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^ Dalmatia
Dalmatia
is not an official subdivision of the Republic of Croatia ; it constitutes a historical region only. ------------------------- ^ The figures are an approximation based on statistical data for the four southernmost Croatian Counties ( Zadar
Zadar
without Gračac
Gračac
, Šibenik- Knin
Knin
, Split- Dalmatia
Dalmatia
, Dubrovnik- Neretva
Neretva
).

DALMATIA (Croatian : _Dalmacija_, ; see names in other languages ) is one of the four historical regions of Croatia
Croatia
, alongside Croatia proper , Slavonia
Slavonia
, and Istria
Istria
.

Dalmatia
Dalmatia
is a narrow belt of the east shore of the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
, stretching from island of Rab
Rab
in the north to the Bay of Kotor
Bay of Kotor
in the south. The hinterland (Dalmatian Zagora ) ranges in width from fifty kilometres in the north, to just a few kilometres in the south; it is mostly covered by the rugged Dinaric Mountains . 79 islands (and about 500 islets) run parallel to the coast, the largest (in Dalmatia) being Brač, Pag and Hvar
Hvar
. The largest city is Split , followed by Zadar
Zadar
, Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
, and Šibenik.

The name of the region stems from an Illyrian tribe called the Dalmatae
Dalmatae
, who lived in the area in classical antiquity . Later it became a Roman province , and as result a Romance culture emerged, along with the now-extinct Dalmatian language
Dalmatian language
, later largely replaced with related Venetian . With the arrival of Croats
Croats
to the area in the 8th century, who occupied most of the hinterland, Croatian and Romance elements began to intermix in language and the culture. During the Middle Ages, its cities were often conquered by, or switched allegiance to, the kingdoms of the region. The longest-lasting rule was the one of the Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
, which controlled most of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
between 1420 and 1797, with the exception of the small but stable Republic of Ragusa
Republic of Ragusa
(1358–1808) in the south. Between 1815 and 1918, it was as a province of Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
known as the Kingdom of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
. After the Austro-Hungarian defeat in World War I
World War I
, Dalmatia was split between the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Sloveneswhich controlled most of it, and the Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Italy
which held several smaller parts, and after World War II
World War II
, SFR Yugoslavia
SFR Yugoslavia
took control over the complete area.

CONTENTS

* 1 Name

* 2 Definition

* 2.1 Modern area

* 3 Culture and ethnicity * 4 Geography and climate * 5 Administrative division

* 6 History

* 6.1 Antiquity * 6.2 Middle Ages * 6.3 Early modern period (1420–1815) * 6.4 Nineteenth century * 6.5 Twentieth century

* 7 Cities by population * 8 Gallery * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links

NAME

The name Dalmatia
Dalmatia
derives from the name of the Dalmatae
Dalmatae
tribe, which is connected with the Illyrian word _delme_ meaning "sheep" (Albanian : _delme_). Its Latin
Latin
form _Dalmatia_ gave rise to its current English name. In the Venetian language
Venetian language
, once dominant in the area, it is spelled _Dalmàssia_, and in modern Italian _Dalmazia_. The modern Croatian (Croatian ) spelling is _Dalmacija_, pronounced .

Dalmatia
Dalmatia
is referenced in the New Testament
New Testament
at 2 Timothy 4:10 so its name has been translated in many of the world's languages.

DEFINITION

In antiquity the Roman province of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
was much larger than the present-day Split-Dalmatia County, stretching from Istria
Istria
in the north to modern-day Albania
Albania
in the south. Dalmatia
Dalmatia
signified not only a geographical unit, but was an entity based on common culture and settlement types, a common narrow eastern Adriatic
Adriatic
coastal belt, Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
, sclerophyllous vegetation of the Illyrian province, Adriatic
Adriatic
carbonate platform , and karst geomorphology .

MODERN AREA

Dalmatia
Dalmatia
is today a historical region only, not formally instituted in Croatian law. Its exact extent is therefore uncertain and subject to public perception. According to Lena Mirošević and Josip Faričić of the University of Zadar
Zadar
: The extent of the Kingdom of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
(blue), on a map of modern-day Croatia.

...the modern perception of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
is mainly based on the territorial extent of the Austrian Kingdom of Dalmatia, with the exception of Rab
Rab
island, which is geographically related to the Kvarner
Kvarner
area and functionally to the Littoral – Gorski Kotararea, and with the exception of the Bay of Kotor
Bay of Kotor
, which was annexed to another state ( Montenegro
Montenegro
) after World War I. Simultaneously, the southern part of Lika
Lika
and upper Pounje, which were not a part of Austrian Dalmatia, became a part of Zadar County. From the present-day administrative and territorial point of view, Dalmatia comprises the four Croatian littoral counties with seats in Zadar, Šibenik, Split, and Dubrovnik.

"Dalmatia" is therefore generally perceived to extend approximately to the borders of the Austrian Kingdom of Dalmatia. However, due to territorial and administrative changes over the past century, the perception can be seen to have altered somewhat with regard to certain areas, and sources conflict as to their being part of the region in modern times:

* The Bay of Kotor
Bay of Kotor
area in Montenegro. With the subdivision of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
into oblasts in 1922, the whole of the Bay of Kotor
Kotor
from Sutorinato Sutomorewas granted to the Zeta Oblast, so that the border of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
was formed at that point by the southern border of the former Republic of Ragusa
Republic of Ragusa
. The _Encyclopædia Britannica _ defines Dalmatia
Dalmatia
as extending "to the narrows of Kotor" (i.e. the southernmost tip of continental Croatia, the Prevlaka peninsula). Other sources, however, such as the _ Treccani_ encyclopedia and the "_Rough Guide to Croatia_" still include the Bay as being part of the region. * The island of Rab
Rab
, along with the small islands of Sveti Grgur and Goli , were a part of the Kingdom of Dalmatiaand are historically and culturally related to the region, but are today associated more with the Croatian Littoral, due to geographical vicinity and administrative expediency. * Gračac Municipalityand northern Pag . A number of sources express the view that "from the modern-day administrative point of view", the extent of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
equates to the four southernmost counties of Croatia: Zadar
Zadar
, Šibenik- Knin
Knin
, Split- Dalmatia
Dalmatia
, and Dubrovnik- Neretva
Neretva
. This definition does not include the Bay of Kotor, nor the islands of Rab, Sveti Grgur, and Goli. It also excludes the northern part of the island of Pag, which is part of the Lika-Senj County . However, it includes the Gračac Municipalityin Zadar County, which was not a part of the Kingdom of Dalmatiaand is not traditionally associated with the region (but instead the region of Lika
Lika
).

CULTURE AND ETHNICITY

The inhabitants of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
are culturally subdivided into two or three groups. The urban families of the coastal cities, sometimes known as _Fetivi,_ are culturally akin to the inhabitants of the Dalmatian islands(known derogatorily as _Boduli_). The two are together distinct, in the Mediterranean aspects of their culture, from the more numerous inhabitants of the Zagora , the hinterland, referred to (sometimes derogatorily) as the _Vlaji _. The latter are historically more influenced by Ottoman culture , merging almost seamlessly at the border with the Herzegovinian Croats
Croats
and southern Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
in general.

The former two groups (inhabitants of the islands and the cities) historically included many Venetian and Italian speakers, many of whom identified as Italians (esp. after the Unification of Italy). Their presence, relative to those identifying as Croats
Croats
, decreased dramatically over the course of the 19th and the first half of the 20th century. The Italian speakers constituted (according to the Italian linguist Bartoli ) nearly one third of Dalmatians in the second half of the 18th century. According to the Austrian census it had decreased to 12.5% in 1865 and 3.1% in 1890. There remains, however, a strong cultural, and, in part, ancestral heritage among the natives of the cities and islands, who today almost exclusively identify as Croats, but retain a sense of regional identity.

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

See also: Geography of Croatia
Croatia
The ancient core of the city of Split , the largest city in Dalmatia, built in and around the Palace of the Emperor Diocletian . The historic core of the city of Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
, in southern Dalmatia.

Most of the area is covered by Dinaric Alps
Dinaric Alps
mountain ranges running from north-west to south-east. On the coasts the climate is Mediterranean, while further inland it is moderate Mediterranean. In the mountains, winters are frosty and snowy, while summers are hot and dry. To the south winters are milder. Over the centuries many forests have been cut down and replaced with bush and brush. There is evergreen vegetation on the coast. The soils are generally poor, except on the plains where areas with natural grass, fertile soils and warm summers provide an opportunity for tillage. Elsewhere, land cultivation is mostly unsuccessful because of the mountains, hot summers and poor soils, although olives and grapes flourish. Energy resources are scarce. Electricity is mainly produced by hydropower stations. There is a considerable amount of bauxite .

The largest Dalmatian mountains are Dinara
Dinara
, Mosor, Svilaja, Biokovo, Moseć , Veliki Kozjakand Mali Kozjak. The regional geographical unit of historical Dalmatia
Dalmatia
- the coastal region between Istria
Istria
and the Gulf of Kotor
Kotor
- includes the Orjen
Orjen
mountain with the highest peak in Montenegro, 1894 m. In present-day Dalmatia, the highest peak is Dinara
Dinara
(1913 m), which is not a coastal mountain, while the highest coastal Dinaric mountains are on Biokovo(Sv. Jure, 1762 m) and Velebit (Vaganski vrh, 1757 m), although the Vaganski vrh itself is located in Lika-Senj County.

The largest Dalmatian islandsare Brač, Korčula, Dugi Otok, Mljet, Vis , Hvar
Hvar
, Pag and Pašman. The major rivers are Zrmanja, Krka , Cetinaand Neretva
Neretva
.

The Adriatic
Adriatic
Sea's high water quality , along with the immense number of coves , islands and channels , makes Dalmatia
Dalmatia
an attractive place for nautical races, nautical tourism , and tourism in general. Dalmatia
Dalmatia
also includes several national parks that are tourist attractions: Paklenica
Paklenica
karst river, Kornati
Kornati
archipelago , Krka river rapids and Mljetisland.

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISION

The area of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
roughly corresponds to Croatia's four southernmost counties , listed here north to south:

COUNTY COUNTY SEAT AREA (KM2) POPULATION (2011 CENSUS)

Zadar County Zadar
Zadar
3,642 170,017

Šibenik-Knin County Šibenik 2,939 109,375

Split-Dalmatia County Split 4,534 454,798

Dubrovnik-Neretva County Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
1,783 122,568

TOTAL 12,898 857,743

Other large Dalmatian cities include Biograd , Kaštela, Sinj, Solin , Omiš, Knin
Knin
, Metković, Makarska, Trogir, Ploče, and Imotski
Imotski
.

HISTORY

Main article: History of Dalmatia

ANTIQUITY

Main article: Dalmatia (Roman province)
Dalmatia (Roman province)
Province of Dalmatia during the Roman Empire. Independent Dalmatia
Dalmatia
- Extent of Marcellinus' Control (454-468) and Julius Nepos' Control (468-480).

Dalmatia's name is derived from the name of an Illyrian tribe called the Dalmatae
Dalmatae
who lived in the area of the eastern Adriatic
Adriatic
coast in the 1st millennium BC. It was part of the Illyrian Kingdom between the 4th century BC and the Illyrian Wars
Illyrian Wars
(220, 168 BC) when the Roman Republic established its protectorate south of the river Neretva
Neretva
. The name "Dalmatia" was in use probably from the second half of the 2nd century BC and certainly from the first half of the 1st century BC, defining a coastal area of the eastern Adriatic
Adriatic
between the Krka and Neretva
Neretva
rivers. It was slowly incorporated into Roman possessions until the Roman province of Illyricum was formally established around 32-27 BC. In 9 AD the Dalmatians raised the last in a series of revolts together with the Pannonians, but it was finally crushed, and in 10 AD, Illyricum was split into two provinces, Pannonia
Pannonia
and Dalmatia
Dalmatia
which spread into larger area inland to cover all of the Dinaric Alps
Dinaric Alps
and most of the eastern Adriatic
Adriatic
coast.

The historian Theodore Mommsenwrote in his book, _The Provinces of the Roman Empire_, that all Dalmatia
Dalmatia
was fully romanized by the 4th century AD. However, analysis of archaeological material from that period has shown that the process of romanization was rather selective. While urban centers, both coastal and inland, were almost completely romanized, the situation in the countryside was completely different. Despite the Illyrians
Illyrians
being subject to a strong process of acculturation, they continued to speak their native language, worship their own gods and traditions, and follow their own social-political tribal organization which was adapted to Roman administration and political structure only in some necessities.

The collapse of the Western Roman Empire, with the beginning of the Migration Period, left the region subject to Gothic rulers, Odoacer and Theodoric the Great. They ruled Dalmatia
Dalmatia
from 480 to 535 AD, when it was restored to the Eastern (Byzantine) Empire by Justinian I
Justinian I
.

MIDDLE AGES

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See also: Dalmatia (theme), Principality of Dalmatian Croatia
Croatia
, Kingdom of Croatia
Croatia
(Medieval) , and Medieval Dalmatian principalities

The Middle Ages in Dalmatia
Dalmatia
were a period of intense rivalry among neighboring powers: the waning Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
, the Kingdom of Croatia
Croatia
(later in a personal union with Hungary
Hungary
), the Bosnian Kingdom , and the Venetian Republic
Venetian Republic
. Dalmatia
Dalmatia
at the time consisted of the coastal cities functioning much like city-states, with extensive autonomy, but in mutual conflict and without control of the rural hinterland (the Zagora ). Ethnically, Dalmatia
Dalmatia
started out as a Roman region, with a romance culture that began to develop independently, forming the now-extinct Dalmatian language
Dalmatian language
.

In the Early Medieval period , Byzantine Dalmatia
Dalmatia
was ravaged by an Avar invasion that destroyed its capital, Salona
Salona
, in 639 AD, an event that allowed for the settlement of the nearby Diocletian\'s Palace in Spalatum(Split) by Salonitans, greatly increasing the importance of the city. The Avars were followed by the great South Slavic migrations.

The Slavs, loosely allied with the Avars, permanently settled the region in the first half of the 7th century AD and remained its predominant ethnic group ever since. The Croats
Croats
soon formed their own realm: the Principality of Dalmatian Croatia
Croatia
ruled by native Princes of Guduscan origin. The meaning of the geographical term "Dalmatia", now shrunk to the cities and their immediate hinterland. These cities and towns remained influential as they were well fortified and maintained their connection with the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
. The two communities were somewhat hostile at first, but as the Croats
Croats
became Christianized
Christianized
this tension increasingly subsided. A degree of cultural mingling soon took place, in some enclaves stronger, in others weaker, as Slavic influence and culture was more accentuated in Ragusa, Spalatum, and Tragurium. In about 925 AD, Duke Tomislavwas crowned, establishing the Kingdom of Croatia
Croatia
, and extending his influence further southwards to Zachlumia . Being an ally of the Byzantine Empire, the King was given the status of Protector of Dalmatia, and became its _de facto_ ruler. An engraving of the seaward walls of the city of Split by Robert Adam
Robert Adam
, 1764. The walls were originally built for the Roman Diocletian\'s Palace .

In the High Medieval period , the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
was no longer able to maintain its power consistently in Dalmatia, and was finally rendered impotent so far west by the Fourth Crusade
Fourth Crusade
in 1204. The Venetian Republic, on the other hand, was in the ascendant, while the Kingdom of Croatia
Croatia
became increasingly influenced by Hungary
Hungary
to the north, being absorbed into it via personal union in 1102. Thus, these two factions became involved in a struggle in this area, intermittently controlling it as the balance shifted. During the reign of King Emeric , the Dalmatian cities separated from Hungary
Hungary
by a treaty. A consistent period of Hungarian rule in Dalmatia
Dalmatia
was ended with the Mongol invasion of Hungary
Hungary
in 1241. The Mongols
Mongols
severely impaired the feudal state, so much so that that same year, King Béla IV had to take refuge in Dalmatia, as far south as the Klis
Klis
fortress. The Mongols
Mongols
attacked the Dalmatian cities for the next few years but eventually withdrew without major success.

In 1389 Tvrtko I , the founder of the Bosnian Kingdom, was able to control the Adriatic
Adriatic
littoral between Kotor
Kotor
and Šibenik, and even claimed control over the northern coast up to Rijeka
Rijeka
, and his own independent ally, Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
(Ragusa). This was only temporary, as Hungary
Hungary
and the Venetians continued their struggle over Dalmatia
Dalmatia
after Tvrtko's death in 1391. By this time, the whole Hungarian and Croatian Kingdom was facing increasing internal difficulties, as a 20-year civil war ensued between the Capetian House of Anjoufrom the Kingdom of Naples , and King Sigismund of the House of Luxembourg. During the war, the losing contender, Ladislaus of Naples, sold his "rights" on Dalmatia
Dalmatia
to the Venetian Republic
Venetian Republic
for a mere 100,000 ducats . The much more centralized Republic came to control all of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
by the year 1420, it was to remain under Venetian rule for 377 years (1420–1797).

EARLY MODERN PERIOD (1420–1815)

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See also: Republic of Ragusa
Republic of Ragusa
, Hvar
Hvar
Rebellion , and Illyrian Provinces Map of the Republic of Ragusa
Republic of Ragusa
, dated 1678.

From 1420 to 1797 the Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
controlled most of Dalmatia, calling it _Esclavonia_ in the 15th century with the southern enclave , the Bay of Kotor
Bay of Kotor
, being called _ Albania
Albania
Veneta _. Venetian was the commercial _lingua franca _ in the Mediterranean at that time, and it heavily influenced Dalmatian and to a lesser degree coastal Croatian and Albanian .

The southern city of Ragusa ( Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
) became de facto independent in 1358 through the Treaty of Zadar
Zadar
when Venice relinquished its suzerainty over it to Louis I of Hungary
Louis I of Hungary
. In 1481, Ragusa switched allegiance to the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
. This gave its tradesmen advantages such as access to the Black Sea, and the Republic of Ragusa
Republic of Ragusa
was the fiercest competitor to Venice's merchants in the 15th and 16th century. Ottoman Bosnia at its peak territorial extent just before the Morean Warin 1684.

The Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
was also one of the powers most hostile to the Ottoman Empire\'s expansion , and participated in many wars against it . As the Ottomans took control of the hinterland, many Christians took refuge in the coastal cities of Dalmatia. The border between the Dalmatian hinterland and the Ottoman Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
greatly fluctuated until the Morean War, when the Venetian capture of Knin and Sinjset much of the borderline at its current position. Dalmatian possessions of the Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
in 1797

After the Great Turkish War
Great Turkish War
and the Peace of Passarowitz, more peaceful times made Dalmatia
Dalmatia
experience a period of certain economic and cultural growth in the 18th century, with the re-establishment of trade and exchange with the hinterland. This period was abruptly interrupted with the fall of the Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
in 1797. Napoleon 's troops stormed the region and ended the independence of the Republic of Ragusa
Republic of Ragusa
as well, but saving it from occupation by the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
and Montenegro.

In 1805, Napoleon
Napoleon
created his Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Italy
around the Adriatic Sea, annexing to it the former Venetian Dalmatiafrom Istria
Istria
to Kotor. In 1808 he annexed to this Italian Kingdom the just conquered Republic of Ragusa . A year later in 1809 he removed the Venetian Dalmatiafrom his Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Italy
and created the Illyrian Provinces
Illyrian Provinces
, which were annexed to France, and created his marshal Nicolas Soult
Nicolas Soult
_Duke of Dalmatia_.

Napoleon's rule in Dalmatia
Dalmatia
was marked with war and high taxation, which caused several rebellions. On the other hand, French rule greatly contributed to Croatian national awakening (the first newspaper in Croatian was published then in Zadar, the _Il Regio Dalmata – Kraglski Dalmatin _), the legal system and infrastructure were finally modernized to a degree in Dalmatia, and the educational system flourished. French rule brought a lot of improvements in infrastructure; many roads were built or reconstructed. Napoleon himself blamed Marshal Auguste Marmont, the governor of Dalmatia, that too much money was spent. However, in 1813, the Habsburgs once again declared war on France and, by the following year, had restored control over Dalmatia.

NINETEENTH CENTURY

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See also: Kingdom of Dalmatia

At the Congress of Viennain 1815, Dalmatia
Dalmatia
was granted as a province to the Emperor of Austria. It was officially known as the Kingdom of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
. Map of Dalmatia, Croatia, and Sclavonia (Slavonia). Engraved by Weller for the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge under the Supervision of Charles Knight, dated January 1, 1852. Dalmatia
Dalmatia
is the area detailed in the smaller map annexed map on the right.

In 1848, the Croatian Assembly (Sabor) published the People's Requests, in which they requested among other things the abolition of serfdom and the unification of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
and Croatia. The Dubrovnik Municipality was the most outspoken of all the Dalmatian communes in its support for unification with Croatia. A letter was sent from Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
to Zagreb with pledges to work for this idea. In 1849, Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
continued to lead the Dalmatian cities in the struggle for unification. A large-scale campaign was launched in the Dubrovnik paper _L'Avvenire_ (_The Future_) based on a clearly formulated programme: the federal system for the Habsburg territories, the inclusion of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
into Croatia
Croatia
and the Slavic brotherhood. The president of the council of Kingdom of Dalmatiawas the politician Baron Vlaho Getaldić.

In the same year, the first issue of the Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
almanac appeared, _Flower of the National Literature_ (_Dubrovnik, cvijet narodnog književstva_), in which Petar Preradovićpublished his noted poem "To Dubrovnik". This and other literary and journalistic texts, which continued to be published, contributed to the awakening of the national consciousness reflected in efforts to introduce the Croatian language into schools and offices, and to promote Croatian books. The Emperor Franz Joseph brought the so-called Imposed Constitution which prohibited the unification of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
and Croatia
Croatia
and also any further political activity with this end in view. The political struggle of Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
to be united with Croatia, which was intense throughout 1848-49, did not succeed at that time.

In 1861 was the meeting of the first Dalmatian Assembly, with representatives from Dubrovnik. Representatives of Kotor
Kotor
came to Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
to join the struggle for unification with Croatia. The citizens of Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
gave them a festive welcome, flying Croatian flags from the ramparts and exhibiting the slogan: Ragusa with Kotor. The Kotorans elected a delegation to go to Vienna; Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
nominated Niko Pucić, who went to Vienna to demand not only the unification of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
with Croatia, but also the unification of all Croatian territories under one common Assembly.

At the end of the First World War, the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
disintegrated, and Dalmatia
Dalmatia
was again split between the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (later the Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
) which controlled most of it, and the Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Italy
which held small portions of northern Dalmatia
Dalmatia
around Zadar
Zadar
and the islands of Cres
Cres
, Lošinjand Lastovo.

TWENTIETH CENTURY

See also: Marjane, Marjane; Yugoslav People\'s Liberation War ; SFR Yugoslavia ; Governorship of Dalmatia; and Operation Coast-91
Operation Coast-91

In 1905 a dispute arose in the Austrian Reichsrat over whether Austria should pay for Dalmatia. It has been argued that in the conclusion of the so-called "_ April Laws_" is written "_given by Banus Count Keglevich of Buzin _", which explained the historical affiliation of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
to Hungary. Two years later Dalmatia
Dalmatia
elected representatives to the Austrian Reichsrat.

Dalmatia
Dalmatia
was a strategic region during World War I
World War I
that both Italy and Serbia intended to seize from Austria-Hungary. Italy
Italy
joined the Triple Entente
Triple Entente
Allies in 1915 upon agreeing to the London Pactthat guaranteed Italy
Italy
the right to annex a large portion of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
in exchange for Italy's participation on the Allied side. From 5–6 November 1918, Italian forces were reported to have reached Lissa , Lagosta , Sebenico , and other localities on the Dalmatian coast. By the end of hostilities in November 1918, the Italian military had seized control of the entire portion of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
that had been guaranteed to Italy
Italy
by the London Pactand by 17 November had seized Rijeka
Rijeka
as well. In 1918, Admiral Enrico Millodeclared himself Italy's Governor of Dalmatia. Famous Italian nationalist Gabriele d\'Annunzio supported the seizure of Dalmatia, and proceeded to Zadar in an Italian warship in December 1918.

In 1922, the territory of the former Kingdom of Dalmatiawas divided into two provinces, the District of Split (_Splitska oblast_), with its capital in Split, and the District of Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
(_Dubrovačka oblast_), with its capital in Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
. In 1929, the Littoral Banovina (_Primorska Banovina_), a province of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, was formed. Its capital was Split, and it included most of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
and parts of present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina. The southern parts of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
were in Zeta Banovina
Zeta Banovina
, from the Gulf of Kotor
Kotor
to Pelješacpeninsula including Dubrovnik. In 1939, Littoral Banovina was joined with Sava Banovina(and with smaller parts of other banovinas) to form a new province named the Banovina of Croatia
Croatia
. The same year, the ethnic Croatian areas of the Zeta Banovina
Zeta Banovina
from the Gulf of Kotor
Kotor
to Pelješac, including Dubrovnik, were merged with a new Banovina of Croatia.

During World War II, in 1941, Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
, Fascist Italy
Italy
, Hungary and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
occupied Yugoslavia, redrawing their borders to include former parts of the Yugoslavian state. A new Nazi puppet state, the Independent State of Croatia
Croatia
(NDH), was created, and Fascist Italy
Italy
was given some parts of the Dalmatian coast, notably around Zadar
Zadar
and Split, as well as many of the area's islands. The remaining parts of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
became part of the NDH. Many Croats
Croats
moved from the Italian-occupied area and took refuge in the satellite state of Croatia, which became the battleground for a guerrilla war between the Axis and the Yugoslav Partisans. Following the surrender of Italy
Italy
in 1943, most of Italian-controlled Dalmatia
Dalmatia
was reverted to Croatian control. Zadar
Zadar
was razed by the Allies during World War II, starting the exodus of its Italian population. After WWII, Dalmatia
Dalmatia
became part of the People's Republic of Croatia, part of the SFR Yugoslavia
SFR Yugoslavia
(then called the Federative People's Republic of Yugoslavia).

The territory of former Kingdom of Dalmatiawas divided between two federal Republics of Yugoslavia and most of the territory went to Croatia, leaving only the Bay of Kotor
Bay of Kotor
to Montenegro
Montenegro
. When Yugoslavia dissolved in 1991, those borders were retained and remain in force. During the Croatian war of Independence , most of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
was a battleground between the Croatian government and local Serb rebels , with much of the region being placed under the control of Serbs. Croatia
Croatia
did regain southern parts of these territories in 1992 but did not regain all of the territory until 1995 .

CITIES BY POPULATION

Split (178,102) Zadar
Zadar
(75,082) Šibenik(46,332) Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
(42,615)

GALLERY

PLACES IN CROATIA

_

Medieval fortresses Lovrijenac width:202px;line-height:1.3em;padding:2px 6px 1px 6px;margin:0px;border:none;border-width:0px">The Pjaca_ city square in Split .

Panoramic view of Šibenik.

Šibenik's Cathedral.

Panoramic view of Zadar
Zadar
.

The ancient Roman forum in Zadar
Zadar
.

Summer on a Krapanjstreet.

Panoramic view of Bol .

Amid the streets of Korčula.

Panoramic view of Cavtat
Cavtat
.

Old church in Ston
Ston
.

Hidden beach in southern Dalmatia.

SEE ALSO

* Croatia
Croatia
portal

* History of Dalmatia * Dalmatae
Dalmatae
* Liburnia

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ "Population by Age and Sex, by Settlements, 2011 Census". _Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011_. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012. * ^ "Population by Age and Sex, by Settlements, 2011 Census: County of Zadar". _Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011_. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012. * ^ Frucht, Richard C. (2004). _Eastern Europe: An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture_. 1 (illustrated ed.). ABC-CLIO. p. 413. ISBN 1576078000 . Retrieved 15 August 2012. * ^ Wilkes, John (1995). _The Illyrians_. The Peoples of Europe. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 244. ISBN 0-631-19807-5 . * ^ Robert Stallaerts (22 December 2009). _Historical Dictionary of Croatia_. Scarecrow Press. pp. 89–. ISBN 978-0-8108-7363-6 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Mirošević, Lena; Faričić, Josip (2011). _Perception of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
in Selected Foreign Lexicographic Publications_. XVI. Geoadria. p. 124. ; Department of Geography, University of Zadar
Zadar
. * ^ Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, _Anali Zavoda za Povijesne Znanosti Hrvatske Akademije Znanosti i Umjetnosti u Dubrovniku_, p.405, Volume 38 * ^ _Encyclopædia Britannica_: Dalmatia * ^ Bousfield, Jonathan (2010). _The Rough Guide to Croatia_. Penguin. p. 263. ISBN 978-1-84836-936-8 . * ^ " Dalmatia
Dalmatia
on Enciclopedia Treccani". * ^ James, Ryan; Mastrini, Hana; Baker, Mark; Torme Olson, Karen; Charlton, Angela; Bain, Keith; de Bruyn, Pippa (2009). _Frommer\'s Eastern Europe_. John Wiley & Sons. p. 120. ISBN 0470473347 . * ^ Turnock, David (2003). _The Human Geography of East Central Europe_. Routledge. p. 318. ISBN 1134828004 . * ^ Heenan, Patrick; Lamontagne, Monique (1999). _The Central and Eastern Europe Handbook_. Taylor & Francis. p. 168. ISBN 1579580890 . * ^ "Gorilo u nekoliko dalmatinskih županija" . _Nacional _ (in Croatian). Zagreb. 2008. Archived from the original on 2014-05-31. Retrieved 2014-05-30. * ^ "Za 29 dalmatinskih malih kapitalnih projekata 14.389.000 kuna" . _Ministry of Regional Development and EU Funds_ (in Croatian). Republic of Croatia: Ministry of Regional Development and EU Funds. Retrieved 2014-05-30. * ^ _A_ _B_ Bousfield, Jonathan (2003). _The Rough Guide to Croatia_. Rough Guides. p. 293. ISBN 1843530848 . * ^ Seton-Watson, " Italy
Italy
from Liberalism to Fascism, 1870-1925". p. 107 * ^ Perselli, Guerrino. _I censimenti della popolazione dell'Istria, con Fiume e Trieste, e di alcune città della Dalmazia tra il 1850 ed il 1936_ * ^ Ostroški, Ljiljana, ed. (December 2015). "Geographical and Meteorological Data". _Statistički ljetopis Republike Hrvatske 2015_ (PDF). Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia
Croatia
(in Croatian and English). 47. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. p. 48. ISSN 1333-3305 . Retrieved 27 December 2015. * ^ "Vaganski vrh" (in Croatian). Croatian Mountaineering Association. Retrieved 14 August 2012. * ^ "Cyprus and Croatia
Croatia
top EU rankings for bathing water quality". European Commission. July 28, 2011. Archived from the original on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 2 December 2012. * ^ S.Čače, _Ime Dalmacije u 2. i 1. st. prije Krista_, Radovi Filozofskog fakulteta u Zadru, godište 40 za 2001. Zadar, 2003, pp. 29, 45. * ^ Charles George Herbermann, _The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference_ (1913) * ^ M.Zaninović, _Ilirsko pleme Delmati_, pp. 58, 83-84. * ^ A. Stipčević_, Iliri_, Školska knjiga Zagreb, 1974, p. 70 * ^ Curta Florin. _Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 500-1250_. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, 2006; ISBN 978-0-521-81539-0 () * ^ cit: _Hunc iste, postquam Dalmatae
Dalmatae
pacto hoc a Hungaria separati se non tulissent, revocatum contra Emericum armis vindicavit, ac Chelmensi Ducatu , ad mare sito, parteque Macedoniae auxit._ AD 1199. Luc. lib. IV. cap. III. Diplomata Belae IV. AD 1269. * ^ _Yugoslavia - Carol Greene - Google Livres_. Books.google.fr. Retrieved 28 May 2014. * ^ "Esclavonia, formerly called Dalmatia", according to the Spanish traveler Pedro Tafur, who sailed down the coast in 1436 (Pedro Tafur, _Andanças e viajes_). * ^ Nazor, Ante (February 2002). "Inhabitants of Poljica in the War of Morea (1684-1699)" (in Croatian). 21 (21). Croatian Institute of History. ISSN 0351-9767 . Retrieved 7 July 2012. * ^ Stenographische Protokolle über die Sitzungen des Hauses der Abgeordneten des österreichischen Reichsrates, Ausgaben 318-329, Seite 29187, Austria, Reichsrat, Abgeordnetenhaus, published 1905. * ^ Giuseppe Praga, Franco Luxardo. _History of Dalmatia_. Giardini, 1993. Pp. 281. * ^ _A_ _B_ Paul O'Brien. _Mussolini in the First World War: the Journalist, the Soldier, the Fascist_. Oxford, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: Berg, 2005. Pp. 17. * ^ A. Rossi. _The Rise of Italian Fascism: 1918-1922_. New York, New York, USA: Routledge, 2010. Pp. 47.

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikisourcehas the text of the 1913 Catholic

.