The Info List - Daniel Solander

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Daniel Carlsson Solander or Daniel Charles Solander (19 February 1733 – 13 May 1782) was a Swedish naturalist and an Apostle of Carl Linnaeus.[1] Solander was the first university educated scientist to set foot on Australian soil.


1 Biography 2 Legacy 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External links

Biography[edit] Solander was born in Piteå, Norrbotten, Sweden, to Rev. Carl Solander[1] a Lutheran principal, and Magdalena née Bostadia.[1] Solander enrolled at Uppsala University
Uppsala University
in July 1750 and initially studied languages, the humanities and law. The professor of botany was the celebrated Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
who was soon impressed by young Solander's ability and accordingly persuaded his father to let him study natural history. Solander traveled to England
in June 1760 to promote the new Linnean system of classification. In February 1763, he began cataloguing the natural history collections of the British Museum, and was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society
Royal Society
in June the following year.[citation needed] In 1768, Solander gained leave of absence from the British Museum
British Museum
and with his assistant Herman Spöring
Herman Spöring
accompanied Joseph Banks
Joseph Banks
on James Cook's first voyage to the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
aboard the Endeavour. They were the botanists who inspired the name Botanist Bay (which later became Botany
Bay) for the first landing place of Cook's expedition in Australia. Solander helped make and describe an important collection of Australian plants while the Endeavour was beached at the site of present-day Cooktown for nearly seven weeks, after being damaged on the Great Barrier Reef. These collections later formed the basis of Banks' Florilegium.

Dr Daniel Solander, Sir Joseph Banks, Captain James Cook, Dr John Hawkesworth and Earl Sandwich by John Hamilton Mortimer, 1771.[2] Use a cursor to see who is who.[3]

Solander also wrote a manuscript describing all the species collected from New Zealand
New Zealand
during the six months the 1768 expedition spent there. It was called Primitiae Florae Novae Zelandiae ('beginnings of a New Zealand
New Zealand
flora'),[4] and was to be illustrated with the plates prepared by Banks. It was never published, but it was available for study by anyone interested, first at Banks' London
home, then at the Natural History section of the British Museum.[5] Solander's return to Britain with Cook and Banks made him the first Swede to circle the globe. On their return in 1771 Solander resumed his duties at the British Museum but also collaborated with Banks on the Florilegium. In 1772 he accompanied Banks on his voyage to Iceland, the Hebrides
and the Orkney Islands. Between 1773 and 1782 he was Keeper of the Natural History Department of the British Museum. In 1773 he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

Solander's grave in Brookwood Cemetery

Solander died at Banks' home in Soho Square of a stroke, aged 49, on 13 May 1782. An autopsy was performed the next day, and revealed a brain haemorrhage.[6] He is buried in the Swedish Section at Brookwood Cemetery. Legacy[edit]

Daniel Solander. miniature by Josiah Wedgewood

Solander's reputation has been profoundly influenced by his limited number of publications and his premature death. Although he had detailed descriptions prepared for most of the botanical specimens he collected on the Endeavour voyage, in deference to Joseph Banks
Joseph Banks
he held off publication waiting for the completion of over 700 engravings. However, after Solander's death, Banks, now President of the Royal Society, failed to publish his projected Florilegium. Had he done so, he would have secured Solander's posthumous reputation. It has been claimed that Banks treated Solander, and Jonas Dryander, as his servants rather than as botanists of equal standing to others in the botanical establishment. However, Banks clearly had a strong emotional bond with Solander, met his expenses and even supported his relatives in Sweden. In 1784, when he wrote to Johan Alströmer of Solander's death, Banks declared: 'This too early loss of a friend, whom I during my more mature years have loved and whom I will always miss, makes me wish to draw a veil over his death, as soon as I have ceased to speak of it. I can never think of it without feeling a mortal pain.' Solander remained an employee of the British Museum
British Museum
for the last decade of his life but was also paid by Banks to assist him with his collections. Banks' relationship with Robert Brown, was more formal.[7] Solander invented the book-form box known as the Solander box
Solander box
which is still used in libraries and archives as the most suitable way of storing prints, drawings, herbarium materials and some manuscripts. Solander Gardens in the east end of London
is named after him, as are the Solander Islands
Solander Islands
off New Zealand's South Island and Cape Solander in the Kamay Botany
Bay National Park. Also Solander Island, off the NW coast of Vancouver Island, Canada. One of the many plants named in his honour is Fuscospora solandri
Fuscospora solandri
(black beech). Solander was associated with Banks in Illustrations of the Botany
of Captain Cook's Voyage Round the World, and his The Natural History of Many Curious and Uncommon Zoophytes, Collected by the late John Ellis, (1786) was published posthumously. The ' Daniel Solander
Daniel Solander
Library' in Sydney's Royal Botanic Garden, established in 1852, is the oldest botanical research library in Australia.[8] In Solander's birth town Piteå
the Solander Science Park houses a number of cleantech companies and research organizations.[9] The standard author abbreviation Sol. is used to indicate this person as the author when citing a botanical name.[10] See also[edit]

European and American voyages of scientific exploration


^ a b c Gilbert, L. A. (1967). "Solander, Daniel (1733 - 1782)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. 2. Canberra: Australian National University. Retrieved 2010-02-25.  ^ Digital Collection, National Library of Australia ^ Catalogue, National Library of Australia, accessed February 2010 ^ "Primitiae Florae Novae Zelandiae [First Fruits of the Flora of New Zealand]". Celebrating Botany
(1924-2014). University of Otago. Retrieved 10 July 2015.  ^ "Topic: Banks' Florilegium". Museum of New Zealand: Te Papa Tongarewa. Museum of New Zealand. Retrieved 10 July 2015.  ^ Chambers, Neil (ed.). The Letters of Sir Joseph Banks: A Selection, 1768-1820. London: Imperial College Press. p. 81. ISBN 1860942040.  ^ Barker, R. M.; Barker, W. R. (1990). "Botanical contributions overlooked: the role and recognition of collectors, horticulturists, explorers and others in the early documentation of the Australian flora". In Short, P. S. History of systematic botany in Australia. Australian Systematic Botany
Society. pp. 37–86. ISBN 0-7316-8463-X.  ^ " Daniel Solander
Daniel Solander
Library". Royal Botanic Garden, Sydney. Retrieved 10 October 2016.  ^ Solander Science Park website ^ IPNI.  Sol. 

Further reading[edit]

Duyker, Edward (1998) Nature's Argonaut: Daniel Solander
Daniel Solander
1733-1782: Naturalist
and Voyager with Cook and Banks. Melbourne University Press. ISBN 0-522-84753-6 Duyker, Edward & Tingbrand, Per (ed. & trans) (1995) Daniel Solander: Collected Correspondence 1753—1782, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, pp. 466, ISBN 0-522-84636-X Scandinavian University Press, Oslo, 1995, pp. 466, ISBN 82-00-22454-6 Serle, Percival (1949). "Solander, Daniel Charles". Dictionary of Australian Biography. Sydney: Angus and Robertson. 

External links[edit]

has original works written by or about: Daniel Solander

 "Solander, Daniel Charles". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.  [1] biography on the website of his home town Piteå
- in Swedish The Solander Society Nature's Argonaut Daniel Solander The natural history of many curious and uncommon zoophytes : collected ... by the late John Ellis ... Systematically arranged and described by the late Daniel Solander
Daniel Solander
.. (1786) downloadable text at Open Library Royal Society
Royal Society
Archive entry on Solander

v t e

Carl Linnaeus

Published works

Linnaeus bibliography The Study of Instinct
The Study of Instinct
(book) Systema Naturae
Systema Naturae
(1735) Fundamenta Botanica
Fundamenta Botanica
(1736) Bibliotheca Botanica
Bibliotheca Botanica
(1736) Musa Cliffortiania (1736) Critica Botanica
Critica Botanica
(1737) Flora Lapponica
Flora Lapponica
(1737) Genera Plantarum
Genera Plantarum


Taxonomy (biology) Linnaean taxonomy
Linnaean taxonomy
(Linnaean classification) Botanical nomenclature Zoological nomenclature Binomial nomenclature Taxa named by Linnaeus‎ Natural history History of biology History of botany Historical race concepts

Related people

Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
the Younger Elisabeth Christina von Linné Apostles of Linnaeus Students of Linnaeus Pre-Linnaean botanists Gaspard Bauhin Johann Bauhin Peter Artedi Herman Boerhaave


Commemoration of Carl Linnaeus Expedition Linné Linnaea Linnaean Garden Linnaeite Linnaemya Linnaemyini 7412 Linnaeus Linnaeus Arboretum The Linnaeus Museum Linnaeus University Linnaeus' Hammarby Linné (crater) Linnéa Linnean Medal Linnean Society of London Swedish Linnaeus Society Linnean Society of New South Wales Linnean Tercentenary Medal Linneus, Maine Linneus, Missouri


Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 14901383 LCCN: n83022706 ISNI: 0000 0000 8359 2136 GND: 117637521 SELIBR: 170906 SUDOC: 084570539 BNF: cb129274544 (data) NLA: 36569482 NKC: mzk2010591910 Botanist: Sol. SN