmstadt
Darmstadt
is Germany's largest publicly accessible jazz archive.

The Internationales Musikinstitut Darmstadt, harboring one of the world's largest collections of post-war sheet music , also hosts the biennial Internationale Ferienkurse für Neue Musik , a summer school in contemporary classical music founded by Wolfgang Steinecke . A large number of avant-garde composers have attended and given lectures there, including Olivier Messiaen , Luciano Berio , Milton Babbitt
Milton Babbitt
, Pierre Boulez , Luigi Nono , John Cage , György Ligeti
György Ligeti
, Iannis Xenakis , Karlheinz Stockhausen , Mauricio Kagel , and Helmut Lachenmann .

The Deutsche Akademie für Sprache und Dichtung provides writers and scholars with a place to research the German language. The Academy's annual Georg Büchner Prize , named in memory of Georg Büchner
Georg Büchner
, is considered the most prestigious literary award for writers of German language.

GEOGRAPHY

Vineyards
Vineyards
south of Darmstadt
Darmstadt
- View to the Rhine Plain

Darmstadt
Darmstadt
is located in the Upper Rhine Plain (German: Oberrheinische Tiefebene), a major rift, about 350 km long and on average 50 km wide, between the cities of Frankfurt
Frankfurt
in the north and Basel in the south. Darmstadt's southeastern boroughs are located in the spurs of the Odenwald
Odenwald
, a low mountain range in Southern Hesse
Hesse
between the Main and Neckar rivers.

CLIMATE

Southern Hesse
Hesse
is well known for its mild climate which allows winegrowing on a large scale in the region south of Darmstadt. The weather is often volatile with the summers being warm and humid with frequent thunderstorms, the winters mostly relatively mild with frequent periods of high fog . Snowfall is most likely in January and February, but mild winters without considerable snowfall can occur.

CLIMATE DATA FOR DARMSTADT

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 15 (59) 17 (63) 24 (75) 29 (84) 31 (88) 35 (95) 35 (95) 38 (100) 30 (86) 26 (79) 18 (64) 15 (59) 38 (100)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 5 (41) 7 (45) 11 (52) 15 (59) 20 (68) 23 (73) 25 (77) 25 (77) 20 (68) 14 (57) 8 (46) 5 (41) 15 (59)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 1.4 (34.5) 2.1 (35.8) 5.9 (42.6) 9.7 (49.5) 14.3 (57.7) 17.3 (63.1) 19.3 (66.7) 18.7 (65.7) 14.5 (58.1) 10 (50) 5.3 (41.5) 2.2 (36) 10.1 (50.2)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −1 (30) 1 (34) 3 (37) 6 (43) 11 (52) 13 (55) 15 (59) 15 (59) 11 (52) 7 (45) 4 (39) 1 (34) 7 (45)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −14 (7) −12 (10) −10 (14) −4 (25) 1 (34) 3 (37) 6 (43) 7 (45) 2 (36) −4 (25) −8 (18) −11 (12) −14 (7)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 55 (2.17) 53 (2.09) 66 (2.6) 49 (1.93) 76 (2.99) 67 (2.64) 75 (2.95) 66 (2.6) 63 (2.48) 66 (2.6) 63 (2.48) 66 (2.6) 765 (30.12)

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 47 80 120 176 208 214 232 218 158 103 50 37 1,643

Source: Daily mean / Avg. precipitation / Mean sunshine hours (1981 - 2010), DWD

EDUCATION

SCHOOLS

The City of Darmstadt
Darmstadt
offers students a broad variety of public primary, secondary and tertiary schools. Besides them private schools exist, e.g. the catholic secondary school Edith-Stein-Schule, the Adventists ' Schulzentrum Marienhöhe, an anthroposophic Waldorf School , a Comenius
Comenius
School and other faith based private schools.

UNIVERSITIES

Technical University - Lichtwiese Campus

* TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF DARMSTADT (German: Technische Universität Darmstadt), commonly referred to as TU Darmstadt, is a prestigious research university in Germany. It was founded in 1877 and received the right to award doctorates in 1899. In 1882 it was the first university in the world to set up a chair in electrical engineering, in 1883 the first faculty for electrical engineering was founded there. The University is organized in 13 departments and 5 fields of study, which all together offer about 100 courses of studies. The fields of study offer interdisciplinary degree courses in which students take lectures in multiple departments. The University, as its title suggests, offers degree courses in the fields of electrical, mechanical and civil engineering, architecture, computer science, mathematics and the natural sciences. It also offers courses in economics, law, history, politics, sociology, psychology, sport science and linguistics. It also offers degree courses for teaching positions at German vocational schools and Gymnasiums.

Darmstadt
Darmstadt
University of Applied Sciences - Main Building

* The DARMSTADT UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SCIENCES (German: Hochschule Darmstadt) is internationally known for its achievements in the areas of engineering and computer science. The University has the highest number of industrial linkage programs, compared to the rest of the universities of applied sciences. The roots of University of Applied Sciences Darmstadt
Darmstadt
dates back to 1876. However, it has not emerged as a separate institution before 1971. Today it is the largest University of Applied Sciences in the State of Hesse
Hesse
with about 11,000 students offering courses in architecture, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computer science, design, economics electrical engineering and information technology, mathematics and science, mechanical engineering, media (including information science and engineering), plastics engineering, social and cultural studies, social sciences and sechatronics.

* The PROTESTANT UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SCIENCES DARMSTADT (EHD) is an officially recognised and Church-sponsored University. The sponsors are the Protestant
Protestant
Church in Hesse
Hesse
and Nassau, the Protestant
Protestant
Church of Kurhesse-Waldeck and the social welfare organisation of both Hessian Protestant
Protestant
Churches, the Diakonie Hesse. The EHD has approximately 1,700 students, 40 professors and 10 scientific employees and about 100 visiting lecturers every semester.

INSTITUTIONS

TECHNOLOGY

The ESOC European Space Operations Command in Darmstadt.

Darmstadt
Darmstadt
is home to many research institutions such as the Fraunhofer Society (Fraunhofer IGD, Fraunhofer LBF, Fraunhofer SIT) and the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI, "Society for Heavy Ion Research"), which operates a particle accelerator in northern Darmstadt. The GSI, amongst other elements, discovered the chemical element darmstadtium (atomic number : 110), named after the city in 2003. This makes Darmstadt
Darmstadt
one of only eight settlements with elements named after them (the others being Ytterby
Ytterby
in Sweden (four elements); Stockholm
Stockholm
in Sweden (holmium ); Strontian
Strontian
in Scotland; Copenhagen
Copenhagen
in Denmark (whose Latin name gives hafnium ); Paris (whose Latin name gives lutetium ); Berkeley, California
Berkeley, California
; and Dubna
Dubna
in Russia). Various other elements, including meitnerium (atomic number: 109) (1982), hassium (atomic number: 108) (1984), roentgenium (atomic number: 111) (1994) and copernicium (atomic number: 112) (1996) were also synthesized in the Darmstadt
Darmstadt
facility.

The European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) of the European Space Agency is located in Darmstadt. From here, various deep-space exploration spacecraft and Earth-orbiting satellites are operated for the purposes of scientific research, and technology development and demonstration.

EUMETSAT , the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites, operates the principal European meteorological satellites from its headquarters, including the first and second generations of Meteosat geostationary satellites, and the polar-orbiting Metop series.

Darmstadt
Darmstadt
is a centre for the pharmaceutical and chemical industry, with Merck, Röhm and Schenck RoTec (part of The Dürr Group) having their main plants and centres here.

UNITED STATES MILITARY PRESENCE

U.S. forces entered the city of Darmstadt
Darmstadt
on 25 March 1945. At the end of World War II, Darmstadt
Darmstadt
was among the 112 communities where U.S. Forces were stationed. Early units stationed here included elements of the U.S. Constabulary, Air Force units and a Quartermaster School.

Over the years, the U.S. military community Darmstadt
Darmstadt
— under a variety of designations — served as home for thousands of American soldiers and their families. It included six principal installations in Darmstadt
Darmstadt
and nearby Babenhausen , Griesheim and Münster , plus several housing areas, an airfield and a large number of smaller facilities as far away as Bensheim
Bensheim
and Aschaffenburg
Aschaffenburg
. The military newspaper European Stars and Stripes also had its headquarters there. As of 1993, the Darmstadt
Darmstadt
military community also assumed responsibility for the remaining U.S. Army facilities in the Frankfurt area.

As part of the U.S. Army's ongoing transformation in Germany, the Darmstadt
Darmstadt
military community, by then designated U.S. Army Garrison Darmstadt
Darmstadt
, inactivated on 30 September 2008. Even after the garrison inactivation, however, there is still one unit active in Darmstadt: The 66th Military Intelligence Group at the Dagger Complex on Eberstädter Weg,. It draws its support from the nearby U.S. Army Garrison Wiesbaden. The website of the 66th Military Intelligence Brigade claims they moved out in 2008, but Google Maps and Bing satellite imagery still show a respectively full and quarter-full parking lot, and the U.S. Army Garrison Wiesbaden's website mentions the unit still being active in Darmstadt, and a Marine Corps company being stationed there as well. With the exception of Dagger Complex, all remaining US installations are now empty and closed to the public, pending property disposal by the German authorities.

TOURIST SIGHTS IN DARMSTADT

Waldspirale
Waldspirale
Wedding Tower and the Russian Tsar's Chapel at Mathildenhöhe

CITY

* Mathildenhoehe with the Art Nouveau Museum * Wedding Tower (Hochzeitsturm) at Sabaisplatz * State Theatre and Opera House * Park Rosenhöhe (Rose Heights Park) with the Dukal Cemetery
Cemetery
* Waldspirale
Waldspirale
Hundertwasser
Hundertwasser
Building * The former private chapel of the last Tsar
Tsar
of Russia * City Center with Luisenplatz, the Castle and the Market Square * Hauptbahnhof - Central Train Station ( Art Nouveau style) * Herrngarten Park * Botanical Garden (Botanischer Garten) * Vortex Garden * Porcelain
Porcelain
Museum at Schlossgartenplatz * St. Ludwig Church * State Museum (Landesmuseum) * State Archive/Old Theatre * Train Museum Kranichstein

Frankenstein Castle

REGION

* Odenwald
Odenwald
* Bergstrasse * Vineyards
Vineyards
at Zwingenberg * Frankenstein Castle * Messel Pit Fossil Site * Melibokus

NOTABLE PERSONS

Justus von Liebig around 1866 Friedrich von Flotow 1866 Friedrich August Kekulé in 1890

* Justus Freiherr von Liebig (1803 – 1873) was born in Darmstadt, a German chemist who made major contributions to agricultural and biological chemistry, and was considered the founder of organic chemistry * Christoph Graupner (1683–1760), composer and Hofkapellmeister (chapel master) at the court of Hesse- Darmstadt
Darmstadt
from 1711 to 1754 * Friedrich von Flotow (1812–1883), opera composer, died in Darmstadt. * Georg Büchner
Georg Büchner
(1813–1837), 19th-century dramatist, poet and revolutionist * Carl Amand Mangold (1813–1889), composer and conductor * Friedrich August Kekulé (1829–1896), prominent German 19th-century organic chemist , and the principal founder of the theory of chemical structure * Eugen Bracht
Eugen Bracht
(1842-1921), German landscape painter * Karl Wolfskehl (1869-1948), poet, editor and translator * Alexandra Feodorovna (1872–1918), Russian Empress, born as Alix of Hesse, married Tsar
Tsar
Nicholas II of Russia * Anton Köllisch (1888–1916), German chemist who first synthesized MDMA
MDMA
(known as "ecstasy") * Beno Gutenberg (1889–1960), German-American seismologist * Karl Plagge (1897-1957), German Wehrmacht officer, saved Lithuanian Jews from extermination during The Holocaust , Righteous among the Nations * Karl-Otto Koch (1897–1945), commandant of the Nazi concentration camps at Buchenwald and Sachsenhausen * Josef Ganz (1898–1967), automotive engineer and pioneer, studied at the Technical University of Darmstadt * Heinrich von Brentano (1904–1964), Federal Minister for Foreign Affairs from 1955 to 1961 * Walter Schmiele (1909–1998), author and translator * Arno Schmidt (1914–1979), author and translator * Karlheinz Stockhausen (1928–2007), leading 20th-century electronic composer * Günter Strack
Günter Strack
(1929-1999), actor * Gerda Fromel (1931–1975), Czechoslovakian born to German parents. Moved back after the war and studied at the Darmstadt
Darmstadt
School of Art. Fromel moved on to be an inspiring artist winning awards in Germany
Germany
and Ireland for outstanding sculpture * Maciej Łukaszczyk (1934–2014), Polish pianist at the Staatstheater Darmstadt
Darmstadt
, founder and president of the Chopin organisation, porter of the Polish and German order * Dirk and Petra Wunderlich, homeschooling parents who were targets of multiple arrests who fled to the United States
United States
in 2010 to seek political sanctuary for homeschooling rights. * Annegret Soltau (born 1946), German artist * Markus Rühl (born 1972), professional bodybuilder * Andrea Petkovic
Andrea Petkovic
(born 1987), German professional tennis player

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany
Germany

TWIN TOWNS / SISTER CITIES

Darmstadt
Darmstadt
is twinned with:

* Alkmaar
Alkmaar
, Netherlands * Brescia
Brescia
, Italy * Bursa , Turkey
Turkey
* Chesterfield
Chesterfield
, England * Freiberg , Germany * Graz
Graz
, Austria
Austria
* Gyönk ( Tolna County ), Hungary * Liepāja
Liepāja
, Latvia * Logroño , Spain * Płock , Poland * Saanen-Gstaad , Switzerland * Szeged
Szeged
, Hungary
Hungary
(since 1990) * Trondheim
Trondheim
, Norway
Norway
(since 1968) * Troyes , France * Uzhhorod
Uzhhorod
, Ukraine

SEE ALSO

* Technical University of Darmstadt
Darmstadt
* Rhein-Main-Area

REFERENCES

* ^ "Bevölkerung der hessischen Gemeinden". Hessisches Statistisches Landesamt (in German). August 2016. * ^ Hessisches Landesamt für Statistik (State of Hessen): Bevölkerung der hessischen Gemeinden Retrieved 14 October 2014 * ^ European Union, City Audits: http://www.urbanaudit.org/CityProfiles.aspx?CityCode=DE025C&CountryCode=DE * ^ "Wanted: Suitable name for unstable, heavyweight element". The Guardian. 2009. Retrieved 22 December 2014. * ^ "Discovery of new elements". GSI Darmstadt. 2016. * ^ City of London richest area in Europe, The Guardian, 30 January 2002 * ^ A B "Wo kommt er her, wo will er hin?" – Darmstädter Echo, 2007-12-03, in German. Retrieved 28 July 2015. * ^ A B C "Essential Facts (brochure from the official city website)" (PDF). 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-19.

* ^ Nebenresidenz Darmstadt
Darmstadt
(darmstait) (from the 'Graf v. Katzenelnbogen' website, in German. Retrieved 5 January 2008.) * ^ Die Geschichte des Grafenhauses (from the 'Graf v. Katzenelnbogen' website, in German. Retrieved 5 January 2008.) * ^ "Population growth in Darmstadt". (from the official city website). * ^ "Establishment of TU Darmstadt
Darmstadt
(in German)". TU Damrstadt. * ^ Beginning of the End – Musman, Moshe; from Borne Aloft On The Wings Of A Dove (in-depth feature on Dei\'ah veDibur website) * ^ A B Darmstädter Stadtgeschichte 20. Jahrhundert (from the official city website, in German, less detailed also in English) * ^ Darmstadt
Darmstadt
history (from the website of the Technical University of Darmstadt
Darmstadt
) * ^ Statistischer Ueberblick ('Statistical overview', from the official city website, in German) * ^ statistik-hessen.de * ^ * ^ Rosenhöhe – planted with roses (from the official city website) * ^ Mathildenhöhe (Artists\' Colony) (from the official city website) * ^ German Protestant
Protestant
Stadtkirche church * ^ Historic hotel Bockshaut * ^ Information about the Heinerfest (in German) * ^ Schloßgrabenfest 2006 (in German) * ^ Jazz-Institut Darmstadt
Darmstadt
(official institute website) * ^ Internationales Musikinstitut Darmstadt
Darmstadt
(official institute website, in German) * ^ Deutsche Akademie für Sprache und Dichtung (official academy website, in German) * ^ "Mittelwerte 30-jähriger Perioden, Tabelle A, 1981 - 2010". Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD). Retrieved 3 July 2015. * ^ 49°50′38″N 8°35′03″E / 49.843786°N 8.584211°E / 49.843786; 8.584211 * ^ "Town Twinnings and international relations". Büro für Städtepartnerschaften und internationale Beziehungen (in German). Retrieved 2014-12-19. * ^ "Kardeş Şehirler". Bursa Büyükşehir Belediyesi Basın Koordinasyon Merkez. Tüm Hakları Saklıdır. Retrieved 2013-07-27. * ^ " Chesterfield
Chesterfield
Twinning Links". Chesterfield
Chesterfield
Borough Council. Archived from the original on 29 July 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-27. * ^ "Twin Towns – Graz
Graz
Online – English Version". www.graz.at. Archived from the original on 8 November 2009. Retrieved 5 January 2010. * ^ Trondheims offisielle nettsted – Vennskapsbyer Archived 27 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
.

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to DARMSTADT .

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for DARMSTADT .

* Official website of the city of Darmstadt
Darmstadt
(German and

.