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Damask
Damask
(/ˈdæməsk/; Arabic: دمشق‎) is a reversible figured fabric of silk, wool, linen, cotton, or synthetic fibres, with a pattern formed by weaving. Damasks are woven with one warp yarn and one weft yarn, usually with the pattern in warp-faced satin weave and the ground in weft-faced or sateen weave. Twill
Twill
damasks include a twill-woven ground or pattern.[1][2]

Contents

1 History 2 Modern usage 3 See also 4 References

History[edit]

Damask
Damask
with floral sprigs, Italy, Baroque, 1600-1650, silk two-tone damask

The production of damask was one of the five basic weaving techniques—the others being tabby, twill, lampas, and tapestry—of the Byzantine and Islamic weaving centres of the early Middle Ages.[3] Damasks derive their name from the city of Damascus—in that period a large city active both in trading (as part of the silk road) and in manufacture.[4] Damasks became scarce after the 9th century outside Islamic Spain, but were revived in some places in the 13th century.[3] The word "damask" first appeared in records in a Western European language in the mid-14th century in French.[5] By the 14th century, damasks were being woven on draw looms in Italy. From the 14th to 16th century, most damasks were woven in one colour with a glossy warp-faced satin pattern against a duller ground. Two-colour damasks had contrasting colour warps and wefts, and polychrome damasks added gold and other metallic threads or additional colours as supplemental brocading wefts. Medieval damasks were usually woven in silk, but weavers also produced wool and linen damasks.[2] Modern usage[edit]

Damask
Damask
as a tablecloth. Water droplet is lying on the surface due to low absorption of damask.

Modern damasks are woven on computerized Jacquard looms.[1] Damask weaves are commonly produced in monochromatic (single-colour) weaves in silk, linen, or synthetic fibres such as rayon and feature patterns of flowers, fruit, and other designs. The long floats of satin-woven warp and weft threads cause soft highlights on the fabric which reflect light differently according to the position of the observer. Damask
Damask
weaves appear most commonly in table linens and furnishing fabrics, but they are also used for clothing. The Damask
Damask
weave is used extensively throughout the fashion industry due to its versatility and high-quality finish. Damask
Damask
is usually used for mid-to-high-quality garments, meaning the label tends to have a higher definition and a more “expensive” look. See also[edit]

Diapering
Diapering
(damask patterns in heraldry)

References[edit]

^ a b Kadolph, Sara J., ed.: Textiles, 10th edition, Pearson/Prentice-Hall, 2007, ISBN 0-13-118769-4, p. 251 ^ a b Monnas, Lisa. Merchants, Princes and Painters: Silk
Silk
Fabrics in Italian and Northern Paintings 1300-1550. New Haven, Yale University Press, 2008, pp. 295–299 ^ a b Jenkins, David T., ed.: The Cambridge History of Western Textiles, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2003, ISBN 0-521-34107-8, p. 343. ^ "What is Damask
Damask
Fabric", Period Home and Garden ^ "Damas" etymology (in French).

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Damask.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Damask.

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Fabric

Woven

Aertex Airdura Airguard Barathea Barkcloth Batiste Bedford cord Bengaline Beta cloth Bombazine Brilliantine Broadcloth Buckram Bunting Burlap C change Calico Cambric Canvas Chambray Capilene Cedar bark Challis Char cloth Charmeuse Charvet Cheesecloth Chiffon Chino Chintz Cloqué Cloth
Cloth
of gold Cordura Corduroy Duck Coutil Crape Crêpe Cretonne Dazzle Denim Dimity Donegal tweed Dornix Dowlas Drill Drugget Eolienne Flannel Foulard Fustian Gabardine Gauze Gazar Georgette Ghalamkar Gingham Grenadine Grenfell Cloth Grosgrain Habutai Haircloth Harris Tweed Herringbone Himroo Hodden Irish linen Jamdani Kerseymere Khādī Khaki drill Kente cloth Lamé Lawn Linsey-woolsey Loden Longcloth Mackinaw Madapolam Madras Moleskin Muslin Nainsook Nankeen Ninon Oilskin Organdy Organza Osnaburg Ottoman Oxford Paduasoy Percale Pongee Poplin Rakematiz Rayadillo Rep Rinzu Ripstop Russell cord Saga Nishiki Samite Sateen Satin Saye Scarlet Seersucker Sendal Serge Scrim Shot silk Stuff Taffeta Tais Toile Tucuyo Tweed Twill Ultrasuede Vegetable flannel Ventile Vinyl coated polyester Viyella Voile Wadmal Wigan Whipcord Zephyr Zorbeez

Figured woven

Brocade Camlet Damask Lampas Songket

Pile woven

Baize Chenille Corduroy Crimplene Fustian Mockado Moquette Plush Polar fleece Terrycloth Velours du Kasaï Velvet Velveteen Zibeline

Nonwoven

Felt Cedar bark

Knitted

Boiled wool Coolmax Machine knitting Milliskin Jersey Velour

Netted

Bobbinet Carbon fiber Lace Mesh Needlerun net Ninon Tulle

Technical

Ballistic nylon Ban-Lon Conductive Darlexx E-textiles Gannex Gore-Tex Silnylon Spandex Stub-tex SympaTex Windstopper

Patterns

Argyle Bizarre silk Chiné Herringbone Houndstooth Paisley Pin stripes Polka dot Shweshwe Tartan
Tartan
(plaid) Tattersall

Textile
Textile
fibers

Acrylic Alpaca Angora Cashmere Coir Cotton Eisengarn Hemp Jute Kevlar Linen Mohair Nylon Microfiber Olefin Pashmina Polyester Piña Ramie Rayon Sea silk Silk Sisal Spandex Spider silk Wool

Finishing and printing

Androsia Batik Beetling Bingata Bògòlanfini Burnout Calendering Decatising Devoré Finishing Fulling Heatsetting Mercerization Moire Nap Rogan printing Rōketsuzome Roller printing Sanforization Tenterhook Textile
Textile
printing Warp printing Waxed cotton Woodblock printing Indienne

Fabric mills

Carlo Barbera Cerruti Dormeuil Drago Ermenegildo Zegna E. Thomas Holland & Sherry Larusmiani Loro Piana Reda Scabal Vitale Barberis Canonico

Related

Dyeing Fiber History of textiles History of silk Knitting Pandy Shrinkage Swatches and strike-offs Synthetic fabric Terminology Manufacturing Preservation Weaving Yarn

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Islamic art

Architecture

Regional styles

Ayyubid Azerbaijani Chinese Indo-Islamic Indonesian Moorish Moroccan Mudéjar Mughal Ottoman Pakistani Persian Somali Sudano-Sahelian Tatar Timurid Umayyad

Elements

Ablaq Banna'i Iwan Jali Mashrabiya Mihrab Minaret Mocárabe Muqarnas Yeseria See also Decoration

Arts

Regional styles

Persian (Early, Qajar, Safavid) Turkish (Ottoman)

Carpets

Gul Kilim

Motifs

Persian Turkish Prayer

Pottery

Azulejo Fritware Hispano-Moresque İznik Lustreware Persian Chinese influence

Textiles

Batik Damask Ikat Embroidery Soumak Suzani

Woodwork

Khatam Minbar

Other media

Brass Damascus
Damascus
steel Glass Hardstone carving Ivory carving Stained glass

Shabaka

Arts of the book

Miniatures

Arabic Mughal Ottoman Persian

Calligraphy

Arabic Diwani Kufic Muhaqqaq Naskh Nastaʿlīq Persian Sini Taʿlīq Thuluth Tughra

Other arts

Muraqqa Hilya Ottoman illumination

Decoration

Arabesque Geometric patterns Girih
Girih
(tiles) Zellige

The garden

Charbagh Mughal Ottoman Paradise Persian

Museums

Berlin Cairo Doha Ghazni Istanbul (Arts, Calligraphy Art) Jerusalem (Islamic Museum, L. A. Mayer Institute) Kuala Lumpur London (British Museum, V&A) Los Angeles Marrakech (Museum, Majorelle Garden) Melbourne Paris (Arab World Institute, Louvre) Singapore Toronto (Aga Khan) Tripoli

Principles, influences

Islamic Art: Mirror of the Invisible World Aniconism in Islam Indo-Saracenic Revival Islamic world contributions to Medieval Europe Influences on Western art

Grotesque Moresque

Mathematics and architecture Moorish Revival Oriental carpets in Renaissance painting Pseudo-Kufic Stilfrag

.