Daniel Carlsson Solander or Daniel Charles Solander (19 February 1733
– 13 May 1782) was a Swedish naturalist and an Apostle of Carl
Linnaeus. Solander was the first university educated scientist to
set foot on Australian soil.
3 See also
5 Further reading
6 External links
Solander was born in Piteå, Norrbotten, Sweden, to Rev. Carl
Solander a Lutheran principal, and Magdalena née Bostadia.
Solander enrolled at
Uppsala University in July 1750 and initially
studied languages, the humanities and law. The professor of botany was
Carl Linnaeus who was soon impressed by young
Solander's ability and accordingly persuaded his father to let him
study natural history. Solander traveled to
England in June 1760 to
promote the new Linnean system of classification. In February 1763, he
began cataloguing the natural history collections of the British
Museum, and was elected a Fellow of the
Royal Society in June the
following year.
In 1768, Solander gained leave of absence from the
British Museum and
with his assistant
Herman Spöring accompanied
Joseph Banks on James
Cook's first voyage to the
Pacific Ocean aboard the Endeavour. They
were the botanists who inspired the name Botanist Bay (which later
Botany Bay) for the first landing place of Cook's expedition in
Australia. Solander helped make and describe an important collection
of Australian plants while the Endeavour was beached at the site of
present-day Cooktown for nearly seven weeks, after being damaged on
the Great Barrier Reef. These collections later formed the basis of
Dr Daniel Solander, Sir Joseph Banks, Captain James Cook, Dr John
Hawkesworth and Earl Sandwich by John Hamilton Mortimer, 1771. Use
a cursor to see who is who.
Solander also wrote a manuscript describing all the species collected
New Zealand during the six months the 1768 expedition spent
there. It was called Primitiae Florae Novae Zelandiae ('beginnings of
New Zealand flora'), and was to be illustrated with the plates
prepared by Banks. It was never published, but it was available for
study by anyone interested, first at Banks'
London home, then at the
Natural History section of the British Museum.
Solander's return to Britain with Cook and Banks made him the first
Swede to circle the globe.
On their return in 1771 Solander resumed his duties at the British
Museum but also collaborated with Banks on the Florilegium. In 1772 he
accompanied Banks on his voyage to Iceland, the
Hebrides and the
Orkney Islands. Between 1773 and 1782 he was Keeper of the Natural
History Department of the British Museum. In 1773 he was elected a
foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
Solander's grave in Brookwood Cemetery
Solander died at Banks' home in Soho Square of a stroke, aged 49, on
13 May 1782. An autopsy was performed the next day, and revealed a
brain haemorrhage. He is buried in the Swedish Section at Brookwood
Daniel Solander. miniature by Josiah Wedgewood
Solander's reputation has been profoundly influenced by his limited
number of publications and his premature death. Although he had
detailed descriptions prepared for most of the botanical specimens he
collected on the Endeavour voyage, in deference to
Joseph Banks he
held off publication waiting for the completion of over 700
engravings. However, after Solander's death, Banks, now President of
the Royal Society, failed to publish his projected Florilegium. Had he
done so, he would have secured Solander's posthumous reputation. It
has been claimed that Banks treated Solander, and Jonas Dryander, as
his servants rather than as botanists of equal standing to others in
the botanical establishment. However, Banks clearly had a strong
emotional bond with Solander, met his expenses and even supported his
relatives in Sweden. In 1784, when he wrote to Johan Alströmer of
Solander's death, Banks declared: 'This too early loss of a friend,
whom I during my more mature years have loved and whom I will always
miss, makes me wish to draw a veil over his death, as soon as I have
ceased to speak of it. I can never think of it without feeling a
mortal pain.' Solander remained an employee of the
British Museum for
the last decade of his life but was also paid by Banks to assist him
with his collections. Banks' relationship with Robert Brown, was more
Solander invented the book-form box known as the
Solander box which is
still used in libraries and archives as the most suitable way of
storing prints, drawings, herbarium materials and some manuscripts.
Solander Gardens in the east end of
London is named after him, as are
Solander Islands off New Zealand's South Island and Cape Solander
in the Kamay
Botany Bay National Park. Also Solander Island, off the
NW coast of Vancouver Island, Canada. One of the many plants named in
his honour is
Fuscospora solandri (black beech). Solander was
associated with Banks in Illustrations of the
Botany of Captain Cook's
Voyage Round the World, and his The Natural History of Many Curious
and Uncommon Zoophytes, Collected by the late John Ellis, (1786) was
published posthumously. The '
Daniel Solander Library' in Sydney's
Royal Botanic Garden, established in 1852, is the oldest botanical
research library in Australia.
In Solander's birth town
Piteå the Solander Science Park houses a
number of cleantech companies and research organizations.
The standard author abbreviation Sol. is used to indicate this person
as the author when citing a botanical name.
European and American voyages of scientific exploration
^ a b c Gilbert, L. A. (1967). "Solander, Daniel (1733 - 1782)".
Australian Dictionary of Biography. 2. Canberra: Australian National
University. Retrieved 2010-02-25.
^ Digital Collection, National Library of Australia
^ Catalogue, National Library of Australia, accessed February 2010
^ "Primitiae Florae Novae Zelandiae [First Fruits of the Flora of New
Botany (1924-2014). University of Otago.
Retrieved 10 July 2015.
^ "Topic: Banks' Florilegium". Museum of New Zealand: Te Papa
Tongarewa. Museum of New Zealand. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
^ Chambers, Neil (ed.). The Letters of Sir Joseph Banks: A Selection,
1768-1820. London: Imperial College Press. p. 81.
^ Barker, R. M.; Barker, W. R. (1990). "Botanical contributions
overlooked: the role and recognition of collectors, horticulturists,
explorers and others in the early documentation of the Australian
flora". In Short, P. S. History of systematic botany in Australia.
Botany Society. pp. 37–86.
Daniel Solander Library". Royal Botanic Garden, Sydney. Retrieved
10 October 2016.
^ Solander Science Park website
^ IPNI. Sol.
Duyker, Edward (1998) Nature's Argonaut:
Daniel Solander 1733-1782:
Naturalist and Voyager with Cook and Banks. Melbourne University
Press. ISBN 0-522-84753-6
Duyker, Edward & Tingbrand, Per (ed. & trans) (1995) Daniel
Solander: Collected Correspondence 1753—1782, Melbourne University
Press, Melbourne, pp. 466, ISBN 0-522-84636-X Scandinavian
University Press, Oslo, 1995, pp. 466, ISBN 82-00-22454-6
Serle, Percival (1949). "Solander, Daniel Charles". Dictionary of
Australian Biography. Sydney: Angus and Robertson.
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
"Solander, Daniel Charles". Dictionary of National Biography.
London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.
 biography on the website of his home town
Piteå - in Swedish
The Solander Society
The natural history of many curious and uncommon zoophytes :
collected ... by the late John Ellis ... Systematically arranged and
described by the late
Daniel Solander .. (1786) downloadable text at
Royal Society Archive entry on Solander
The Study of Instinct
The Study of Instinct (book)
Systema Naturae (1735)
Fundamenta Botanica (1736)
Bibliotheca Botanica (1736)
Musa Cliffortiania (1736)
Critica Botanica (1737)
Flora Lapponica (1737)
Genera Plantarum (1737)
Linnaean taxonomy (Linnaean classification)
Taxa named by Linnaeus
History of biology
History of botany
Historical race concepts
Carl Linnaeus the Younger
Elisabeth Christina von Linné
Apostles of Linnaeus
Students of Linnaeus
Commemoration of Carl Linnaeus
The Linnaeus Museum
Linnean Society of London
Swedish Linnaeus Society
Linnean Society of New South Wales
Linnean Tercentenary Medal
ISNI: 0000 0000 8359 2136
BNF: cb129274544 (data)