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Gabriel Charles Dante
Dante
Rossetti (12 May 1828 – 9 April 1882), generally known as Dante
Dante
Gabriel Rossetti (/ˈdænti ˈɡeɪbriəl rəˈzɛti/),[1] was a British poet, illustrator, painter and translator. He founded the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
in 1848 with William Holman Hunt
William Holman Hunt
and John Everett Millais. Rossetti was later to be the main inspiration for a second generation of artists and writers influenced by the movement, most notably William Morris
William Morris
and Edward Burne-Jones. His work also influenced the European Symbolists and was a major precursor of the Aesthetic movement. Rossetti's art was characterised by its sensuality and its medieval revivalism. His early poetry was influenced by John Keats. His later poetry was characterised by the complex interlinking of thought and feeling, especially in his sonnet sequence, The House of Life. Poetry and image are closely entwined in Rossetti's work. He frequently wrote sonnets to accompany his pictures, spanning from The Girlhood of Mary Virgin (1849) and Astarte Syriaca (1877), while also creating art to illustrate poems such as Goblin Market
Goblin Market
by the celebrated poet Christina Rossetti, his sister. Rossetti's personal life was closely linked to his work, especially his relationships with his models and muses Elizabeth Siddal, Fanny Cornforth and Jane Morris.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Career

2.1 Beginnings 2.2 Dante
Dante
and Medievalism 2.3 Book Arts 2.4 Religious influence on works 2.5 A new direction 2.6 Cheyne Walk
Cheyne Walk
years

3 Decline and death 4 Collections and critical assessment 5 Media 6 Influence 7 Selected works

7.1 Books 7.2 Double works 7.3 Paintings 7.4 Drawings 7.5 Woodcut illustrations

8 Decorative arts 9 Caricatures and sketches 10 See also 11 References 12 Bibliography 13 External links

Early life[edit]

Self-portrait, 1847

Original manuscript of Autumn Song by Rossetti, 1848, Ashley Library

The son of émigré Italian scholar Gabriele Pasquale Giuseppe Rossetti and his wife Frances Mary Lavinia Polidori, Gabriel Charles Dante
Dante
Rossetti was born in London, England
England
on 12 May 1828. His family and friends called him Gabriel, but in publications he put the name Dante
Dante
first in honour of Dante
Dante
Alighieri. He was the brother of poet Christina Rossetti, critic William Michael Rossetti, and author Maria Francesca Rossetti.[2] His father was a Roman Catholic, at least prior to his marriage, and his mother was an Anglican; ostensibly Gabriel was baptized as and was a practicing Anglican. During his childhood, Rossetti was home and King's College School[3], and often read the Bible, along with the works of Shakespeare, Dickens, Sir Walter Scott, and Lord Byron.[4] The youthful Rossetti is described as "self-possessed, articulate, passionate and charismatic"[5] but also "ardent, poetic and feckless".[6] Like all his siblings, he aspired to be a poet and attended King's College School, in its original location near the Strand in London. He also wished to be a painter, having shown a great interest in Medieval Italian art. He studied at Henry Sass' Drawing Academy from 1841 to 1845, when he enrolled in the Antique School of the Royal Academy, which he left in 1848. After leaving the Royal Academy, Rossetti studied under Ford Madox Brown, with whom he retained a close relationship throughout his life.[7]

Portrait of Dante
Dante
Gabriel Rossetti at 22 years of Age by William Holman Hunt

Following the exhibition of William Holman Hunt's painting The Eve of St. Agnes, Rossetti sought out Hunt's friendship. The painting illustrated a poem by the little-known John Keats. Rossetti's own poem, "The Blessed Damozel", was an imitation of Keats, and he believed Hunt might share his artistic and literary ideals. Together they developed the philosophy of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
which they founded along with John Everett Millais. The group's intention was to reform English art
English art
by rejecting what they considered to be the mechanistic approach first adopted by the Mannerist artists who succeeded Raphael
Raphael
and Michelangelo
Michelangelo
and the formal training regime introduced by Sir Joshua Reynolds. Their approach was to return to the abundant detail, intense colours, and complex compositions of Quattrocento
Quattrocento
Italian and Flemish art.[8][9] The eminent critic John Ruskin
John Ruskin
wrote:

Every Pre-Raphaelite landscape background is painted to the last touch, in the open air, from the thing itself. Every Pre-Raphaelite figure, however studied in expression, is a true portrait of some living person.[10]

For the first issue of the brotherhood's magazine, The Germ, published early in 1850, Rossetti contributed a poem, "The Blessed Damozel", and a story about a fictional early Italian artist inspired by a vision of a woman who bids him combine the human and the divine in his art.[11] Rossetti was always more interested in the medieval than in the modern side of the movement, working on translations of Dante
Dante
and other medieval Italian poets, and adopting the stylistic characteristics of the early Italians. Career[edit]

The Girlhood of Mary Virgin
The Girlhood of Mary Virgin
(1849). The models were the artist's mother for St. Anne
St. Anne
and his sister Christina for the Virgin.[12]

Beginnings[edit] Rossetti's first major paintings in oil display the realist qualities of the early Pre-Raphaelite movement. His Girlhood of Mary Virgin (1849) and Ecce Ancilla Domini
Ecce Ancilla Domini
(1850) portray Mary as a teenage girl. William Bell Scott
William Bell Scott
saw Girlhood in progress in Hunt's studio and remarked on young Rossetti's technique:

He was painting in oils with water-colour brushes, as thinly as in water-colour, on canvas which he had primed with white till the surface was a smooth as cardboard, and every tint remained transparent. I saw at once that he was not an orthodox boy, but acting purely from the aesthetic motive. The mixture of genius and dilettantism of both men shut me up for the moment, and whetted my curiosity.[13]

Stung by criticism of his second major painting, Ecce Ancilla Domini, exhibited in 1850, and the "increasingly hysterical critical reaction that greeted Pre-Raphaelitism" that year, Rossetti turned to watercolours, which could be sold privately. Although his work subsequently won support from John Ruskin, Rossetti only rarely exhibited thereafter.[5] Dante
Dante
and Medievalism[edit] In 1850, Rossetti met Elizabeth Siddal, an important model for the Pre-Raphaelite painters. Over the next decade, she became his muse, his pupil, and his passion. They were married in 1860.[14] Rossetti's incomplete picture Found, begun in 1853 and unfinished at his death, was his only major modern-life subject. It depicted a prostitute, lifted from the street by a country drover who recognises his old sweetheart. However, Rossetti increasingly preferred symbolic and mythological images to realistic ones,[15] For many years, Rossetti worked on English translations of Italian poetry including Dante
Dante
Alighieri's La Vita Nuova
La Vita Nuova
(published as The Early Italian Poets in 1861). These and Sir Thomas Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur inspired his art of the 1850s. He created a method of painting in watercolours, using thick pigments mixed with gum to give rich effects similar to medieval illuminations. He also developed a novel drawing technique in pen-and-ink. His first published illustration was "The Maids of Elfen-Mere" (1855), for a poem by his friend William Allingham, and he contributed two illustrations to Edward Moxon's 1857 edition of Alfred, Lord Tennyson's Poems and illustrations for works by his sister Christina Rossetti.[16] His visions of Arthurian romance and medieval design also inspired William Morris
William Morris
and Edward Burne-Jones.[17] Neither Burne-Jones nor Morris knew Rossetti, but were much influenced by his works, and met him by recruiting him as a contributor to their Oxford and Cambridge Magazine which Morris founded in 1856 to promote his ideas about art and poetry.[18][19] In February 1857, Rossetti wrote to William Bell Scott:

Two young men, projectors of the Oxford and Cambridge Magazine, have recently come up to town from Oxford, and are now very intimate friends of mine. Their names are Morris and Jones. They have turned artists instead of taking up any other career to which the university generally leads, and both are men of real genius. Jones's designs are marvels of finish and imaginative detail, unequalled by anything unless perhaps Albert Dürer's finest works.[18]

That summer Morris and Rossetti visited Oxford and finding the Oxford Union debating-hall under construction, pursued a commission to paint the upper walls with scenes from Le Morte d'Arthur
Le Morte d'Arthur
and to decorate the roof between the open timbers. Seven artists were recruited, among them Valentine Prinsep
Valentine Prinsep
and Arthur Hughes,[20] and the work was hastily begun. The frescoes, done too soon and too fast, began to fade at once and now are barely decipherable. Rossetti recruited two sisters, Bessie and Jane Burden, as models for the Oxford Union murals, and Jane became Morris's wife in 1859.[21] Book Arts[edit] Literature was integrated into the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood's artistic practice from the beginning (including that of Rossetti), with many paintings making direct literary references. For example, John Everett Millais' early work, Isabella (1849), depicts an episode from John Keats' Isabella, or, the Pot of Basil (1818). Rossetti was particularly critical of the gaudy ornamentation of Victorian gift books and sought to refine bindings and illustrations to align with the principles of the Aesthetic Movement.[22] Rossetti's key bindings were designed between 1861 and 1871.[23] He collaborated as a designer/illustrator with his sister, poet Christina Rossetti, on the first edition of Goblin Market
Goblin Market
(1862) and The Prince's Progress (1866). One of Rossetti's most prominent contributions to illustration was the collaborative book, Poems by Alfred, Lord Tennyson
Alfred, Lord Tennyson
(published by Edward Moxon
Edward Moxon
in 1857 and known colloquially as the 'Moxon Tennyson'). Moxon envisioned Royal Academicians as the illustrators for the ambitious project, but this vision was quickly disrupted once Millais, a founding member of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, became involved in the project.[24] Millais recruited William Holman Hunt
William Holman Hunt
and Rossetti for the project, and the involvement of these artists reshaped the entire production of the book. In reference to the Pre-Raphaelite illustrations, Laurence Housman wrote “[...] The illustrations of the Pre-Raphaelites were personal and intellectual readings of the poems to which they belonged, not merely echoes in line of the words of the text.”[25] The Pre-Raphaelites’ visualization of Tennyson’s poems indicated the range of possibilities in interpreting written works, as did their unique approach to visualizing narrative on the canvas.[24] Pre-Raphaelite illustrations do not simply refer to the text in which they appear; rather, they are part of a bigger program of art: the book as a whole. Rossetti’s philosophy about the role of illustration was revealed in an 1855 letter to poet William Allingham, when he wrote, in reference to his work on the Moxon Tennyson: “I have not begun even designing for them yet, but fancy I shall try the Vision of Sin, and Palace of Art etc.—those where one can allegorize on one’s own hook, without killing for oneself and everyone a distinct idea of the poet’s.”[26] This passage makes apparent Rossetti’s desire not to just support the poet’s narrative, but to create an allegorical illustration that functions separately from the text as well. In this respect, Pre-Raphaelite illustrations go beyond depicting an episode from a poem, but rather function like subject paintings within a text. Illustration is not subservient to text and vice-versa. Careful and conscientious craftsmanship is practiced in every aspect of production, and each element, though qualifiedly artistic in its own right, contributes to a unified art object (the book). Religious influence on works[edit]

Dante
Dante
Gabriel Rossetti by George Wylie Hutchinson

England
England
began to see a revival of religious beliefs and practices starting in 1833 and moving onward to about 1845.[27] The Oxford Movement, also known as the Tractarian
Tractarian
Movement, had recently begun a push toward the restoration of Christian
Christian
traditions that had been lost in the Church.[28] Rossetti and his family had been attending Christ Church, Albany Street since 1843. His brother, William Michael Rossetti recorded that services had begun changing in the church since the start of the "High Anglican
Anglican
movement". Rev. William Dodsworth was responsible for these changes, including the addition of the Catholic practice of placing flowers and candles by the altar. Rossetti and his family, along with two of his colleagues (one of which cofounded the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood) had also attended St. Andrew's on Wells Street, a High Anglican
Anglican
church. It is noted that the Anglo-Catholic revival very much affected Rossetti in the late 1840s and early 1850s. The spiritual expressions of his painting The Girlhood of Mary Virgin, finished in 1849, are evident of this claim. The painting's altar is decorated very similarly to that of a Catholic
Catholic
altar, proving his familiarity with the Anglo- Catholic
Catholic
revival. The subject of the painting, the Blessed Virgin, is sewing a red cloth, a significant part of the Oxford Movement
Oxford Movement
that emphasized the embroidering of altar cloths by women.[29] Oxford Reformers identified two major aspects to their movement, that "the end of all religion must be communion with God," and "that the Church was divinely instituted for the very purpose of bringing about this consummation."[30] From the beginning of the Brotherhood's formation in 1848, their pieces of art included subjects of noble or religious disposition. Their aim was to communicate a message of "moral reform" through the style of their works, exhibiting a "truth to nature".[31] Specifically in Rossetti's "Hand and Soul," written in 1849, he displays his main character Chiaro as an artist with spiritual inclinations. In the text, Chiaro's spirit appears before him in the form of a woman who instructs him to "set thine hand and thy soul to serve man with God."[32] The Rossetti Archive defines this text as "Rossetti's way of constellating his commitments to art, religious devotion, and a thoroughly secular historicism."[33] Likewise, in "The Blessed Damozel," written between 1847 and 1870, Rossetti uses biblical language such as "From the gold bar of Heaven" to describe the Damozel looking down to Earth from Heaven.[34] Here we see a connection between body and soul, mortal and supernatural, a common theme in Rossetti's works. In "Ave" (1847), Mary awaits the day that she will meet her son in Heaven, uniting the earthly with the heavenly. The text highlights a strong element in Anglican
Anglican
Marian theology that describes Mary's body and soul having been assumed into Heaven.[29] A new direction[edit]

Bocca Baciata
Bocca Baciata
(1859) signalled a new direction on Rossetti's work. (Model: Fanny Cornforth)

Around 1860, Rossetti returned to oil painting, abandoning the dense medieval compositions of the 1850s in favour of powerful close-up images of women in flat pictorial spaces characterised by dense colour. These paintings became a major influence on the development of the European Symbolist movement.[35] In them, Rossetti's depiction of women became almost obsessively stylised. He portrayed his new lover Fanny Cornforth
Fanny Cornforth
as the epitome of physical eroticism, whilst Jane Burden, the wife of his business partner William Morris, was glamorised as an ethereal goddess. "As in Rossetti's previous reforms, the new kind of subject appeared in the context of a wholesale reconfiguration of the practice of painting, from the most basic level of materials and techniques up to the most abstract or conceptual level of the meanings and ideas that can be embodied in visual form."[35] These new works were based not on medievalism, but on the Italian High Renaissance
Renaissance
artists of Venice, Titian
Titian
and Veronese.[35][36] In 1861, Rossetti became a founding partner in the decorative arts firm, Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co. with Morris, Burne-Jones, Ford Madox Brown, Philip Webb, Charles Faulkner and Peter Paul Marshall.[19] Rossetti contributed designs for stained glass and other decorative objects. Rossetti's wife, Elizabeth Siddal, died of an overdose of laudanum in 1862, shortly after giving birth to a stillborn child. Rossetti became increasingly depressed, and on the death of his beloved Lizzie, buried the bulk of his unpublished poems with her at Highgate Cemetery, though he later had them dug up. He idealised her image as Dante's Beatrice in a number of paintings, such as Beata Beatrix.[37]

Albumen print
Albumen print
of Dante
Dante
Gabriel Rossetti by Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (Lewis Carroll; 1863)

Cheyne Walk
Cheyne Walk
years[edit]

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His home at 16 Cheyne Walk, London

After the death of his wife, Rossetti leased a Tudor House at 16, Cheyne Walk, in Chelsea, where he lived for 20 years surrounded by extravagant furnishings and a parade of exotic birds and animals.[38] Rossetti was fascinated with wombats, asking friends to meet him at the "Wombat's Lair" at the London
London
Zoo in Regent's Park, and spending hours there. In September 1869, he acquired the first of two pet wombats, which he named "Top". It was brought to the dinner table and allowed to sleep in the large centrepiece during meals. Rossetti's fascination with exotic animals continued throughout his life, culminating in the purchase of a llama and a toucan, which he dressed in a cowboy hat and was trained to ride the llama round the dining-table for his amusement.[39] Rossetti maintained Fanny Cornforth
Fanny Cornforth
(described delicately by William Allington as Rossetti's "housekeeper")[40] in her own establishment nearby in Chelsea, and painted many voluptuous images of her between 1863 and 1865.[41]

The Roman Widow (1874), Museo de Arte de Ponce, Puerto Rico

In 1865, he discovered auburn-haired Alexa Wilding, a dressmaker and would-be actress who was engaged to model for him on a full-time basis and sat for Veronica Veronese, The Blessed Damozel, A Sea–Spell, and other paintings.[42][43] She sat for more of his finished works than any other model, but comparatively little is known about her due to the lack of any romantic connection with Rossetti. He spotted her one evening in the Strand in 1865 and was immediately struck by her beauty. She agreed to sit for him the following day, but failed to arrive. He spotted her again weeks later, jumped from the cab he was in and persuaded her to go straight to his studio. He paid her a weekly fee to sit for him exclusively, afraid that other artists might employ her.[44] They shared a lasting bond; after Rossetti's death Wilding was said to have travelled regularly to place a wreath on his grave.[45] Jane Morris, whom Rossetti had used as a model for the Oxford Union murals he painted with William Morris
William Morris
and Edward Burne-Jones
Edward Burne-Jones
in 1857, also sat for him during these years, she "consumed and obsessed him in paint, poetry, and life".[42] Jane Morris
Jane Morris
was also photographed by John Robert Parsons, whose photographs were painted by Rossetti. In 1869, Morris and Rossetti rented a country house, Kelmscott Manor
Kelmscott Manor
at Kelmscott, Oxfordshire, as a summer home, but it became a retreat for Rossetti and Morris to have a long-lasting and complicated liaison. They spent summers there with the Morris's children, while Morris travelled to Iceland
Iceland
in 1871 and 1873.[46]

Rossetti reading proofs of Ballads and Sonnets at 16 Cheyne Walk, by Henry Treffry Dunn
Henry Treffry Dunn
(1882)

During these years, Rossetti was prevailed upon by friends, in particular Charles Augustus Howell, to exhume his poems from his wife's grave which he did, collating and publishing them in 1870 in the volume Poems by D. G. Rossetti. They created controversy when they were attacked as the epitome of the "fleshly school of poetry". Their eroticism and sensuality caused offence. One poem, "Nuptial Sleep", described a couple falling asleep after sex. It was part of Rossetti's sonnet sequence The House of Life, a complex series of poems tracing the physical and spiritual development of an intimate relationship. Rossetti described the sonnet form as a "moment's monument", implying that it sought to contain the feelings of a fleeting moment, and reflect on their meaning. The House of Life was a series of interacting monuments to these moments – an elaborate whole made from a mosaic of intensely described fragments. It was Rossetti's most substantial literary achievement. The collection included some translations, including his "Ballad Of Dead Ladies", an 1869 translation of François Villon's poem "Ballade des dames du temps jadis. (The word "yesteryear" is credited to Rossetti as a neologism used for the first time in this translation.) In 1881, Rossetti published a second volume of poems, Ballads and Sonnets, which included the remaining sonnets from The House of Life sequence.

The Day Dream (1880). The sitter is Jane Morris.[47][48]

Alexa Wilding
Alexa Wilding
(1879)

Decline and death[edit] The savage reaction of critics to Rossetti's first collection of poetry contributed to a mental breakdown in June 1872, and although he joined Jane Morris
Jane Morris
at Kelmscott
Kelmscott
that September, he "spent his days in a haze of chloral and whisky".[49] The next summer he was much improved, and both Alexa Wilding
Alexa Wilding
and Jane sat for him at Kelmscott, where he created a soulful series of dream-like portraits.[49] In 1874, Morris reorganised his decorative arts firm, cutting Rossetti out of the business, and the polite fiction that both men were in residence with Jane at Kelmscott
Kelmscott
could not be maintained. Rossetti abruptly left Kelmscott
Kelmscott
in July 1874 and never returned. Toward the end of his life, he sank into a morbid state, darkened by his drug addiction to chloral hydrate and increasing mental instability. He spent his last years as a recluse at Cheyne Walk. On Easter Sunday, 1882, he died at the country house of a friend, where he had gone in a vain attempt to recover his health, which had been destroyed by chloral as his wife's had been destroyed by laudanum. He died of Bright's Disease, a disease of the kidneys from which he had been suffering for some time. He had been housebound for some years on account of paralysis of the legs, though his chloral addiction is believed to have been a means of alleviating pain from a botched hydrocele removal. He had been suffering from alcohol psychosis for some time brought on by the excessive amounts of whisky he used to drown out the bitter taste of the chloral hydrate. He is buried at Birchington-on-Sea, Kent, England.[50] His grave is visited by admirers of his life's work and achievements as seen by fresh flowers placed there regularly. Collections and critical assessment[edit] Tate Britain, Birmingham, Manchester and Salford Museum and Art Galleries all contain large collections of Rossetti's work; the latter was bequeathed a number of works following the death of L. S. Lowry
L. S. Lowry
in 1976. Lowry was president of the Newcastle-based 'Rossetti Society', which was founded in 1966.[51] Lowry's private collection of works was chiefly built around Rossetti's paintings and sketches of Lizzie Siddal and Jane Morris, and notable pieces included Pandora, Proserpine and a drawing of Annie Miller.

Blue plaque at 16 Cheyne Walk

In an interview with Mervyn Levy, Lowry explained his fascination with the Rossetti women in relation to his own work: "I don't like his women at all, but they fascinate me, like a snake. That's why I always buy Rossetti whenever I can. His women are really rather horrible. It's like a friend of mine who says he hates my work, although it fascinates him."[52] The friend Lowry referred to was businessman Monty Bloom, to whom he also explained his obsession with Rossetti's portraits: "They are not real women.[...] They are dreams.[...] He used them for something in his mind caused by the death of his wife. I may be quite wrong there, but significantly they all came after the death of his wife."[52] The popularity, frequent reproduction, and general availability of Rossetti's later paintings of women have led to this association with "a morbid and languorous sensuality".[53] His small-scale early works and drawings are less well known, but it is in these that his originality, technical inventiveness, and significance in the movement away from Academic tradition can best be seen.[54] As Roger Fry
Roger Fry
wrote in 1916, "Rossetti more than any other artist since Blake may be hailed as a forerunner of the new ideas" in English Art.[55] Media[edit]

Film

Rossetti was played by Oliver Reed
Oliver Reed
in Ken Russell's television film Dante's Inferno (1967). The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
has been the subject of two BBC
BBC
period dramas. The first, The Love School, (1975) features Ben Kingsley
Ben Kingsley
as Rossetti. The second was Desperate Romantics, in which Rossetti is played by Aidan Turner. It was broadcast on BBC Two on Tuesday, 21 July 2009.[56]

Television

Dr. Frasier Crane (Kelsey Grammer) appears in an episode of Cheers as Dante
Dante
Gabriel Rossetti for his Hallowe'en costume. His wife Dr. Lilith Sternin-Crane appears as Rosetti's sister, Christine. Their son Frederick is dressed as Spiderman.[57] Influence[edit] Rossetti's poem "The Blessed Damozel" was the inspiration for Claude Debussy's cantata La Damoiselle élue
La Damoiselle élue
(1888). John Ireland (1879–1962) set to music as one of his Three Songs (1926), Rossetti's poem "The One Hope" from Poems (1870). In 1904 Ralph Vaughan Williams
Ralph Vaughan Williams
(1872-1958) created his song cycle The House of Life from six poems by Rossetti. One song in that cycle, Silent Noon, is one of Vaughan Williams's best known and most frequently performed songs. In 1904, Phoebe Anna Traquair
Phoebe Anna Traquair
painted The Awakening, inspired by a sonnet from Rosetti's The House of Life.[58] Selected works[edit] Books[edit]

The Early Italian Poets (a translation), 1861; republished as Dante and His Circle, 1874 Poems, 1870; revised and reissued as Poems. A New Edition, 1881 Ballads and Sonnets, 1881 The Collected Works of Dante
Dante
Gabriel Rossetti, 2 volumes, 1886 (posthumous) Ballads and Narrative Poems, 1893 (posthumous) Sonnets and Lyrical Poems, 1894 (posthumous) The Works of Dante
Dante
Gabriel Rossetti, 1911 (posthumous)[59] Poems and Translations 1850-1870, Together with the Prose Story 'Hand and Soul', Oxford University Press, 1913

Double works[edit] "Rossetti divided his attention between painting and poetry for the rest of his life" - Poetry Foundation[4]

Aspecta Medusa (1865 October – 1868) Astarte Syriaca (for a Picture; 1877 January–February; 1875–1877) Beatrice, her Damozels, and Love (1865?) Beauty and the Bird (1855; 1858 June 25) The Blessed Damozel
The Blessed Damozel
(1847–1870; 1871–1881) Bocca Baciata
Bocca Baciata
(1859–1860) Body's Beauty (1864–1869; 1866) The Bride's Prelude [1848–1870 (circa)] Cassandra (for a drawing; September 1869; 1860–1861, 1867, 1869) Dante's Dream
Dante's Dream
on the Day of the Death of Beatrice: 9 June 1290 (1875 [?], 1856) Dante
Dante
Alighieri. “Sestina. Of the Lady Pietra degli Scrovigni.” (1848 [?], 1861, 1874) Dante
Dante
at Verona [1848–1850; 1852 (circa)] The Day-Dream (for a picture; 1878–1880, 1880 September) Death of A Wombat
Wombat
(1869 November 6) Eden Bower [1863–1864 (circa) or 1869 (circa)] Fazio's Mistress (1863; 1873) Fiammetta [for a picture; 1878 (circa) 1878] “Found” (for a picture; 1854; 1881 February) Francesca Da Rimini. Dante
Dante
(1855; 1862 September) Guido Cavalcanti. “Ballata. He reveals, in a Dialogue, his increasing love for Mandetta.” (1861) Hand and Soul (1849) Hero's Lamp (1875) Introductory Sonnet
Sonnet
("A Sonnet
Sonnet
is a moment's monument"; 1880) Joan of Arc [1879 (unfinished), 1863, 1882] La Bella Mano (for a picture; 1875) La Pia. Dante
Dante
(1868–1880) Lisa ed Elviro (1843) Love's Greeting (1850, 1861, 1864) Mary's Girlhood [for a picture; 1848 (sonnet I), 1849 (sonnet II)] Mary Magdalene at the Door of Simon the Pharisee (for a drawing; 1853–1859; 1869) Michael Scott's Wooing (for a drawing; 1853, 1869–1871, 1875–1876) Mnemosyne (1880) Old and New Art [group of 3 poems; 1849 (text); 1857 (picture, circa)] On William Morris
William Morris
(1871 September) Pandora (for a picture; 1869; 1868–1871) Parody on “Uncle Ned” (1852) Parted Love! [1869 September – 1869 November (circa)] The Passover in the Holy Family (for a drawing; 1849–1856; 1869 September) Perlascura. Twelve Coins for One Queen (1878) The Portrait (1869) Proserpine (1872; 1871–1882) The Question (for a design; 1875, 1882) “Retro me, Sathana!” (1847, 1848) The Return of Tibullus to Delia (1853–1855, 1867) A Sea-Spell (for a Picture; 1870, 1877) The Seed of David (for a picture; 1864) Silence. For a Design (1870, 1877) Sister Helen [1851–1852; 1870 (circa)] Sorrentino (1843) Soul's Beauty (1866; 1864–1870) St. Agnes of Intercession (1850; 1860) Troy Town (1863–1864; 1869–1870) Venus Verticordia (for a picture; 1868 January 16; 1863–1869) William and Marie. A Ballad (1841)[60]

Paintings[edit]

Ecce Ancilla Domini
Ecce Ancilla Domini
(1850), Tate Britain, London

The Tune of the Seven Towers (1857), watercolour, Tate Britain

How Sir Galahad. Sir Bors, and Sir Percival were fed with the Sanc Grael; But Sir Percival's Sister Died Along the Way (1864), watercolour, Tate Britain

Found (1865–1869, unfinished), Delaware Art Museum

The Blessed Damozel
The Blessed Damozel
(1871–1878; model: Alexa Wilding)

Lady Lilith
Lady Lilith
(1867), Metropolitan Museum of Art (model: Fanny Cornforth)

Lady Lilith
Lady Lilith
(1868), Delaware Art Museum
Delaware Art Museum
(Fanny Cornforth, overpainted at Kelsmcott 1872–73 with the face of Alexa Wilding)[61]

Beata Beatrix
Beata Beatrix
(1864–1870), Tate Britain
Tate Britain
(model: Elizabeth Siddal)

Jane Morris
Jane Morris
(The Blue Silk Dress) (1868), Kelmscott
Kelmscott
Manor

Pia de' Tolomei (1868–1880), Spencer Museum of Art, University of Kansas, Lawrence (model: Jane Morris)

Proserpine (1874; model: Jane Morris)

A Vision of Fiammetta
A Vision of Fiammetta
(1878), one of Rossetti's last paintings, now in the collection of Andrew Lloyd Webber
Andrew Lloyd Webber
(model: Marie Spartali Stillman)

Drawings[edit]

La Belle Dame sans Merci (1848), pen and sepia with some pencil

Drawing of Elizabeth Siddal
Elizabeth Siddal
reading (1854)

Hamlet and Ophelia (1858), pen and ink drawing

Drawing of Annie Miller
Annie Miller
(1860)

Portrait of Marie Spartali Stillman
Marie Spartali Stillman
(1869)

Drawing of Fanny Cornforth, graphite on paper (1869)

The Roseleaf (Portrait of Jane Morris; 1870), graphite on wove paper

Woodcut illustrations[edit]

The Maids of Elphen-Mere, Rossetti's first published woodcut illustration (1855)

King Arthur and the Weeping Queens, one of two illustrations by Rossetti for Edward Moxon's illustrated edition of Tennyson's Poems (1857)

Golden Head by Golden Head, illustration for Christina Rossetti's Goblin Market
Goblin Market
and Other Poems (1862)

Decorative arts[edit]

Sir Tristram and la Belle Ysoude drink the potion, stained-glass panel by Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co., design by Rossetti (1862–63)

Caricatures and sketches[edit]

Death of a Wombat
Wombat
(1869)

William Morris
William Morris
reading to Jane Morris
Jane Morris
while she takes the waters at Bad Ems
Bad Ems
(1869)

Mrs. Morris and the Wombat
Wombat
(1869)

See also[edit]

Poetry portal

English art List of paintings by Dante
Dante
Gabriel Rossetti Rossetti and His Circle
Rossetti and His Circle
by Max Beerbohm Rossetti–Polidori family tree James Smetham

References[edit]

^ " Dante
Dante
Gabriel Rossetti - Definition, pictures, pronunciation and usage notes - Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary at OxfordLearnersDictionaries.com". oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com.  ^ Treuherz et al. (2003), pp. 15–18. ^ "Rossetti Archive Chronology Exhibit". www.rossettiarchive.org. Retrieved 2018-02-01.  ^ a b " Dante
Dante
Gabriel Rossetti". Poetry Foundation. Retrieved 15 June 2014.  ^ a b Treuherz et al. (2003), p. 19. ^ Hilton (1970), p. 26. ^ Treuherz et al. (2003), pp. 15. ^ Treuherz et al. (2003), p. 22. ^ Hilton (1970), pp. 31–35. ^ Quoted in Marsh (1996), p. 21. ^ Marsh (1996), p. 21. ^ Marsh (1996), p. 16. ^ Marsh (1996), p. 17. ^ Treuherz et al. (2003), p. 33. ^ Treuherz et al. (2003), pp. 19, 24–25. ^ Treuherz et al. (2003), pp. 175–76. ^ Treuherz et al. (2003), pp. 39–41. ^ a b  Lee, Sidney, ed. (1901). "Burne-Jones, Edward Coley". Dictionary of National Biography, 1901 supplement​. 3. London: Smith, Elder & Co.  ^ a b  Lee, Sidney, ed. (1901). "Morris, William (1834-1896)". Dictionary of National Biography, 1901 supplement​. 3. London: Smith, Elder & Co.  ^ Watkinson, Ray, "Painting" in Parry (1996), p. 93. ^ Parry, William Morris, pp. 14-16. ^ "The Cover Sells the Book". Delaware Art Museum.  ^ " Dante
Dante
Gabriel Rossetti Material Design". Rossetti Archive.  ^ a b Janzen Kooistra, Lorraine (2011). Poetry, Pictures, and Popular Publishing: The Illustrated Gift Book and Victorian Visual Culture 1855-1875. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press. p. 43.  ^ Housman, Laurence (1896). Arthur Boyd Houghton: A Selection from his Work in Black and White. London, England: Trubner and Co. p. 13.  ^ Welland, Dennis (1953). The Pre-Raphaelites in Literature and Art. London, England: George G. Harrap & Co. Ltd. p. 17.  ^ Barry, William. "The Oxford Movement
Oxford Movement
(1833-1845)". New Advent. Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 15 June 2014.  ^ Tractarian ^ a b Bentley, D.M.R. (1977). Rossetti's "Ave" and Related Pictures. 15. West Virginia University Press. pp. 21–35.  ^ Taylor, G.W. "John Wesley and the Anglo- Catholic
Catholic
Revival". Project Canterbury. SPCK.  ^ Meagher, Jennifer. "The Pre-Raphelites". The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 15 June 2014.  ^ "Hand and Soul". Victorian Short Fiction Project. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 6 June 2014.  ^ "Hand and Soul". The Rossetti Archive. Retrieved 15 June 2014.  ^ "The Blessed Damozel". Rossetti Archive. Retrieved 15 June 2014.  ^ a b c Treuherz et al. (2003), pp. 52–54. ^ Treuherz et al. (2003), p. 64. ^ Treuherz et al. (2003), p. 80. ^ Todd (2001), p. 107. ^ National Library of Australia. ^ Todd (2001), p. 109. ^ Todd (2001), p. 113. ^ a b Todd (2001), p. 116. ^ Pedrick (1964), p. 130 ^ Dunn, Recollections of Dante
Dante
Gabriel Rossetti and his circle, ed. Mander, (1984) p. 46. ^ Spencer-Longhurst, The Blue Bower: Rossetti in the 1860s (2006). ^ Todd (2001), pp. 123–130. ^ "The Day Dream". www.artmagick.com. Archived from the original on 18 March 2015. Retrieved 15 August 2016.  ^ " Dante
Dante
Gabriel Rossetti, 'The Day Dream'". /www.vam.ac.uk. Retrieved 15 August 2016.  ^ a b Todd (2001), pp. 128–129. ^ Wilson, Scott. Resting Places: The Burial Sites of More Than 14,000 Famous Persons, 3d ed.: 2 (Kindle Location 40729). McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. Kindle Edition. ^ Rohde (2000). p. 396. ^ a b Rohde (2000), p. 276. ^ Treuherz et al. (2003), p. 12. ^ Treuherz et al. (2003), p. 16. ^ Quoted in Treuherz et al. (2003), p. 12. ^ " BBC
BBC
Desperate Romantics". BBC
BBC
News.  ^ In Season 10, Episode 7, "Bar Wars V: The Final Judgment" first broadcast October 31, 1991 ^ Scotland, National Galleries of. "The Awakening − Phoebe Anna Traquair − t − Artists A-Z − Online Collection − Collection − National Galleries of Scotland". www.nationalgalleries.org. Retrieved 2016-03-15.  ^ "Rossetti Archive Books". Retrieved 15 June 2014.  ^ "Rossetti Archive Doubleworks". The Rossetti Archive. Retrieved 15 June 2014.  ^ "Lady Lilith, Dante
Dante
Gabriel Rossetti, 1868". Retrieved 21 August 2010. 

Bibliography[edit]

Ash, Russell (1995), Dante
Dante
Gabriel Rossetti. London: Pavilion Books ISBN 978-1-85793-412-0; New York: Abrams ISBN 978-1-85793-950-7. Doughty, Oswald (1949), A Victorian Romantic: Dante
Dante
Gabriel Rossetti. London: Frederick Muller. Drew, Rodger (2006), The Stream's Secret: The Symbolism of Dante Gabriel Rossetti. Cambridge: The Lutterworth Press, ISBN 978-0-7188-3057-1. Fredeman, William E. (1971). Prelude to the Last Decade: Dante
Dante
Gabriel Rossetti in the summer of 1872. Manchester [Eng.]: The John Rylands Library. Fredeman, William E. (ed.) (2002–8), The Correspondence of Dante Gabriel Rossetti. 7 vols. Cambridge: Brewer. Hilto, Timoth (1970). The Pre-Raphelites. London: Thames and Hudson, New York: Abrams. Lucas, F. L. (2013), Dante
Dante
Gabriel Rossetti - an anthology (poems and translations, with introduction). Cambridge University Press ISBN 9781107639799 [1] Marsh, Jan (1996). The Pre-Raphaelites: Their Lives in Letters and Diaries. London: Collins & Brown. McGann, J. J. (2000). Dante
Dante
Gabriel Rossetti and the Game that Must Be Lost. New Haven: Yale University Press. Parry, Linda (1996), ed., William Morris. New York: Abrams, ISBN 0-8109-4282-8. Pedrick, G. (1964). Life with Rossetti: or, No peacocks allowed. London:Macdonald. ISBN Roe, Dinah: The Rossettis in Wonderland. A Victorian Family History. London: Haus Publishing, 2011. Rossetti, D. G. The House Of Life Rossetti, D. G., & J. Marsh (2000). Collected Writings of Dante Gabriel Rossetti. Chicago: New Amsterdam Books. Rossetti, D. G., & W. W. Rossetti, ed. (1911), The Works of Dante Gabriel Rossetti. Ellis, London. (full text) Sharp, Frank C., and Jan Marsh (2012), The Collected Letters of Jane Morris, Boydell & Brewer, London. Simons, J. (2008). Rossetti's Wombat: Pre-Raphaelites and Australian animals in Victorian London. London: Middlesex University Press. Treuherz, Julian, Prettejohn, Elizabeth, and Becker, Edwin (2003). Dante
Dante
Gabriel Rossetti. London: Thames & Hudson, ISBN 0-500-09316-4. Todd, Pamela (2001). Pre-Raphaelites at Home, New York: Watson-Giptill Publications, ISBN 0-8230-4285-5.

External links[edit]

Find more about Dante
Dante
Gabriel Rossettiat's sister projects

Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Data from Wikidata

The Rossetti Archive Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery's Pre-Raphaelite Online Resource Website about Rossetti's wife, Elizabeth Siddal Works by Dante
Dante
Gabriel Rossetti at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Dante
Dante
Gabriel Rossetti at Internet Archive Works by Dante
Dante
Gabriel Rossetti at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks)

Archival material at Leeds University Library 47 Painting(s) by or after Dante
Dante
Gabriel Rossetti at the Art UK site Paintings of Rossetti, YouTube

v t e

Dante
Dante
Gabriel Rossetti

List of paintings

Paintings

The Girlhood of Mary Virgin Ecce Ancilla Domini Paolo and Francesca da Rimini Bocca Baciata Oxford Union murals The Beloved Monna Vanna Monna Rosa Pia de' Tolomei Beata Beatrix Dante's Dream Water Willow Veronica Veronese Lady Lilith La Ghirlandata Proserpine A Sea–Spell The Blessed Damozel A Vision of Fiammetta The Day Dream Mnemosyne Found

Family

Elizabeth Siddal
Elizabeth Siddal
(wife) Frances Polidori
Frances Polidori
(mother) Gabriele Rossetti
Gabriele Rossetti
(father) Maria Francesca Rossetti
Maria Francesca Rossetti
(sister) William Michael Rossetti (brother) Christina Rossetti
Christina Rossetti
(sister) Gaetano Polidori
Gaetano Polidori
(grandfather)

Related

Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood The Germ Hogarth Club Morris & Co.

Tristram and Isoude stained glass panels

Great Bookcase Rossetti and His Circle
Rossetti and His Circle
(1922 book) Dante's Inferno (1967 film) The Love School (1975 miniseries) Desperate Romantics
Desperate Romantics
(2009 miniseries)

v t e

The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
(paintings)

William Holman Hunt John Everett Millais Dante
Dante
Gabriel Rossetti James Collinson William Michael Rossetti Frederic George Stephens Thomas Woolner

Associated artists and figures

George Price Boyce John Brett Ford Madox Brown Richard Burchett Edward Burne-Jones Georgiana Burne-Jones John Collier Charles Allston Collins Frank Cadogan Cowper Evelyn De Morgan Walter Deverell Henry Treffry Dunn William Dyce Henry Holiday Arthur Hughes Edward Robert Hughes Frederic Leighton Robert Braithwaite Martineau Louisa Beresford, Marchioness of Waterford William Morris Alexander Munro Joseph Noel Paton Valentine Cameron Prinsep Christina Rossetti John Ruskin Frederick Sandys Thomas Seddon Elizabeth Siddal James Smetham Rebecca Solomon Simeon Solomon John Roddam Spencer Stanhope Marie Spartali Stillman Algernon Charles Swinburne Henry Wallis John William Waterhouse William Lindsay Windus

Some well-known works (period and post-period)

Ophelia Proserpine Christ in the House of His Parents A Converted British Family Sheltering a Christian
Christian
Missionary from the Persecution of the Druids Ecce Ancilla Domini Mariana The Light of the World Our English Coasts ('Strayed Sheep') The Scapegoat Paolo and Francesca da Rimini The Last of England Work The Awakening Conscience The Hireling Shepherd April Love Found Bocca Baciata Oxford Union murals Lady Lilith Mary Magdalene The Finding of the Saviour in the Temple Beata Beatrix The Shadow of Death A Vision of Fiammetta Pygmalion and the Image series The Beloved Flaming June Cymon and Iphigenia King Cophetua and the Beggar Maid The Day Dream Dante
Dante
and Beatrice Love's Messenger The Magic Circle The Legend of Briar Rose Lilith The Lady of Shalott Hylas and the Nymphs Lady Godiva

Models

Elizabeth Siddal Fanny Cornforth Effie Gray Sophy Gray Annie Miller Jane Morris Marie Spartali Stillman Alexa Wilding Maria Zambaco Dorothy Dene Fanny Eaton Ruth Herbert

Related

The Germ Hogarth Club Morris & Co. Rossetti and His Circle
Rossetti and His Circle
(1922 book) Dante's Inferno (1967 film) The Love School (1975 series) Desperate Romantics
Desperate Romantics
(2009 series) Effie Gray
Effie Gray
(2014 film)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 41848725 LCCN: n79117985 ISNI: 0000 0001 2129 6670 GND: 118749900 SELIBR: 222723 SUDOC: 027893057 BNF: cb11983717w (data) BIBSYS: 90080351 ULAN: 500022594 MusicBrainz: 0ef75909-44c6-44e0-bc9c-1093c220f541 NLA: 35463837 NDL: 00454740 NKC: jn20010316159 BNE: XX1057565 KulturNav: 80d0bc57-de16-498e-bb2e-b709095a7495 RKD: 68363 SNAC: w

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