Sir Daniel Gooch, 1st Baronet (24 August 1816 – 15 October 1889) was an English railway locomotive and transatlantic cable engineer and Conservative politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1865 to 1885. He was the first Superintendent of Locomotive Engines on the Great Western Railway from 1837 to 1864 and its chairman from 1865 to 1889.

Early life

Gooch was born in Bedlington, Northumberland, the son of John Gooch, an ironfounder, and his wife Anna Longridge.[1] In 1831 his family moved to Tredegar Ironworks, Monmouthshire, South Wales, where his father had accepted a managerial post, and it was there that Daniel would begin training under Thomas Ellis senior, who together with Ironmaster Samuel Homfray and Richard Trevithick pioneered steam railway locomotion. Gooch wrote in his diaries "Large works of this kind are by far the best school for a young engineer to get a general knowledge of what he needs in after life." and "...I look back upon the time spent at Tredegar as by far the most important years of my life...".[2] He trained in engineering with a variety of companies, including a period with Robert Stephenson and Company,in Newcastle upon Tyne, as a draughtsman. At the age of 20 he was recruited by Isambard Kingdom Brunel for the Great Western Railway, under the title "Superintendent of Locomotive Engines", taking office on 18 August 1837.[3]

Whilst working in Newcastle he met his future wife, Margaret Tanner, the daughter of Henry Tanner, a Sunderland shipowner. He stayed in touch with Margaret when he moved south to work for Brunel.

Railway engineer

Gooch's earliest days with the company were a struggle to keep the miscellaneous collection of 7 ft 0 14 in (2,140 mm) broad gauge steam locomotives previously ordered by Brunel working. When working at Robert Stephenson and Company he had helped design two 5-foot 6-inch gauge locomotives for the New Orleans Railway, which had never been delivered. Gooch persuaded Brunel to buy the two locomotives, North Star and Morning Star and had Stephenson convert them to 7-foot gauge before delivery. These were the only reliable locomotives that the company had at that time and became the basis of the GWR Star Class. He and Brunel improved the blastpipe arrangement of the North Star to improve its fuel efficiency. Eventually Gooch moved on from the Star class and designed the new GWR Firefly Class of 2-2-2 express passenger locomotives, introduced in 1840. In comparative trials by the Gauge Commissioners, Ixion of this class proved capable of speeds greater than its standard gauge challenger. In 1843 Gooch introduced a new form of locomotive valve gear.

In 1840, Gooch was responsible for identifying the site of Swindon Works and in 1846 for designing the first complete locomotive to be constructed there, Great Western, prototype of the GWR Iron Duke Class of 4-2-2s which were able to achieve 70 miles per hour (110 km/h) and which, much renewed, saw out the broad gauge. Though Gooch's locomotives were principally for the broad gauge, between 1854 and 1864 he also had to design a number of standard gauge classes for the GWR's new Northern Division. In 1864 Gooch resigned from his post of Locomotive Superintendent, though he continued as a member of the GWR Board.

Cable engineer and other roles

From 1859 Gooch lived at Clewer Park in Windsor and was a Deputy Lieutenant for Berkshire.[1] In 1865, Gooch was recalled to the Great Western Railway Company as Chairman. He was also chief engineer of the Telegraph Construction & Maintenance Company (Telcon). In this role, he was instrumental in laying the first successful Transatlantic telegraph cable, using the SS Great Eastern (1865/66), following which he was granted the baronetcy.

Political career

In 1865, while out of the country laying the cable, Gooch was elected Conservative MP for Cricklade.[4] He held the seat until 1885.[5]

Later business activities

In 1866 Gooch was created a baronet in recognition of his cable work.[6] In 1868 he became chairman of the Telegraph Construction & Maintenance Company after John Pender the first chairman resigned. He led the Great Western Railway out of near-bankruptcy and took a particular interest in construction of the Severn Tunnel. Final abandonment of the broad gauge did not take place until after his death at the age of 73.


Gooch married Margaret Tanner in 1838. Following her death in 1868 he married Emily Burder in 1870; she died in 1901. His brothers John Viret Gooch, Thomas Longridge Gooch and William Frederick Gooch were also railway engineers.


GWR Castle Class steam loco no. 5070 and British Rail Western Region class 47 diesel loco no. D1663 (later 47078) were both named Sir Daniel Gooch. Continuing with this tradition, the present Great Western Railway have named class 800 no. 800004 after Gooch, this train will run on the line that Gooch helped to create. A pub in Bayswater, London was named the Daniel Gooch. This pub closed on 5th August 2016[7]



External links

Business positions
Preceded by
Superintendent of Locomotive Engines
on the Great Western Railway

1837 – 1864
Succeeded by
Joseph Armstrong
Preceded by
Richard Potter
Chairman of the Great Western Railway
1865 – 1889
Succeeded by
Frederick Saunders
Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Ambrose Lethbridge Goddard
Lord Ashley
Member of Parliament for Cricklade
1865 – 1885
With: Ambrose Lethbridge Goddard 1865–1868
Frederick William Cadogan 1868–1874
Ambrose Lethbridge Goddard 1874–1880
Nevil Story-Maskelyne 1880–1885
(representation reduced to one member 1885)
Succeeded by
Nevil Story-Maskelyne
Baronetage of the United Kingdom
New creation Baronet
(of Clewer Park)
1866 – 1889
Succeeded by
Henry Daniel Gooch