DANISH /ˈdeɪnᵻʃ/ ( listen ) (dansk pronounced ( listen );
dansk sprog, ) is a North
Germanic language spoken by around six
million people, principally in
Along with the other North Germanic languages, Danish is a descendant
Until the 16th century, Danish was a continuum of dialects spoken
Danish has a very large vowel inventory comprising 27 phonemically distinctive vowels , and its prosody is characterized by the distinctive phenomenon stød , a kind of laryngeal phonation type . Due to the many pronunciation differences that set apart Danish from its neighboring languages, particularly the vowels, difficult prosody and "weakly" pronounced consonants, it is sometimes considered to be a difficult language to learn and understand, and there is some evidence that small children are slower to acquire the phonological distinctions of Danish. The grammar is moderately inflective with strong (irregular) and weak (regular) conjugations and inflections. Nouns and demonstrative pronouns distinguish common and neutral gender. As in English, Danish only has remnants of a former case system , particularly in the pronouns, and it has lost all person marking on verbs. Its syntax is V2 , with the finite verb always occupying the second slot in the sentence.
* 1 Classification
* 1.1 Mutual intelligibility
* 2 History
* 2.1 Dǫnsk tunga * 2.2 Old Danish * 2.3 Early Modern Danish * 2.4 Standardized national language
* 3 Geographic distribution * 4 Dialects
* 5 Phonology
* 5.1 Vowels * 5.2 Consonants * 5.3 Prosody
* 6 Grammar
* 6.1 Nouns
* 6.1.1 Gender * 6.1.2 Definiteness * 6.1.3 Number * 6.1.4 Possession * 6.1.5 Pronouns * 6.1.6 Nominal compounds
* 6.2 Verbs
* 6.2.1 Tense, Aspect, Mood, Voice
* 6.3 Syntax
* 6.3.1 Main clauses * 6.3.2 Subordinate clauses
* 7 Vocabulary
* 7.1 Numerals
Danish and its relation to other North
Danish is a Germanic language of the North Germanic branch . Other names for this group are the Nordic or Scandinavian languages. Along with Swedish, Danish descends from the Eastern dialects of the Old Norse language ; Danish and Swedish are also classified as East Scandinavian or East Nordic languages.
Scandinavian languages are often considered a dialect continuum, where there are no sharp dividing lines between the different vernacular languages.
Like Norwegian and Swedish, Danish was significantly influenced by
Danish itself can be divided into three main dialect areas: West Danish (Jutlandic), Insular Danish (including the Standard variety), and East Danish (including Bornholmian and Scanian ). Under the view that Scandinavian is a dialect continuum, East Danish can be considered intermediary between Danish and Swedish, while Scanian can be considered a Swedified East Danish dialect, and Bornholmsk is its closest relative.
Danish is largely mutually intelligible with Norwegian and Swedish . Proficient speakers of any of the three languages can often understand the others fairly well, though studies have shown that speakers of Norwegian generally understand both Danish and Swedish far better than Swedes or Danes understand each other. Both Swedes and Danes also understand Norwegian better than they understand each other's languages. The reason Norwegian occupies a middle position in terms of intelligibility is because of its shared border with Sweden resulting in a similarity in pronunciation, combined with the long tradition of having Danish as a written language which has led to similarities in vocabulary. Among younger Danes, Copenhageners are worse at understanding Swedish than Danes from the provinces, and in general younger Danes are not as good at understanding the neighboring languages as are Norwegian and Swedish youths.
Main article: History of Danish
This article APPEARS TO CONTRADICT THE ARTICLE HISTORY OF DANISH . Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page . (Learn how and when to remove this template message )
By the 8th century, the common
Germanic language of
From the 7th century the common Norse language began to undergo
changes that did not spread to all of Scandinavia, resulting in the
appearance of two dialect areas, Old West Norse (
Through Danish conquest,
Old East Norse was once widely spoken in the
northeast counties of England . Many words derived from Norse, such as
"gate" (gade) for street, still survive in
Fangær man saar i hor seng mæth annæns mansz kunæ. oc kumær
han burt liuænd....
"If one catches someone in the whore-bed with another man's wife and
he comes away alive..." “ ”
In the medieval period Danish emerged as a separate language from
Swedish. The main written language was Latin, and the few Danish
language texts preserved from this period are written in the Latin
alphabet, although the runic alphabet seems to have lingered in
popular usage in some areas. The main text types written in this
period are laws, which were formulated in the vernacular language to
be accessible also to those who were not latinate. The
Throughout this period Danish was in contact with
The first printed book in Danish dates from 1495, the "Rimkrøniken"
(Rhyming Chronicle), a history book told in rhymed verses. The first
complete translation of the
EARLY MODERN DANISH
Herrer og Narre have frit Sprog. "Lords and jesters have free speech." “ ” Peder Syv , proverbs
Following the first
The East Danish provinces were lost to
In the 18th century Danish philology was advanced by
STANDARDIZED NATIONAL LANGUAGE
Moders navn er vort Hjertesprog, kun løs er al fremmed Tale. Det alene i mund og bog, kan vække et folk af dvale. "Mother's name is our hearts' tongue, only idle is all foreign speech It alone, in mouth or in book, can rouse a people from sleep." “ ” N.F.S. Grundtvig , "Modersmaalet"
Following the loss of
After the occupation of
With the exclusive use of rigsdansk, the High Copenhagenian Standard, in national broadcasting, the traditional dialects came under increased pressure. In the 20th century they have all but disappeared, and the standard language has extended throughout the country. Minor regional pronunciation variation of the standard language, sometimes called regionssprog ("regional languages") remain, and are in some cases vital. Today the major varieties of Standard Danish are High Copenhagenian, associated with elderly, well to-do and well educated people of the capital, and low-Copenhagenian traditionally associated with the working class, but today adopted as the prestige variety of the younger generations. Also in the 21st century the influence of immigration has had linguistic consequences, such as the emergence of a so-called multiethnolect in the urban areas, an immigrant Danish variety (also known as Perkerdansk ), combining elements of different immigrant languages such as Arabic, Turkish and Kurdish, as well as English and Danish.
Danish is the national language of
In addition, there is a noticeable community of Danish speakers in
Southern Schleswig , the portion of
The more widespread of the two varieties of Norwegian ,
Bokmål , is
very close to Danish, because standard Danish was used as the de facto
administrative language until 1814.
Bokmål is based on Danish unlike
the other variety of Norwegian,
There is no law stipulating an official language for Denmark, making Danish the de facto language only. The Code of Civil Procedure does, however, lay down Danish as the language of the courts. Since 1997 public authorities have been obliged to observe the official spelling by way of the Orthography Law. In the 21st century there have been discussions regarding creating a language law that would make Danish the official language of Denmark.
Main article: Danish dialects Map of Danish dialects A map showing the distribution of stød in Danish dialects. Dialects in the pink areas have stød, as in standard Danish, while those in the green ones have tones, as in Swedish and Norwegian. Dialects in the blue areas have (like Icelandic, German and English) neither stød nor tones. The distribution of one, two, and three grammatical genders in Danish dialects. In Zealand the transition from three to two genders has happened fairly recently. West of the red line the definite article goes before the word as in English or German; east of the line it takes the form of a suffix.
Standard Danish (rigsdansk) is the language based on dialects spoken
in and around the capital,
Danish dialects can be divided into the traditional dialects, which
differ from modern Standard Danish in both phonology and grammar, and
the Danish accents or regional languages, which are local varieties of
Danish traditional dialects are divided into three main dialect areas:
Insular Danish (ømål), including dialects of the Danish islands
of Zealand, Funen, Lolland, Falster, and Møn
Traditional dialects differ both in phonology, grammar and vocabulary
from standard Danish. Phonologically, one of the most diagnostic
differences is the presence or absence of stød. There are four main
regional variants for the realization of stød: In Southeastern
Jutlandic, Southernmost Funen, Southern Langeland and Ærø, there is
no stød but instead a pitch accent . South of a line (Danish:
Grammatically, a dialectally significant feature is the number of
grammatical genders. Standard Danish has two genders and the definite
form of nouns is formed by the use of suffixes , while Western
Main article: Danish phonology
The sound system of Danish is unusual among the world's languages, particularly in its large vowel inventory and in the unusual prosody. In informal or rapid speech the language is prone to considerable reduction of unstressed syllables, creating many vowel-less syllables with syllabic consonants, as well as reduction of final consonants. Furthermore, the language's prosody does not include many clues about the sentence structure, unlike many other languages, making it relatively more difficult to segment the speech flow into its constituent elements. These factors taken together make Danish pronunciation difficult to master for learners, and there are even indications that Danish children take slightly longer in learning to segment speech in early childhood.
Although somewhat depending on analysis, most modern variants of Danish distinguish 12 long vowels, 13 short vowels and two schwa vowels, /ə/ and /ɐ/ that only occur in unstressed syllables. This gives a total of 27 different vowel phonemes - a very large number among the world's languages. At least 19 different diphthongs also occur, all with a short first vowel and the second segment being either , or . The table below shows the approximate distribution of the vowels as given by Grønnum (1998) in Modern Standard Danish, with the symbols used in IPA for Danish . Questions of analysis may give a slightly different inventory, for example based on whether r-colored vowels are considered distinct phonemes. Basbøll (2005) :50 gives 25 "full vowels", not counting the two unstressed schwa-vowels.
FRONT CENTRAL BACK
UNROUNDED ROUNDED UNROUNDED ROUNDED
CLOSE i , iː y , yː
u , uː
NEAR-CLOSE e , eː
CLOSE-MID ɛ , ɛː ø , øː
o , oː
œ , œː ə ɔ , ɔː
OPEN-MID æ , æː œ̞ , œ̞ː
ɒ , ɒː
NEAR-OPEN a ɶ , ɶː ʌ , ɐ
ɑ , ɑː
The consonant inventory is comparatively simple. Basbøll (2005 :73) distinguishes 16 non-syllabic consonant phonemes in Danish.
LABIAL ALVEOLAR Alveolo -palatal VELAR Uvular / pharyngeal GLOTTAL
NASAL /m/ /n/
PLOSIVE /p/ /b/ /t/ /d/
FRICATIVE /f/ /s/
APPROXIMANT /v/ /l/ /j/
Many of these phonemes have quite different allophones in onset and coda . Phonetically there is no voicing distinction among the stops, rather the distinction is one of aspiration and fortis vs. lenis. /p t k/ are aspirated in onset realized as , but not in coda. The pronunciation of t, , is in between a simple aspirated and a fully affricated as has happened in German with many words that now contain z. The stops /b d g/ are realized as in onset and as in coda. In syllable onset the phonemes /b d ɡ v j r/ are contoid (having enough closure to produce friction), but in coda syllables they become vocoids , with no audible friction making them phonetically similar to vowels. For example, /v b/ is pronounced as a -sound in syllable coda e.g. /grav, løb/ ("grave, ran") are pronounced .
often have slight frication, but are usually pronounced as approximants . Danish differs from the similar sound in English and Icelandic, in that it is not a dental fricative but an alveolar approximant which sounds like and is frequently mistaken for an (or ) by second language learners.
The sound is found for example in the word /sjovˀ/ "fun" pronounced and /tjalˀ/ "marijuana" pronounced . Some analyses have posited it as a phoneme, but since it occurs only after /s/ or /t/ and doesn't occur after these phonemes, it can be analyzed as an allophone of /j/, which is devoiced after voiceless alveolar frication. This makes it unnecessary to postulate a /ɕ/-phoneme in Danish.
In onset /r/ is realized as a uvu-pharyngeal approximant , , but in coda it is either realized as a non-syllabic low central vowel , or simply coalesces with the preceding vowel. The phenomenon is comparable to the r in German or in non-rhotic pronunciations of English. The Danish pronunciation of /r/ as a so-called skarre-r distinguishes the language from those varieties of Norwegian and Swedish that use trilled .
Danish is characterized by a prosodic feature called stød (lit. "thrust"). This is a form of laryngealization or creaky voice . Some sources have described it as a glottal stop , but this is a very infrequent realization, and today phoneticians consider it a phonation type or a prosodic phenomenon. It has phonemic status, since it serves as the sole distinguishing feature of words with different meanings in minimal pairs such as bønder ("peasants") with stød, versus bønner ("beans") without stød. The distribution of stød in the vocabulary is related to the distribution of the common Scandinavian pitch accents found in most dialects of Norwegian and Swedish .
Stress is phonemic and distinguishes words such as billigst "cheapest" and bilist "car driver".
Main article: Danish grammar
Similarly to the case of English, modern
Danish grammar is the result
of a gradual change from a typical Indo-European dependent marking
pattern with a rich inflectional morphology and relatively free word
order, to a mostly analytic pattern with little inflection, a fairly
SVO word order and a complex syntax. Some traits typical of
Nouns are inflected for number (singular vs. plural) and definiteness, and are classified into two grammatical genders. Only pronouns inflect for case, and the previous genitive case has become an enclitic . A distinctive feature of the Scandinavian languages, including Danish, is that the definite articles, which also mark noun gender, have developed into suffixes. Typically of Germanic languages plurals are either irregular or "strong " stems inflected through ablaut (i.e. changing the vowel of the stem (e.g. fod/fødder "foot/feet", mand/mænd "man/men") or "weak" stems inflected through affixation (e.g. skib/skibe "ship/ships", kvinde/kvinder "woman/women").
Main article: Gender in Danish and Swedish
Standard Danish has two nominal genders : common and neuter; the common gender arose as the historical feminine and masculine genders conflated into a single category. Some traditional dialects retain a three-way gender distinction, between masculine, feminine and neuter, and some dialects of Jutland have a masculine/feminine contrast. While the majority of Danish nouns (ca. 75%) have the common gender, and neuter is often used for inanimate objects, the genders of nouns are not generally predictable and must in most cases be memorized.The gender of a noun determines the form of adjectives that modify it, and the form of the definite suffixes.
Danish regular plural patterns CLASS 1 CLASS 2 CLASS 3
SG. PL. PL. DEFINITE. SG. PL. PL. DEFINITE. SG. PL. PL. DEFINITE.
måned month måneder months månederne the months dag day dage days dagene "the days" år year år years årene the years
bil car biler cars bilerne the cars hund dog hunde dogs hundene the dogs fisk fish fisk fish (pl.) fiskene the fishes
Definiteness is marked by two mutually exclusive articles, a preposed demonstrative article which occurs with nouns that are modified by an adjective or a postposed enclitic. Neuter nouns take the clitic -et, and common gender nouns take -en. Indefinite nouns take the articles en (common gender) or et (neuter). Hence, the common gender noun en mand "a man" (indefinite) has the definite form manden "the man", whereas the neuter noun et hus "a house" (indefinite) has the definite form, "the house" (definite) huset.
Indefinite: Jeg så ET hus "I saw a house"
Definite with enclitic article: Jeg så husET "I saw the house"
Definite with preposed demonstrative article: Jeg så DET store hus "I saw the big house"
The plural definite ending is -(e)ne (e.g. drenge "boys > drengene "the boys" and piger "girls" > pigerne "the girls"), and nouns ending in -ere lose the last -e before adding the -ne suffix (e.g. danskere "Danes" > danskerne "the Danes"). When the noun is modified by an adjective, the definiteness is marked by the definite article den (common) or det (neuter) and the definite/plural form of the adjective: den store mand "the big man", det store hus "the big house".
Danish irregular plurals SG. PL. PL. DEFINITE
mand man mænd men mændene the men
ko cow køer cows køerne the cows
øje eye øjne eyes øjnene the eyes
konto account konti accounts kontiene the accounts
There are three different types of regular plurals: Class 1 forms the plural with the suffix -er (indefinite) and -erne (definite), Class 2 with the suffix -e (indefinite) and -ene (definite.), and Class 3 takes no suffix for the plural indefinite form and -ene for the plural definite.
Most irregular nouns take an ablaut plural (with a change in the stem vowel), or combine ablaut stem-change with the suffix, and some have unique plural forms. Unique forms may be inherited (e.g. the plural of øje "eye", which is the old dual form øjne), or for loan words they may be borrowed from the donor language (e.g. the word konto "account" which is borrowed from Italian and uses the Italian masculine plural form konti "accounts").
Possessive phrases are formed with the enclitic -s, for example min fars hus "my father's house" where the noun far carries the possessive enclitic. This is however not a case of genitive case marking, because in the case of longer noun phrases the -s attaches to the last word in the phrase, which need not be the head-noun or even a noun at all. For example, the phrases kongen af Danmark's bolsjefabrik "the king of Denmark's candy factory", or det er pigen Uffe bor sammen meds datter "that is the daughter of the girl that Uffe lives with", where the enclitic attaches to a stranded preposition.
Danish personal pronouns PERSON SUBJECTIVE CASE OBJECTIVE CASE Dependent possessive Independent possessive
1ST P. SG. jeg I mig me min/mit my mine mine
2ND O. SG. du You dig you din/dit your dine yours
3RD P. SG. han/hun /den/det he/she/it ham/hende /den/det him/her/it hans/hendes /dens/dets his/her/its hans/hendes /dens/dets his/hers/its
1ST P. PL. vi we os us vores our vores ours
2ND P. PL. I you (pl.) jer you (pl.) jeres your (pl.) jeres yours (pl.)
3RD P. PL de they dem them deres their deres theirs
As does English, the Danish pronominal system retains a distinction between subjective and oblique case. The subjective case form of pronouns is used when pronouns occur as grammatical subject of a sentence, and oblique forms are used for all non-subjective occurrences including accusative, dative, predicative, comparative and other types of constructions. The third person singular pronouns also distinguish between and animate masculine (han "he"), animate feminine (hun "she") forms, as well as inanimate neuter (det "it") and inanimate common gender (den "it") Jeg sover "I sleep" Du sover "you sleep" Jeg kysser dig "I kiss you" du kysser mig "you kiss me"
Possessive pronouns have independent and adjectival forms. The adjectival form is used immediately preceding the possessed noun (det er min hest "it is my horse"), whereas the independent possessive pronoun is used in place of the possessed noun (den er min "it is mine"). In the third person singular sin is used when the owner is also the subject of the sentence, whereas hans ("his"), hendes (her) and dens/dets "its" is used when the owner is different from the grammatical subject. Han tog SIN hat He took his (own) hat Han tog HANS hat He took his hat (someone else's hat)
Like all Germanic languages, Danish forms compound nouns. These are
- INFINITIVE PRESENT PAST
at være to be er is/are/am var was/were
at se to see ser sees så saw
at vide to know ved knows vidste knew
at huske to remember husker remembers huskede remembered
at glemme to forget glemmer forgets glemte forgot
Danish verbs are morphologically simple, marking very few grammatical categories. They do not mark person or number of subject, although the marking of plural subjects was still used in writing as late as the 19th century. Verbs have a past, non-past and infinitive form, past and present participle forms, and a passive, and an imperative.
Tense, Aspect, Mood, Voice
Verbs can be divided into two main classes, the strong/irregular verbs and the regular/weak verbs. The regular verbs are also divided into two classes, those that take the past suffix -te and those that take the suffix -ede.
The infinitive always ends in a vowel, usually -e (pronounced ), infinitive forms are preceded by the article at (pronounced ). The non-past or present tense takes the suffix -r, except for a few strong verbs that have irregular non-past forms. The past form does not necessarily mark past tense, but also counterfactuality or conditionality, and the non-past has many uses besides present tense time reference.
The present participle ends in -ende (e.g. løbende "running"), and the past participle ends in -et (e.g. løbet "run"), -t (e.g. købt "bought"). Additional composite tenses are constructed with auxiliary verbs (e.g. at være "to be" and at have "to have") and participial forms: Hun er gået "She has left" Hun har gået "She has walked" Hun var gået "She had left" Hun blev siddende She remained seated (lit. "she stayed sitting")
The passive form takes the suffix -s: avisen læses hver dag ("the newspaper is read every day"). Another passive construction uses the auxiliary verb at blive "to become": avisen bliver læst hver dag.
The imperative mood is formed from the infinitive by removing the final schwa-vowel: løb! "run!"
Danish basic constituent order in simple sentences with both a subject and an object is Subject-Verb-Object . However, Danish is also a V2 language , which means that the verb must always be the second constituent of the sentence. Following the Danish grammarian Paul Diderichsen Danish grammar tends to be analyzed as consisting of slots or fields, and in which certain types of sentence material can be moved to the pre-verbal (or "grounding") field to achieve different pragmatic effects. Usually the sentence material occupying the preverbal slot has to be pragmatically marked, usually either new information or topics . There is no rule that subjects must occur in the preverbal slot, but since subject and topic often coincide, they often do. Therefore, whenever any sentence material that is not the subject occurs in the preverbal position the subject is demoted to postverbal position and the sentence order becomes VSO. Peter (S) så (V) Jytte (O) "Peter saw Jytte"
but I går så (V) Peter (S) Jytte (O) "Yesterday, Peter saw Jytte"
When there is no pragmatically marked constituents in the sentence to take the preverbal slot (for example when all the information is new), the slot has to take a dummy subject "der". der kom en pige ind ad døren there came a girl in through the door "A girl came in the door"
Haberland (1994 , p. 336) describes the basic order of sentence constituents in main clauses as comprising the following 8 positions:
Og ham havde Per ikke skænket en tanke i årevis
And him had Per not given a thought for years
0 1 2 3 4 5 7
"And him Per hadn't given a thought in years"
Position 0 is not part of the sentence and can only contain sentential connectors (such as conjunctions or interjections). Position 1 can contain any sentence constituent. Position 2 can only contain the main verb. Position 3 is the subject position, unless the subject is fronted to occur in position 1. Position 4 can only contain light adverbs and the negation. Position 5 is for non-finite verbs, such as auxiliaries. Position 6 is the position of direct and indirect objects, and position 7 is for heavy adverbial constituents.
Questions with wh-words are formed differently from yes/no questions. In wh-questions the question word occupies the preverbal field, regardless of whether its grammatical role is subject or object or adverbial. In yes/no questions the preverbal field is empty, so that the sentence begins with the verb.
Wh-question: hvem så du?' who saw you "who did you see?" så du ham? saw you him? "did you see him?"
In subordinate clauses, the syntax differs from that of main clauses. In the subordinate clause structure the verb is preceded by the subject and any light adverbial material (e.g. negation). Complement clauses begin with the particle at in the "connector field". Han sagde AT HAN IKKE VILLE Gå he said that he not would go "He said that he did not want to go"
Relative clauses are marked by the relative articles som or der which occupy the preverbal slot: Jeg kender en mand SOM bor i Helsingør "I know a man who lives in Elsinore"
Danish label reading militærpoliti, "military police", on police vehicle
About 2000 of Danish non-compound words are derived from the Old
Norse language , and ultimately from Proto Indo-European . Of these
2000 words, 1200 are nouns, 500 are verbs, 180 are adjectives and the
rest belong to other word classes. Danish has also absorbed a
considerable number of loan words, most of which were borrowed from
Middle Low German
Danish and English are both Germanic languages, Danish a North
Germanic language descended from
In the word forms of numbers above 20, the units are stated before the tens, so 21 is rendered enogtyve, literally "one and twenty".
The numeral halvanden means 1½ (literally "half second", implying "one plus half of the second one"). The numerals halvtredje (2½), halvfjerde (3½) and halvfemte (4½) are obsolete, but still implicitly used in the vigesimal system described below. Similarly, the temporal designation klokken halv tre, literally "half three o'clock", is half past two.
One peculiar feature of the
CARDINAL NUMERAL DANISH LITERAL TRANSLATION ORDINAL NUMERAL DANISH LITERAL TRANSLATION
1 én / ét one 1st første first
12 tolv twelve 12th tolvte twelfth
23 treogtyve three and twenty 23rd treogtyvende three and 20th
34 fireogtredive four and thirty 34th fireogtred(i)vte four and 30th
45 femogfyrre(tyve) five and forty (four tens) 45th femogfyrretyvende five and four tens-th
56 seksoghalvtreds(indstyve) six and half third (score) 56th seksoghalvtredsindstyvende six and half third score-th
67 syvogtres(indstyve) seven and three (score) 67th syvogtresindstyvende seven and three score-th
78 otteoghalvfjerds(indstyve) eight and half fourth (score) 78th otteoghalvfjerdsindstyvende eight and half fourth score-th
89 niogfirs(indstyve) nine and four (score) 89th niogfirsindstyvende nine and four score-th
90 halvfems(indstyve) half fifth (score) 90th halvfemsindstyvende half fifth score-th
For large numbers (one billion or larger), Danish uses the long scale , so that the short scale billion (1,000,000,000) is called milliard, and the short scale trillion (1,000,000,000,000) is billion.
The oldest preserved examples of written Danish (from the Iron and
Viking Ages) are in the
Runic alphabet . The introduction of
The same spelling reform changed the spelling of a few common words, such as the past tense vilde (would), kunde (could) and skulde (should), to their current forms of ville, kunne and skulle (making them identical to the infinitives in writing, as they are in speech). Modern Danish and Norwegian use the same alphabet, though spelling differs slightly, particularly with the phonetic spelling of loanwords; for example the spelling of station and garage in Danish remains identical to other languages, whereas in Norwegian, they are transliterated as stasjon and garasje.
NOTES AND REFERENCES
Insular Danish at
Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
Åkesson, K. L. (2005). Håller språket ihop Norden?: en
forskningsrapport om ungdomars förståelse av danska, svenska och
DANISH EDITION of , the free encyclopedia
For a list of words relating to Danish language, see the DANISH
LANGUAGE category of words in
Wikibooks has more on the topic of: DANISH LANGUAGE
Wikivoyage has a phrasebook for DANISH .
* "Sproget.dk" sproget.dk