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DARFUR ( Arabic
Arabic
: دار فور‎‎ _Dār Fūr_, English: _Land of the Fur people _) is a region in western Sudan
Sudan
. It was named _Dardaju_ ( Arabic
Arabic
: دار داجو‎‎) while ruled by the Daju , who migrated from Meroë circa 350 AD; it was then renamed _Dartunjur_ ( Arabic
Arabic
: دار تنجر‎‎) when the Tunjur ruled the area. (_Dar_ is an Arabic
Arabic
word meaning _home of_.) Darfur
Darfur
was an independent sultanate for several hundred years, incorporated into Sudan
Sudan
by Anglo-Egyptian forces in 1916. The region is divided into five federal states : Central Darfur
Central Darfur
, East Darfur , North Darfur , South Darfur and West Darfur
West Darfur
. Because of the war in Darfur
Darfur
between Sudanese government forces and the indigenous population, the region has been in a state of humanitarian emergency since 2003.

CONTENTS

* 1 Geography * 2 Prehistory
Prehistory

* 3 History

* 3.1 Under Sudanese rule

* 3.2 Peace process

* 3.2.1 Darfur Peace Agreement also known as Doha
Doha
Agreement * 3.2.2 Doha
Doha
peace forum

* 4 Languages * 5 Government * 6 Demographics and economy * 7 Bibliography * 8 See also * 9 References

GEOGRAPHY

Darfur
Darfur
covers an area of 493,180 square kilometers (190,420 sq mi), approximately the size of Spain
Spain
. It is largely an arid plateau with the Marrah Mountains (Jebel Marra), a range of volcanic peaks rising up to 3,042 meters (9,980 ft) of topographic prominence , in the center of the region. The region's main towns are Al Fashir and Nyala .

There are four main features of its physical geography. The whole eastern half of Darfur
Darfur
is covered with plains and low hills of sandy soils , known as _goz_, and sandstone hills. In many places the _goz_ is waterless and can only be inhabited where there are water reservoirs or deep boreholes . While dry, _goz_ may also support rich pasture and arable land . To the north the _goz_ is overtaken by the desert sands of the Sahara
Sahara
. A second feature are the _wadis _, which range from seasonal watercourses that flood only occasionally during the wet season to large _wadis_ that flood for most of the rains and flow from western Darfur
Darfur
hundreds of kilometres west to Lake Chad . Many _wadis_ have pans of alluvium with rich heavy soil that are also difficult to cultivate. Western Darfur
Darfur
is dominated by the third feature, basement rock , sometimes covered with a thin layer of sandy soil. Basement rock is too infertile to be farmed, but provides sporadic forest cover that can be grazed by animals. The fourth and final feature are the Marrah Mountains and Daju Hills , volcanic plugs created by a massif , that rise up to a peak at Deriba crater where there is a small area of temperate climate , high rainfall and permanent springs of water. Deriba Crater is at the highest point of the Marrah Mountains

Remote sensing has detected the imprint of a vast underground lake under Darfur. The potential water deposits are estimated at 49,500 km2 (19,110 sq mi). The lake, during epochs when the region was more humid, would have contained about 2500 km3 (607 cubic miles) of water. It may have dried up thousands of years ago.

PREHISTORY

Some conjectures include the area of Darfur
Darfur
as part of the Proto-Afro-Asiatic Urheimat in distant prehistoric times (c. 10,000 BC), though numerous other theories exclude Darfur.

HISTORY

_ Flag of the rebel Darfur Liberation Front Main article: History of Darfur

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Most of the region consists of a semi-arid plain and thus appears unsuitable for developing a large and complex civilization . But the Marrah Mountains offer plentiful water, and the Daju people created the first known Western Nile Valley civilization known as Empire in between the Rivers-based first at Gadir Mountain in Kordofan then relocated to the Marrah Mountains in c. 1100 AD in the Marrah Mountains, and they left records of valuable rock engravings, circular stone huts at Marrah Mountains, greater human excavation at Um Kardous Mountain as a result of Kasifrogei's tragic tale and they have a list of kings from Gadir in Kordofan to Ahmad Al-Daj in Darfur. The Tunjur replaced the Daju in the fourteenth century and the Daju established new headquarters in Abyei, Denga, Darsila and Mongo in the current Chad. The Tunjur sultans intermarried with the Fur and sultan Musa Sulayman (reigned c.1667 to c.1695) is considered the founder of the Keira dynasty . Darfur
Darfur
became a great power of the Sahel
Sahel
under the Keira dynasty, expanding its borders as far east as the Atbarah River and attracting immigrants from Bornu and Bagirmi . During the mid-18th century conflict between rival factions wracked the country, and external war pitted Darfur
Darfur
against Sennar and Wadai . In 1875, the weakened kingdom was destroyed by the Egyptian ruler set up in Khartoum
Khartoum
, largely through the machinations of Sebehr Rahma , a slave-trader, who was competing with the dar over access to ivory in Bahr el Ghazal to the south of Darfur.

The Darfuris were restive under Egyptian rule, but were no more predisposed to accept the rule of the self-proclaimed Mahdi
Mahdi
, Muhammad Ahmad , when in 1882 his Emir
Emir
of Darfur, who came from the Southern Darfur
Darfur
Arab
Arab
Rizeigat tribe led by Sheikh Madibbo , defeated the Ottoman forces led by Slatin Pasha (that had just invaded Egypt earlier that year) in Darfur. When Ahmad's successor, Abdallahi ibn Muhammad , himself an Arab
Arab
of Southern Darfur
Darfur
from the Ta’isha tribe , demanded that the pastoralist tribes provide soldiers, several tribes rose up in revolt. Following the overthrow of Abdallahi at Omdurman in 1899 by the Anglo-Egyptian forces, the new Anglo-Egyptian government recognized Ali Dinar as the sultan of Darfur
Darfur
and largely left the Dar to its own affairs except for a nominal annual tribute. In 1916 the British , concerned that the sultanate might fall under the influence of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
, invaded and incorporated Darfur into the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. Colonial rule directed financial and administrative resources to the tribes of central Sudan
Sudan
near Khartoum - to the detriment of the outlying regions such as Darfur.

UNDER SUDANESE RULE

See also: War in Darfur

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Camp of Darfuris internally displaced by the ongoing War in Darfur
Darfur
.

A pattern of skewed economic development continued after Sudan achieved political independence in 1956. The proxy wars between Sudan , Libya
Libya
and Chad
Chad
added an element of political instability. Darfurians, including those identified as "Arab" and "African" people, began to respond to the ideology of Arab
Arab
supremacy propagated by Libyan leader Muammar al-Gaddafi (in power 1969-2011). A famine in the mid-1980s disrupted many societal structures and led to the first significant modern fighting amongst Darfuris. A low-level conflict continued for the next fifteen years, with the government co-opting and arming Arab
Arab
Janjaweed militias against its enemies. The fighting reached a peak in 2003 with the beginning of the Darfur conflict , in which the resistance coalesced into a roughly cohesive rebel movement. Human-rights groups and the UN, March, 2004, came to regard the conflict as one of the worst humanitarian disasters in the world. The insurgency and counter-insurgency have led to 480,000 deaths (the Khartoum
Khartoum
government disputes the numbers)."By 2010 about 300,000 had died, according to the UN best estimate and about 3,000,000 were forced into refugee camps" Over 2.8 million people have become displaced since 2003, many of whom were children (see Lost Boys of Sudan
Sudan
). Many of these refugees have gone into camps where emergency aid has created conditions that, although extremely basic, are better than in the villages, which offer no protection against the various militias that operate in the region.

Whilst nearly two-thirds of the population continues to struggle to survive in remote villages, the international community has largely overlooked their needs, and in the face of soaring inflation in Sudan many families face serious difficulties. Virtually no foreigners visit the region because of the fear of kidnapping, and only some non-governmental organizations continue to provide long-term grass-roots assistance. As of 2015 the United Nations is in discussion with the Government of Sudan
Sudan
over the withdrawal of UNAMID , the peacekeeping force , which is the largest in the world.> Its prospective withdrawal and that of other UN agencies (such as the WFP ) which are already working on their exit strategies from the region is likely to impact on the already beleaguered communities.

Darfur
Darfur
is listed as a major source of migrants in the Calais jungle
Calais jungle
.

PEACE PROCESS

Darfur Peace Agreement Also Known As Doha
Doha
Agreement

WAR IN DARFUR

Timeline

International response

UNMIS / AMIS / UNAMID

ICC investigation

COMBATANTS

SLM

JEM

LJM

Janjaweed

OTHER ARTICLES

History of Darfur

Bibliography

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The Government of Sudan
Sudan
and the Sudan
Sudan
Liberation Movement of Minni Minnawi signed a Darfur Peace Agreement in 2006. Only one rebel group, the Sudan
Sudan
Liberation Movement, subscribed to the agreement; the Justice and Equality Movement rejected it, resulting in a continuation of the conflict. The agreement includes provisions for wealth sharing and power sharing, and established a Transitional Darfur
Darfur
Regional Authority to help administer Darfur
Darfur
until a referendum could take place on the future of the region. The leader of the Sudan
Sudan
Liberation Movement, Minni Minnawi, was appointed Senior Assistant to the President of Sudan
Sudan
and Chairman of the transitional authority in 2007.

Doha
Doha
Peace Forum

In December 2010, representatives of the Liberation and Justice Movement , an umbrella organisation of ten rebel groups, formed in February of that year, started a fresh round of talks with the Sudanese Government in Doha
Doha
, Qatar
Qatar
. A new rebel group, the Sudanese Alliance Resistance Forces in Darfur, was formed and the Justice and Equality Movement planned further talks. The talks ended on December 19 without a new peace agreement, but participants agreed on basic principles, including a regional authority and a referendum on autonomy for Darfur. The possibility of a Darfuri Vice-President was also discussed.

In January 2011, the leader of the Liberation and Justice Movement, Dr. Tijani Sese , stated that the movement had accepted the core proposals of the Darfur
Darfur
peace document proposed by the joint-mediators in Doha; the proposals included a $300,000,000 compensation package for victims of atrocities in Darfur
Darfur
and special courts to conduct trials of persons accused of human-rights violations. Proposals for a new Darfur Regional Authority were also included; this authority would have an executive council of 18 ministers and would remain in place for five years. The current three Darfur
Darfur
states and state governments would also continue to exist during this period. In February 2011 the Sudanese Government rejected the idea of a single region headed by a vice-president from the region.

On 29 January, the leaders of the Liberation and Justice Movement and the Justice and Equality Movement issued a joint statement affirming their commitment to the Doha
Doha
negotiations and agreement to attend the Doha
Doha
forum on 5 February. The Sudanese government had not yet agreed to attend the forum on that date and instead favoured an internal peace process without the involvement of rebel groups. Later in February, the Sudanese Government agreed to return to the Doha
Doha
peace forum with a view to complete a new peace agreement by the end of that month. On 25 February, both the Liberation and Justice Movement and the Justice and Equality Movement announced that they had rejected the peace document proposed by the mediators in Doha. The main sticking points were the issues of a Darfuri vice-president and compensation for victims. The Sudanese government had not commented on the peace document.

At the Doha
Doha
Peace Forum in June, the Joint Mediators proposed a new Darfur Peace Agreement , which would supersede the Abuja Agreement of 2005 and if signed, would halt preparations for a Darfur
Darfur
status referendum. The proposal included provisions for a Darfuri Vice-President and an administrative structure that includes both the three states and a strategic regional authority, the Darfur
Darfur
Regional Authority , to oversee Darfur
Darfur
as a whole. The new agreement was signed by the Government of Sudan
Sudan
and the Liberation and Justice Movement on 14 July. The Sudan
Sudan
Liberation Movement and the Justice and Equality Movement did not sign the new document at that time but had three months in which to do so if they wished.

LANGUAGES

Languages of Darfur
Darfur
include Arabic
Arabic
, Daju , Erenga , Fongoro , Fulbe , Fur (thus the name of the region), Masalit , Sinyar , Tama , Midob , and Zaghawa .

GOVERNMENT

The region is now divided into five federal states : Central Darfur
Central Darfur
, East Darfur , North Darfur , South Darfur and West Darfur
West Darfur
. The Darfur Peace Agreement of 2006 established a Transitional Darfur
Darfur
Regional Authority as an interim authority for the region. The agreement stated that a referendum on the status of Darfur
Darfur
should be held no later than 2011. Minni Minnawi was the first chair of this authority, holding that office from April 2007 until December 2010, when he was succeeded by Shartai Jaafar Abdel Hakam . The peace agreement that was signed in July 2011 saw the Transitional Darfur
Darfur
Regional Authority reconstituted as the Darfur Regional Authority with executive and legislative functions. The chairperson of the Darfur
Darfur
Regional Authority, Tijani Sese , assumed the post on 20 September 2011. The regional authority was dissolved in July 2016 following a referendum , on the status of the Darfur
Darfur
region within Sudan.

DEMOGRAPHICS AND ECONOMY

In 2008, Darfur's population was 7.5 million. This in an increase by nearly six times from 1973 (1.3 million). 52% are aged 16 years or younger.

Darfur's budget was US $286 million in 2008.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Arkell, A. J., "A History of Darfur. Part II: The Tunjur etc", _ Sudan
Sudan
Notes and Records_, 32, 2 (1951), 207–238. * Daly, M.W., _Darfur's Sorrow: A History of Destruction and Genocide_, Cambridge 2010. * Elliesie, Hatem, " Sudan
Sudan
under the Constraints of (International) Human Rights Law and Humanitarian Law: The Case of Darfur", in Hatem Elliesie (ed.), _Islam and Human Rights / al-islam wa-huquq al-insan_, Frankfurt, Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Vienna 2010, pp. 193–217 ISBN 978-3-631-57848-3 * Elliesie, Hatem et al., "Different Approaches to Genocide Trials under National Jurisdiction on the African Continent: The Rwandan, Ethiopian and Sudanese Cases", in _Recht in Afrika_, Cologne 2009, 12/1, pp. 21–67. ISBN 978-3-89645-804-9 * Nachtigal, G. transl. H. Fisher, _ Sahara
Sahara
and Sudan_, vol. IV (vol. III, 1889), London 1971. * O'Fahey, R. S., _The Darfur
Darfur
Sultanate: A History_, London 2008.

SEE ALSO

* War in Darfur * 2010 Sahel
Sahel
famine * Ahmed Abdulshafi Bassey * Lost Boys of Sudan
Sudan

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Richard Cockett Sudan: Darfur
Darfur
and the failure of an African state. 2010. Hobbs the Printers Ltd., Totten, Hampshire. ISBN 978-0-300-16273-8 * ^ "Sudan\'s Geography". Globaldreamers.org. Retrieved 2010-07-13.

* ^ R. S. O'Fahey (2004-05-15). "Darfur: A complex ethnic reality with a long history". _The New York Times_. Retrieved 2013-01-19. * ^ "Congressional Reps Give Update on Troubled Darfur
Darfur
Region of Sudan". Pbs.org. 2005-02-17. Retrieved 2010-07-13. * ^ "Quick guide: Darfur
Darfur
- BBC
BBC
News, 2006-09-06". BBC
BBC
News. 2006-09-06. Retrieved 2010-07-13. * ^ "Africa Ultra-Prominences". Peaklist.org. 2007-05-10. Retrieved 2010-07-13. * ^ "Underground lake may bring Darfur
Darfur
peace: scientist" by Tanzina Vega, _ Reuters
Reuters
_, July 18, 2007 * ^ Ancient Darfur
Darfur
lake \'is dried up\', BBC
BBC
, July 20, 2007 * ^ _A_ _B_ https://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=10142&Cr=&Cr1=#.VoW1BGzUhVc * ^ Richard Cockett Sudan: Darfur
Darfur
and the failure of an African state. 2010. p, 191. Hobbs the Printers Ltd., Totten, Hampshire. ISBN 978-0-300-16273-8 * ^ {{="un.org">https://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/unamid/background.shtml * ^ "Calais \'Jungle\': Migrants hit dead end in journey to UK". .. among those fleeing Darfur, Afghanistan, Syria, Iraq, Eritrea and other zones of conflict or poverty. * ^ "EXCLUSIVE: Darfur
Darfur
new rebel group announces formation of its structure - Sudan
Sudan
Tribune: Plural news and views on Sudan". Sudan Tribune. Archived from the original on 2013-08-09. Retrieved 2011-09-05. * ^ " Sudan
Sudan
Peace Watch-December 21, 2010 Enough". Enoughproject.org. 2010-12-21. Retrieved 2011-09-05. * ^ "Sudanese government, LJM rebels to sign a peace accord on 19 December - Sudan
Sudan
Tribune: Plural news and views on Sudan". Sudan Tribune. Archived from the original on 2013-08-09. Retrieved 2011-09-05. * ^ "Mediators propose Darfur
Darfur
Authority, announce major diplomatic effort Radio Dabanga". 195.190.28.213. Retrieved 2011-09-05. * ^ "DOHA: Darfur
Darfur
peace proposals accepted by LJM rebel coalition Radio Dabanga". 195.190.28.213. 2011-07-09. Retrieved 2011-09-05. * ^ "Alliance of rebel factions agrees to Darfur
Darfur
peace deal". Monsters and Critics. 2011-01-03. Archived from the original on 2011-12-27. Retrieved 2011-09-05. * ^ " Sudan
Sudan
Human Rights Information Gateway (SHRIG) - Office of VP must meet National standards, says El Haj Adam". SHRIG. 2011-02-07. Retrieved 2011-09-05. * ^ Stephen Kinzer (2010-01-24). "End human rights imperialism now". Sudanjem.com. Retrieved 2011-09-05. * ^ " Sudan
Sudan
government to return chief negotiator to Doha
Doha
Radio Dabanga". 195.190.28.213. Retrieved 2011-09-05. * ^ " Darfur
Darfur
movements reject Doha
Doha
peace proposal Radio dabanga". 195.190.28.213. Retrieved 2011-09-05. * ^ "Under peace deal, Sudan
Sudan
would halt prep for Darfur Referendum". Radio Dabanga. Retrieved 2011-09-05. * ^ http://www.sudantribune.com/IMG/pdf/DPA-_Doha_draft.pdf * ^ " Darfur
Darfur
peace agreement to be signed on 14 July - Sudan Tribune: Plural news and views on Sudan". Sudan
Sudan
Tribune. Retrieved 2011-09-05. * ^ _A_ _B_ " Sudan
Sudan
Tribune". Sudan
Sudan
Tribune. Retrieved 2010-07-13. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "Beyond Emergency Relief: Longer-term trends and priorities for UN agencies in Darfur" (PDF). _United Nations Environment Programme _. 30 September 2010. Retrieved 11 January 2014.

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