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The Daoguang Emperor (; 16 September 1782 – 26 February 1850) was the seventh Emperor of the Qing dynasty, and the sixth Qing emperor to rule over
China proper
China proper
, reigning from 1820 to 1850. His reign was marked by "external disaster and internal rebellion," that is, by the First Opium War, and the beginning of the Taiping Rebellion which nearly brought down the dynasty. The historian Jonathan Spence characterizes the Daoguang Emperor as a "well meaning but ineffective man" who promoted officials who "presented a purist view even if they had nothing to say about the domestic and foreign problems surrounding the dynasty."


Early years

The Daoguang Emperor was born in the
Forbidden City The Forbidden City () is a palace , the official residence of Emperor of Japan The Emperor of Japan is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#F ...
,
Beijing Beijing ( ), Chinese postal romanization, alternatively romanized as Peking ( ), is the Capital city, capital of the People's Republic of China. It is the world's List of national capitals by population, most populous national capital city, ...
, in 1782, and was given the name Mianning (). It was later changed to Minning () when he became emperor. The first character of his private name was changed from ''Mian'' to ''Min'' to avoid the relatively common character ''Mian''. This novelty was introduced by his grandfather, the reigning
Qianlong Emperor The Qianlong Emperor (25 September 17117 February 1799) was the fifth Emperor of the Qing dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China proper, reigned from 1735 to 1796. Born Hongli, the fourth son of the Yongzheng Emperor, he reig ...
, who thought it inappropriate to use a common character in the emperor's private name due to the longstanding practice of naming taboo. Mianning was the second son of Prince Yongyan, the 15th son and heir of the
Qianlong Emperor The Qianlong Emperor (25 September 17117 February 1799) was the fifth Emperor of the Qing dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China proper, reigned from 1735 to 1796. Born Hongli, the fourth son of the Yongzheng Emperor, he reig ...
. Even though he was Yongyan's second son, he was first in line after Prince Yongyan to his grandfather's throne. This was because according to the dishu system, his mother, Empress Xiaoshurui, Lady Hitara, was Yongyan's primary spouse whereas his elder brother was born to Yongyan's concubine. Mianning was favoured by his grandfather, the Qianlong Emperor. He frequently accompanied his grandfather on hunting trips. On one such trip, at the age of nine, Mianning successfully hunted a deer, which greatly amused the Qianlong Emperor. The emperor would abdicate five years after that incident, in 1796, when Mianning was 14. Mianning’s father Prince Yongyan was then enthroned as the Jiaqing Emperor, after which he made Lady Hitara (Mianning's mother) his empress consort. The elderly Qianlong would live three more years in retirement before dying in 1799, aged 88, when Mianning was 17. In 1813, while he was still a prince, Mianning also played a vital role in repelling and killing Eight Trigrams invaders who stormed the
Forbidden City The Forbidden City () is a palace , the official residence of Emperor of Japan The Emperor of Japan is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#F ...
.


Reign


Khoja rebellion in Xinjiang

In September 1820, at the age of 38, Mianning inherited the throne after the Jiaqing Emperor died suddenly of unknown causes. He became the first Qing emperor who was the eldest legitimate son of his father. Now known as the Daoguang Emperor, he inherited a declining empire with Westerners encroaching upon the borders of China. The Daoguang Emperor had been ruling for six years when the exiled heir to the Khoja (Turkestan), Khojas, Jahangir Khoja, attacked Xinjiang from Kokand in the Afaqi Khoja revolts. By the end of 1826, the former Qing cities of Kashgar, Yarkant (town), Yarkand, Khotan, and Yangihissar had all fallen to the rebels. After a friend betrayed him in March 1827, Khoja was sent to Beijing in an iron litter and subsequently executed, while the Qing Empire regained control of their lost territory. The Uyghurs, Uyghur Muslim Sayyid and Naqshbandi Sufi rebel of the Afaqi suborder, Jahangir Khoja was Lingchi, sliced to death (Lingchi) in 1828 by the Manchus for %C4%80f%C4%81q%C4%AB_Khoja_Holy_War#Military_Expeditions_with_the_Support_of_Khoqand, leading a rebellion against the Qing.


First Opium War

During the Daoguang Emperor's reign, China experienced major problems with opium, which was imported into China by British merchants. Opium had started to trickle into China during the reign of the Yongzheng Emperor, but was limited to approximately 200 chests annually. By the time of the Qianlong era, this amount had increased to 1,000 chests, 4,000 chests by the Jiaqing era and more than 30,000 chests during the Daoguang era. The Daoguang Emperor issued many imperial edicts banning opium in the 1820s and 1830s, which were carried out by Lin Zexu, whom he appointed as an Imperial Commissioner. Lin Zexu's efforts to halt the spread of opium in China led directly to the First Opium War. With the development of the First Opium War, Lin Zexu was made a scapegoat. The Daoguang Emperor removed his authority and banished him to Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, Yili. Meanwhile, in the Himalayas, the Sikh Empire attempted an occupation of Tibet but was defeated in the Sino-Sikh war (1841–1842). On the coasts, the Qing Empire lost the war, exposing their technological and military inferiority to European powers, and ceded Hong Kong to the British in the Treaty of Nanking, Treaty of Nanjing in August 1842.


Anti-Christianity

In 1811, a clause sentencing Europeans to death for spreading Catholic Church in China, Catholicism had been added to the statute called "Prohibitions Concerning Sorcerers and Sorceresses" (禁止師巫邪術) in the Great Qing Legal Code. Protestants hoped that the Qing government would discriminate between Protestantism and Catholicism, since the law mentioned the latter by name, but after Protestant missionary, missionaries gave Christian books to Chinese people in 1835 and 1836, the Daoguang Emperor demanded to know who were the "traitorous natives" in Guangzhou who had supplied them with books.


Nobility titles

The Daoguang Emperor granted the title of "Wujing Boshi" () to the descendants of Ran Qiu.


Death and legacy

The Daoguang Emperor died on 26 February 1850 at the Old Summer Palace, 8 km/5 miles northwest of
Beijing Beijing ( ), Chinese postal romanization, alternatively romanized as Peking ( ), is the Capital city, capital of the People's Republic of China. It is the world's List of national capitals by population, most populous national capital city, ...
, being the last Qing emperor to pass away in that Palace before it was burnt down by Anglo-French troops during the Second Opium War, a decade later. He was succeeded by his eldest surviving son, Yizhu, who was later enthroned as the Xianfeng Emperor. The Daoguang Emperor failed to understand the intention or determination of the Europeans, or the basic economics of a war on drugs. Although the Europeans were outnumbered and thousands of miles away from logistical support in their native countries, they could bring far superior firepower to bear at any point of contact along the Chinese coast. The Qing government was highly dependent on the continued flow of taxes from southern China via the Grand Canal (China), Grand Canal, which the British expeditionary force easily cut off at Zhenjiang. The Daoguang Emperor ultimately had a poor understanding of the British and the Industrial Revolution, industrial revolution that Britain and Western Europe had undergone, preferring to turn a blind eye to the rest of the world, though the distance from China to Europe most likely played a part. It was said that the emperor did not even know where Britain was located in the world. His 30-year reign introduced the initial onslaught by Western imperialism and foreign invasions that would plague China, in one form or another, for the next one hundred years. The Daoguang Emperor was interred in the Mu (慕; lit. "Longing" or "Admiration") mausoleum complex, which is part of the Western Qing Tombs, 120 kilometers/75 miles southwest of Beijing. On a side note, the Daoguang Emperor was the last Qing emperor to be able to List of emperors of the Qing dynasty#Succession, choose an heir among his sons since his successors either had only one surviving son or had no offspring.


Family

File:道光帝行乐图卷.gif, From left to right: Prince Gong, Yixin, Xianfeng Emperor, Yizhu, Yihe, Yihui, Yixuan, Prince Chun, Yixuan, the Daoguang Emperor, Gurun Princess Shou'an, Princess Shou'an of the First Rank and Princess Shou'en of the First Rank; circa 1848


Consorts and Issue

* Empress Xiaomucheng, of the Niohuru clan (; 1781 – 17 February 1808), fifth cousin eight times removed
* Empress Xiaoshencheng, of the Tunggiya clan (; 5 July 1792 – 16 June 1833)
** ''Princess Duanmin of the First Rank'' (; 29 July 1813 – 7 December 1819), first daughter * Empress Xiaoquancheng, of the Niohuru clan (; 24 March 1808 – 13 February 1840)
** ''Miscarriage'' (2 January 1824) ** ''Princess Duanshun of the First Rank'' (; 8 April 1825 – 27 December 1835), third daughter ** Gurun Princess Shou'an, Princess Shou'an of the First Rank (; 12 May 1826 – 24 March 1860), fourth daughter *** Married Demchüghjab (; d. 1865) of the Borjigin#Naiman Mongols, Naiman Borjigit clan on 15 November 1841 ** Yizhu, the Xianfeng Emperor (; 17 July 1831 – 22 August 1861), fourth son * Empress Xiaojingcheng, of the Borjigin#Khorchin Mongols, Khorchin Borjigit clan (; 19 June 1812 – 21 August 1855), fifth cousin
** ''Yigang, Prince Shunhe of the Second Rank'' (; 22 November 1826 – 5 March 1827), second son ** ''Miscarriage at four months'' (28 June 1828) ** ''Yiji, Prince Huizhi of the Second Rank'' (; 2 December 1829 – 22 January 1830), third son ** Princess Shou'en of the First Rank (; 20 January 1831 – 15 May 1859), sixth daughter *** Married Jingshou (; 1829–1889) of the Manchu Fuca (clan), Fuca clan in May/June 1845, and had issue (one son) ** Prince Gong, Yixin, Prince Gong (peerage), Prince Gongzhong of the First Rank (; 11 January 1833 – 29 May 1898), sixth son * Imperial Noble Consort Zhuangshun, of the Uya clan (; 29 November 1822 – 13 December 1866)
** Yixuan, Prince Chun, Yixuan, Prince Chun (醇), Prince Chunxian of the First Rank (; 16 October 1840 – 1 January 1891), seventh son ** Princess Shouzhuang of the First Rank (; 24 March 1844 – 11 March 1935), ninth daughter *** Married Dehui (; d. 1859) of the Bolod () clan in December 1859 or January 1860 and had issue (daughter) ** Yihe, Prince Zhong, Prince Zhongduan of the Second Rank (; 14 March 1844 – 17 December 1868), eighth son ** Yihui, Prince Fu, Prince Fujing of the Second Rank (; 15 November 1845 – 22 March 1877), ninth son ** ''Miscarriage'' (1848) * Noble Consort Tong, of the Šumuru clan (; 3 June 1817 – 1877)
** ''Seventh daughter'' (30 July 1840 – 27 January 1845) ** Princess Shouxi of the Second Rank (; 7 January 1842 – 10 September 1866), eighth daughter *** Married Jalafungga (; d. 1898) of the Manchu Niohuru clan in November/December 1863 ** ''Tenth daughter'' (4 May 1844 – 26 February 1845) * Noble Consort Jia, of the Gogiya clan (; 21 November 1816 – 24 May 1890)
* Noble Consort Cheng, of the Niohuru clan (; 10 March 1813 – 10 May 1888)
* Consort He, of the Clan Nara#Notable figures of the Hoifa Nara, Hoifa Nara clan (; d. 18 May 1836)
** Yiwei, Prince Yinzhi of the Second Rank (; 16 May 1808 – 23 May 1831), first son and ''heir presumptive'' for the greater part of his father's early reign * Consort Xiang, of the Niohuru clan (; 9 February 1808 – 15 February 1861)
** ''Second daughter'' (2 March 1825 – 27 August 1825) ** Princess Shouzang of the Second Rank (; 15 November 1829 – 9 August 1856), fifth daughter *** Married Enchong (; d. 1864) of the Manchu Namdulu () clan on 3 January 1843 ** Yicong, Prince Dun, Prince Dunqin of the First Rank (; 23 July 1831 – 18 February 1889), fifth son; adopted by his uncle Miankai (綿愷) early on * Consort Chang, of the Hešeri clan (; 31 December 1808 – 10 May 1860)
* Concubine Tian, of the Fuca (clan), Fuca clan (; 15 April 1789 – 21 August 1845)
* Concubine Shun, of the Clan Nara#Notable figures of the Nara, Nara clan (; 28 February 1811 – 11 April 1868)
* Concubine Yu, of the Shang clan (; 20 December 1816 – 24 September 1897)
* Concubine Heng, of the Cai clan (; d. 28 May 1876)


Ancestry


In fiction and popular culture

* Portrayed by Lo Chun-shun in ''The Rise and Fall of Qing Dynasty'' (1988) * Portrayed by Du Zhiguo in ''Sigh of His Highness'' (2006) * Portrayed by Sunny Chan in ''Curse of the Royal Harem'' (2011) * Portrayed by Nono Yeung in ''Succession War (TV series), Succession War'' (2018)


See also

* Chinese emperors family tree (late)


References


Citations


Sources

* * * *


Further reading

* Jane Kate Leonard. ''Controlling from Afar: The Daoguang Emperor's Management of the Grand Canal Crisis, 1824–1826''. Michigan Monographs in Chinese Studies. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan, 1996. . Shows the Daoguang Emperor in a competent and effective mode when dealing with a crisis early in his reign. * Pierre-Etienne Will, "Views of the Realm in Crisis: Testimonies on Imperial Audiences in the Nineteenth Century." ''Late Imperial China'' 29, no. 1S (2008): 125–59
JSTOR Link
Uses transcripts of imperial audiences to present Daoguang as more a victim of circumstances than the bumbling administrator in many accounts. * The only biography of the Daoguang Emperor; written by a missionary and contemporary. * Evelyn S. Rawski, ''The Last Emperors: A Social History of Qing Imperial Institutions'' (Berkeley: University of Californian Press, 2001) . *''Daily life in the Forbidden City'', Wan Yi, Wang Shuqing, Lu Yanzhen. . *


External links

* {{DEFAULTSORT:Daoguang Emperor 1782 births 1850 deaths Qing dynasty emperors 19th-century Chinese monarchs Emperors from Beijing 1820s in China 1830s in China 1840s in China Jiaqing Emperor's sons