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Dallas, officially City
City
of Dallas, is within the 4th most populous metropolitan area in the United States.[8] Dallas
Dallas
is a modern metropolis city in the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Texas. The Dallas–Fort Worth metro area had the second largest population increase among metropolitan areas in the U.S., which recorded a population of 7,233,323 as of July 1, 2016, an increase of 807,000 people since the 2010 census.[9] Located in North Texas, Dallas
Dallas
is the main core of the largest metropolitan area in the South and the largest inland metropolitan area in the United States
United States
that lacks any navigable link to the sea.[10] Dallas
Dallas
and nearby Fort Worth
Fort Worth
were developed due to the construction of major railroad lines through the area allowing access to cotton, cattle, and later oil in North and East Texas. The construction of the Interstate Highway System
Interstate Highway System
reinforced Dallas's prominence as a transportation hub with four major interstate highways converging in the city, and a fifth interstate loop around it. Dallas developed as a strong industrial and financial center, and a major inland port, due to the convergence of major railroad lines, interstate highways, and the construction of Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, one of the largest and busiest airports in the world.[11] Dallas
Dallas
is one of the fastest-growing cities in the United States. From 2010 to 2016, Dallas
Dallas
recorded the highest net domestic migration in the country, in excess of 300,000.[12] The city's prominence arose from its historical importance as a strong center for commerce and its position along numerous railroad lines. Dallas
Dallas
today enjoys a thriving economy on the world scale. In 2016, 22 of the Fortune 500
Fortune 500
companies had top-level headquarters residing the Dallas– Fort Worth
Fort Worth
metroplex.[13] In 2016, 4 of the Global 500 companies had top-level headquarters residing in the Dallas
Dallas
area.[14] The bulk of the city is in Dallas
Dallas
County, of which it is the county seat; however, sections of the city are located in Collin, Denton, Kaufman, and Rockwall counties. According to the 2010 United States Census, the city had a population of 1,197,816. The United States Census Bureau's estimate for the city's population increased to 1,317,929 as of July 1, 2016.[15]

Contents

1 Civic Geography

1.1 Districts

2 History 3 Current Period (1996-present) 4 Topography 5 Culture

5.1 Arts and Museums

6 Places of Interest 7 Architecture 8 Infrastructure

8.1 Transportation

8.1.1 Highways 8.1.2 Metropolitan Light Rail Transit Systems 8.1.3 Industrial Freight Rail Systems 8.1.4 Downtown Trolley 8.1.5 Airports

8.2 Utilities 8.3 Health Care Systems & Medical Research 8.4 Dallas
Dallas
World Aquarium 8.5 Dallas
Dallas
Zoo

9 Recreation

9.1 Katy Trail 9.2 Parks

9.2.1 Klyde Warren Park 9.2.2 Fair Park 9.2.3 Turtle Creek Park 9.2.4 Lake Cliff Park 9.2.5 Reverchon Park

9.3 Trinity River Project 9.4 Preserves

10 Sports

10.1 Major league 10.2 Minor league 10.3 College

11 Economy 12 Education

12.1 Colleges and universities

12.1.1 Colleges and universities in the Dallas
Dallas
city limits 12.1.2 Colleges and universities in the Dallas- Fort Worth
Fort Worth
metropolitan area 12.1.3 University Research Center

12.2 Other area colleges and universities 12.3 Primary and secondary schools 12.4 Private schools 12.5 Libraries

13 Climate 14 Demographics 15 Government and politics

15.1 Government 15.2 Crime 15.3 Federal and state government 15.4 Politics

16 Media 17 Cuisine 18 Notable people 19 Sister cities 20 See also 21 Notes 22 References 23 Further reading 24 External links

Civic Geography[edit] Dallas
Dallas
is the county seat of Dallas
Dallas
County. Portions of the city extend into neighboring Collin, Denton, Kaufman, and Rockwall counties. According to the United States
United States
Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 385.8 square miles (999.3 km2), 340.5 square miles (881.9 km2) of it being land and 45.3 square miles (117.4 km2) of it (11.75%) water.[16] Dallas
Dallas
makes up one-fifth of the much larger urbanized area known as the Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex, in which one quarter of all Texans live. Downtown Dallas
Downtown Dallas
& Uptown Central Dallas
Dallas
is anchored by Downtown, the center of the city, along with Oak Lawn and Uptown, areas characterized by luxury retail, authentic restaurants, music, art exhibits, and nightlife. Downtown Dallas
Dallas
has a variety of named districts, including the West End Historic District, the Arts District, the Main Street District, Farmers Market District, the City
City
Center business district, the Convention Center District, and the Reunion District. "Hot spots" in this area include Uptown, Victory Park, Harwood, Oak Lawn, Dallas Design District, Trinity Groves, Turtle Creek, Cityplace, Knox/Henderson, Greenville and West Village. Luxury identity brands are seen in the area with names such as Rolex and Ritz-Carlton having a presence.

Skyline of Dallas
Dallas
from the Stemmons Corridor, just northwest of Downtown Dallas

McKinney Avenue trolley, with the I.M. Pei-designed Fountain Place
Fountain Place
in the background.

East Dallas East Dallas
East Dallas
is home to Deep Ellum, a trendy arts area close to Downtown, the homey Lakewood neighborhood (and adjacent areas, including Lakewood Heights, Wilshire Heights, Lower Greenville, Junius Heights, and Hollywood Heights/Santa Monica), historic Vickery Place and Bryan Place, and the architecturally significant neighborhoods of Swiss Avenue
Swiss Avenue
and Munger Place. Its historic district has one of the largest collections of Frank Lloyd Wright-inspired Prairie-style homes in the United States. In the northeast quadrant of the city is Lake Highlands, one of Dallas's most unified middle-class neighborhoods.[17]

Named after Dallas
Dallas
philanthropist, the Margaret Hunt Hill Bridge
Margaret Hunt Hill Bridge
spans the Trinity River.

South Dallas South Dallas, a distinct neighborhood of Downtown, lays claim to the Cedars, an eclectic artist hotbed, and Fair Park, home of the annual State Fair of Texas, held in late September and through mid-October.[18] Southwest of Downtown lies Oak Cliff, a hilly area that has undergone gentrification in recent years, in neighborhoods such as the Bishop Arts District.

View of Downtown Dallas

Dallas
Dallas
is surrounded by many suburbs; three enclaves are within the city boundaries—Cockrell Hill, Highland Park, and University Park

Dallas
Dallas
Arts District

Dallas Museum of Arts
Dallas Museum of Arts
at the lower left.

Districts[edit]

Bishop Arts District Casa Linda Casa View Cedar Springs (sub-district of Oak Lawn) Cedars, The Deep Ellum Design District Downtown Exposition Park Fair Park Highland Hills Kessler Park Knox-Henderson Lakewood Lake Highlands Lower Greenville "M" Streets Oak Cliff Oak Lawn Park Cities Pleasant Grove Preston Hollow Trinity Groves Turtle Creek Uptown Victory Park West End

History[edit] Main article: History of Dallas See also: Timeline of Dallas

Elm Street at night, January 1942

Preceded by thousands of years of varying cultures, the Caddo
Caddo
people inhabited the Dallas
Dallas
area before Spanish colonists claimed the territory of Texas
Texas
in the 18th century as a part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. Later, France
France
also claimed the area but never established much settlement. In 1819, the Adams-Onís Treaty
Adams-Onís Treaty
between the United States
United States
and Spain defined the Red River as the northern boundary of New Spain, officially placing the future location of Dallas
Dallas
well within Spanish territory.[19] The area remained under Spanish rule until 1821, when Mexico
Mexico
declared independence from Spain, and the area was considered part of the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas. In 1836, Texians, with a majority of Anglo-American settlers, gained independence from Mexico and formed the Republic of Texas.[20] In 1839, Warren Angus Ferris surveyed the area around present-day Dallas. John Neely Bryan
John Neely Bryan
established a permanent settlement near the Trinity River named Dallas
Dallas
in 1841. The origin of the name is uncertain. The general consensus is that the city was named after either Dallas, Scotland or after Sen. George Mifflin Dallas
George Mifflin Dallas
of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Other potential theories for the origin include his brother, Commodore Alexander James Dallas, as well as brothers Walter R. Dallas
Dallas
or James R. Dallas.[21] The Republic of Texas
Texas
was annexed by the United States
United States
in 1845 and Dallas
Dallas
County was established the following year. Dallas
Dallas
was formally incorporated as a city on February 2, 1856. With the construction of railroads, Dallas
Dallas
became a business and trading center and was booming by the end of the 19th century. It became an industrial city, attracting workers from Texas, the South, and the Midwest. The Praetorian Building
Praetorian Building
of 15 stories, built in 1909, was the first skyscraper west of the Mississippi and the tallest building in Texas
Texas
for some time. It marked the prominence of Dallas
Dallas
as a city. A racetrack for Thoroughbreds was built and their owners established the Dallas
Dallas
Jockey Club. Trotters raced at a track in Fort Worth, where a similar Drivers Club was based. The rapid expansion of population increased competition for jobs and housing. On November 22, 1963, President John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
was assassinated on Elm Street while his motorcade passed through Dealey Plaza
Dealey Plaza
in downtown Dallas. The upper two floors of the building from which alleged assassin Lee Harvey Oswald
Lee Harvey Oswald
shot Kennedy, the Texas
Texas
School Book Depository, have been converted into a historical museum covering the former president's life and accomplishments. 1970 to Present Dallas
Dallas
has seen rapid growth in population, economic development, and cultural arts.[22][23] Current Period (1996-present)[edit] In the late 1990s, the booming telecom industry exploded in Dallas, especially in areas like Las Colinas
Las Colinas
and the Telecom Corridor. During this time, Dallas
Dallas
became known as Texas's Silicon Valley, or the "Silicon Prairie".[24] In 2005, three towers began construction amid tens of residential conversions and smaller residential projects. Uptown is recognized as "one of the hottest real estate markets in the country". At the beginning of 2006, nine high-rise residential buildings or hotels were under construction in that area. Leading the way is the $500M phase two of Victory Park, a $3B+ project. At full build-out, it should contain more than 4,000 residences and 4M ft² of office and retail space. The Arts District in downtown is also expected to become a major point of growth. As the Dallas Center for the Performing Arts
Dallas Center for the Performing Arts
Foundation implements construction on several new projects in its master plan for the area. When the new Winspear Opera House
Winspear Opera House
(Foster and Partners) and Wyly Theatre (Office for Metropolitan Architecture - Rem Koolhaas) join the existing Nasher Sculpture Center
Nasher Sculpture Center
(Renzo Piano) and Meyerson Symphony Center ( I.M. Pei
I.M. Pei
and Partners), Dallas
Dallas
will be the only city in the world that has four buildings within one contiguous block that are all designed by Pritzker Architecture Prize
Pritzker Architecture Prize
winners. In Terms of Growth Four of the five fastest growing large cities in the U.S. are in Texas, according to the U.S. Census Bureau.[25] "MARCH 22, 2018 — The Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington metropolitan area’s 146,000-population increase last year was the most of any metro area"...“Historically, the Dallas
Dallas
metro area attracts large numbers from both international and domestic migration. Many of the other largest metro areas in the country rely mostly on international migration and natural increase for growth,” said Molly Cromwell, a demographer at the Census Bureau. [26] Topography[edit] Main article: Geology of the Dallas– Fort Worth
Fort Worth
Metroplex Dallas
Dallas
and its surrounding area are mostly flat; the city itself lies at elevations ranging from 450 to 550 feet (137 to 168 m). The western edge of the Austin Chalk Formation, a limestone escarpment (also known as the "White Rock Escarpment"), rises 230 feet (70 m) and runs roughly north-south through Dallas
Dallas
County. South of the Trinity River, the uplift is particularly noticeable in the neighborhoods of Oak Cliff
Oak Cliff
and the adjacent cities of Cockrell Hill, Cedar Hill, Grand Prairie, and Irving. Marked variations in terrain are also found in cities immediately to the west in Tarrant County surrounding Fort Worth, as well as along Turtle Creek north of Downtown. Dallas, like many other cities, was founded along a river. The city was founded at the location of a "white rock crossing" of the Trinity River, where it was easier for wagons to cross the river in the days before ferries or bridges. The Trinity River, though not usefully navigable, is the major waterway through the city. Its path through Dallas
Dallas
is paralleled by Interstate 35E along the Stemmons Corridor, then south alongside the western portion of Downtown and past south Dallas
Dallas
and Pleasant Grove, where the river is paralleled by Interstate 45 until it exits the city and heads southeast towards Houston. The river is flanked on both sides by 50 feet (15 m) tall earthen levees to protect the city from frequent floods.[27] Since it was rerouted in the late 1920s, the river has been little more than a drainage ditch within a floodplain for several miles above and below downtown Dallas, with a more normal course further upstream and downstream, but as Dallas
Dallas
began shifting towards postindustrial society, public outcry about the lack of aesthetic and recreational use of the river ultimately gave way to the Trinity River Project,[28] which was begun in the early 2000s and was scheduled to be completed in the 2010s. If the project materializes fully, it promises improvements to the riverfront in the form of man-made lakes, new park facilities and trails, and transportation upgrades.

Dallas
Dallas
Arboretum

The project area will reach for over 20 miles (32 km) in length within the city, while the overall geographical land area addressed by the Land Use Plan is approximately 44,000 acres (180 km2) in size—about 20% of the land area in Dallas. Green space along the river will encompass approximately 10,000 acres (40 km2), making it one of the largest and diverse urban parks in the world.[29] White Rock Lake, a reservoir constructed at the beginning of the 20th century, is Dallas's other significant water feature. The lake and surrounding park is a popular destination for boaters, rowers, joggers, and bikers, as well as visitors seeking peaceful respite from the city at the 66-acre (267,000 m2) Dallas Arboretum
Dallas Arboretum
and Botanical Garden, located on the lake's eastern shore. White Rock Creek feeds into White Rock Lake, and then exits on to the Trinity River southeast of downtown Dallas. Trails along White Rock Creek
White Rock Creek
are part of the extensive Dallas
Dallas
County Trails System. Bachman Lake, just northwest of Love Field Airport, is a smaller lake also popularly used for recreation. Northeast of the city is Lake Ray Hubbard, a vast 22,745-acre (92 km2) reservoir located in an extension of Dallas
Dallas
surrounded by the suburbs of Garland, Rowlett, Rockwall, and Sunnyvale.[30] To the west of the city is Mountain Creek Lake, once home to the Naval Air Station Dallas
Naval Air Station Dallas
(Hensley Field) and a number of defense aircraft manufacturers.[31] North Lake, a small body of water in an extension of the city limits surrounded by Irving and Coppell, initially served as a water source for a nearby power plant but is now being targeted for redevelopment as a recreational lake due to its proximity to Dallas- Fort Worth
Fort Worth
International Airport, a plan that the lake's neighboring cities oppose.[32]

White Rock Lake

Culture[edit]

Stone Street Gardens is lined with bistros, pubs and restaurants connecting Main to Elm Streets in Downtown Dallas

Main article: Culture of Dallas Arts and Museums[edit]

The Winspear Opera House
Winspear Opera House
and the Meyerson Symphony Center
Meyerson Symphony Center
in the Downtown Dallas
Downtown Dallas
Arts District

Composit image of the Perot Museum of Nature and Science
Perot Museum of Nature and Science
in downtown Dallas

The Arts District in the northern section of Downtown is home to several arts venues and is the largest contiguous arts district in the United States.[33] Notable venues in the district include the Dallas Museum of Art, the Morton H. Meyerson Symphony Center
Meyerson Symphony Center
home to the Dallas Symphony Orchestra
Dallas Symphony Orchestra
and Dallas
Dallas
Wind Symphony, The Trammell & Margaret Crow Collection of Asian Art, and the Nasher Sculpture Center. The Perot Museum of Nature and Science, also located downtown, is a natural history and science museum. Designed by 2005 Pritzker Architecture Prize Laureate Thom Mayne
Thom Mayne
and his firm Morphosis Architects, the 180,000 square feet facility has six floors and stands about 14 stories high. Venues that are part of the AT&T Dallas
Dallas
Center for the Performing Arts[34][35] include the Winspear Opera House
Winspear Opera House
home to the Dallas
Dallas
Opera and Texas
Texas
Ballet Theater, the Dee and Charles Wyly Theatre
Dee and Charles Wyly Theatre
home to the Dallas Theater Center and the Dallas
Dallas
Black Dance Theater, and City Performance Hall. Also, not far north of downtown is the Meadows Museum
Meadows Museum
at Southern Methodist University. In 2009 it joined up with "Prado on the Prairie" for a three-year partnership. The Prado focuses on Spanish visual art and has a collection of Spanish art in North America, with works by Picasso, Goya, Velasquez, El Greco, Murillo, Zurbaran, Ribera, Fortuny, Rico, de Juanes, Plensa and other Spaniards. These works, as well as non-Spanish highlights like sculptures by Rodin and Moore, have been so successful of a collaboration that the Prado and Meadows have agreed upon an extension of the partnership.[36] The former Texas
Texas
School Book Depository, from which, according to the Warren Commission
Warren Commission
Report, Lee Harvey Oswald
Lee Harvey Oswald
shot and killed President John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
in 1963, has served since the 1980s as a county government office building, except for its sixth and seventh floors, which house The Sixth Floor Museum. The American Museum of the Miniature Arts is located at the Hall of State in Fair Park. The Arts District is also home to DISD's Booker T. Washington High School for the Performing and Visual Arts, a magnet school which was recently expanded.[37] City
City
Center District, next to the Arts District is home to the Dallas Contemporary. Deep Ellum, immediately east of Downtown, originally became popular during the 1920s and 1930s as the prime jazz and blues hot spot in the South.[38] Artists such as Blind Lemon Jefferson, Robert Johnson, Huddie "Lead Belly" Ledbetter and Bessie Smith
Bessie Smith
played in original Deep Ellum clubs such as the Harlem and the Palace. Today, Deep Ellum
Deep Ellum
is home to hundreds of artists who live in lofts and operate in studios throughout the district alongside bars, pubs, and concert venues.[39] A major art infusion in the area results from the city's lax stance on graffiti, and a number of public spaces including tunnels, sides of buildings, sidewalks, and streets are covered in murals. One major example, the Good-Latimer tunnel, was torn down in late 2006 to accommodate the construction of a light rail line through the site.[40] Like Deep Ellum
Deep Ellum
before it, the Cedars neighborhood to the south of Downtown has also seen a growing population of studio artists and an expanding roster of entertainment venues. The area's art scene began to grow in the early 2000s with the opening of Southside on Lamar, an old Sears Roebuck and Company warehouse converted into lofts, studios, and retail. Within this building, Southside on Lamar
Southside on Lamar
hosts the Janette Kennedy Gallery with rotating gallery exhibitions featuring many local, national, and international artists.[41] Current attractions include Gilley's Dallas
Dallas
and Poor David's Pub.[42][43] Dallas
Dallas
Mavericks owner and local entrepreneur Mark Cuban
Mark Cuban
purchased land along Lamar Avenue near Cedars Station
Cedars Station
in September 2005, and locals speculate that he is planning an entertainment complex for the site.[44] South of the Trinity River, the Bishop Arts District
Bishop Arts District
in Oak Cliff
Oak Cliff
is home to a number of studio artists living in converted warehouses. Walls of buildings along alleyways and streets are painted with murals and the surrounding streets contain many eclectic restaurants and shops.[45] Dallas
Dallas
has an Office of Cultural Affairs as a department of the city government. The office is responsible for six cultural centers located throughout the city, funding for local artists and theaters, initiating public art projects, and running the city-owned classical radio station WRR.[46] The Los Angeles-class submarine
Los Angeles-class submarine
USS Dallas (SSN-700) will become a museum ship located near the Trinity River after her decommissioning in September 2014. She will be taken apart into massive sections in Houston
Houston
and be transported by trucks to the museum site and will be put back together.

Places of Interest[edit]

Adolphus Hotel African American
African American
Museum (Dallas) American Airlines
American Airlines
Center Arts District, Dallas AT&T Performing Arts Center Bishop Arts District Cedars, Dallas Cotton Bowl Dallas Arboretum
Dallas Arboretum
and Botanical Garden Dallas
Dallas
Baptist
Baptist
University Dallas
Dallas
Hilton, world's first modern Hilton Dallas
Dallas
Holocaust Museum/Center for Education & Tolerance Dallas
Dallas
Municipal Building Dallas
Dallas
Museum of Art Dallas
Dallas
World Aquarium Dallas
Dallas
Zoo Dealey Plaza Dee and Charles Wyly Theatre Design District, Dallas Fair Park Farmers Market, Dallas Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas Frontiers of Flight Museum Galleria Dallas George W. Bush
George W. Bush
Presidential Center Highland Park Village John Fitzgerald Kennedy Memorial Kalita Humphreys Theater, designed by Frank Lloyd Wright Katy Trail (Dallas) Kirby Building Klyde Warren Park Majestic Theatre Margaret Hunt Hill Bridge Meadows Museum Morton H. Meyerson Symphony Center Munger Place
Munger Place
Historic District, Dallas Museum of Biblical Art (Dallas) The Nasher Sculpture Center Neiman Marcus
Neiman Marcus
Building NorthPark Center Pioneer Plaza Perot Museum of Nature and Science Reunion Tower Ronald Kirk Bridge Sixth Floor Museum at Dealey Plaza South Boulevard-Park Row Historic District Southern Methodist University Southfork Ranch
Southfork Ranch
as seen on Dallas (1978 TV series)
Dallas (1978 TV series)
and Dallas
Dallas
(2012 TV series) Swiss Avenue, Dallas
Swiss Avenue, Dallas
historical district Texas
Texas
School Book Depository Texas
Texas
Theatre Thanks-Giving Square Trammell & Margaret Crow Collection of Asian Art Trinity River Audubon Center Victory Park White Rock Lake Zero Gravity Amusement Park

Architecture[edit] See also: List of Dallas Landmarks
List of Dallas Landmarks
and List of tallest buildings in Dallas

Dallas's skyline from Reunion Tower

Dallas's skyline contains several buildings over 700 feet (210 m) in height. Although some of Dallas's architecture dates from the late 19th and early 20th centuries, most of the notable architecture in the city is from the modernist and postmodernist eras. Iconic examples of modernist architecture include Reunion Tower, the JFK Memorial, I. M. Pei's Dallas
Dallas
City
City
Hall and Morton H. Meyerson Symphony Center. Good examples of postmodernist skyscrapers are Fountain Place, Bank of America Plaza, Renaissance Tower, JPMorgan Chase Tower, and Comerica Bank Tower. Several smaller structures are fashioned in the Gothic Revival style, such as the Kirby Building, and the neoclassical style, as seen in the Davis and Wilson Buildings. One architectural "hotbed" in the city is a stretch of historic houses along Swiss Avenue, which contains all shades and variants of architecture from Victorian to neoclassical.[47] The Dallas Downtown Historic District
Dallas Downtown Historic District
protects a cross-section of Dallas
Dallas
commercial architecture from the 1880s to the 1940s. Infrastructure[edit] Transportation[edit] Main article: Transportation in Dallas Like many other major cities in the United States, the primary mode of local transportation in Dallas
Dallas
is the automobile, though efforts have been made to increase the availability of alternative modes of transportation, including the construction of light rail lines, biking and walking paths, wide sidewalks, a trolley system, and buses.Walk Score ranked Dallas
Dallas
the twenty-third most walkable of fifty largest cities in the United States.[48] In 2009, 78.5% of Dallas
Dallas
(city) commuters drive to work alone. The 2009 mode share for Dallas
Dallas
(city) commuters are 10.7% for carpooling, 3.9% for transit, 1.9% for walking, and .1% for cycling.[49] In 2015, the American Community Survey
American Community Survey
estimated modal shares for Dallas
Dallas
(city) commuters of 75.4% for driving alone, 12.8% for carpooling, 3.5% for riding transit, 1.9% for walking, and .2% for cycling.[50] Highways[edit]

The Central Expressway and I-635 interchange, commonly known as the High Five Interchange.

Dallas
Dallas
is at the confluence of four major interstate highways—Interstates 20, 30, 35E, and 45. The Dallas
Dallas
area freeway system is set up in the popular hub-and-spoke system, shaped much like a wagon wheel. Starting from the center of the city, a small freeway loop surrounds Downtown, followed by the Interstate 635 loop about 10 miles (16 km) outside Downtown, and ultimately the tolled President George Bush Turnpike. Inside these freeway loops are other boulevard- and parkway-style loops, including Loop 12 and Belt Line Road. Another beltway around the city upwards of 45 miles (72 km) from Downtown is under plan in Collin County. Radiating out of Downtown Dallas's freeway loop are the spokes of the area's highway system—Interstates 30, 35E, and 45, U.S. Highway 75, U.S. Highway 175, State Spur 366, the Dallas
Dallas
North Tollway, State Highway 114, U.S. Highway 80, and U.S. Highway 67. Other major highways around the city include State Highway 183 and State Spur 408. The recently completed interchange at the intersection of Lyndon B. Johnson Freeway (Interstate 635) and Central Expressway (U.S. Highway 75) contains 5 stacks and is aptly called the High Five Interchange. It is currently one of the few 5-level interchanges in Dallas
Dallas
and is one of the largest freeway interchanges in the United States. The following is a list of the freeways and tollways in the Dallas/Ft. Worth area:

Interstate 20 Interstate 30 Interstate 35E Interstate 35W Interstate 45 Interstate 635 Interstate 820 U.S. Highway 67 U.S. Highway 75 U.S. Highway 80 U.S. Highway 175 U.S. Highway 287 State Highway 114 State Highway 121 State Highway 161 State Highway 183 State Highway 190 State Highway 360 Loop 12 Spur 366 Spur 408 Spur 482 Dallas
Dallas
North Tollway President George Bush Turnpike Sam Rayburn Tollway

Metropolitan Light Rail Transit Systems[edit]

A northbound train at the Mockingbird Station

On December 3, 2012 the Dallas
Dallas
/ Ft Worth Metropolitan area
Metropolitan area
became the largest metropolitan light rail transit system in the country with Dallas Area Rapid Transit
Dallas Area Rapid Transit
(DART) opening greater service. "DART opened two more rail segments on Dec. 3, extending the Blue Line to Rowlett and the Orange Line farther into Irving and closer to DFW International Airport. DART has built more than 40 miles of track in the last three years, greatly enhancing transit accessibility throughout the Dallas
Dallas
area. At 85 miles, DART Rail is the largest electric light rail system in the nation."[51] DART is the Dallas-area public transportation authority, providing rail, buses and HOV
HOV
lanes to commuters. DART began operating the first light rail system in Texas
Texas
in 1996 and is now the largest operator of light rail in the US.[52] Today, the system is the seventh-busiest light rail system in the country with approximately 55 stations on 72 miles of light rail, and 10 stations on 35 miles of commuter rail.[53] Four light rail lines and a commuter line are currently in service: the Red Line, the Blue Line, the Green Line, the Orange Line (peak-service only), and the Trinity Railway Express. The Red Line travels through Oak Cliff, South Dallas, Downtown, Uptown, North Dallas, Richardson and Plano, while the Blue Line goes through Oak Cliff, Downtown, Uptown, East Dallas, Lake Highlands, and Garland. The Red and Blue lines are conjoined between 8th & Corinth Station in Oak Cliff
Oak Cliff
through Mockingbird Station
Mockingbird Station
in North Dallas. The two lines service Cityplace Station, the only subway station in the Southwest. The Green Line serves Carrollton, Farmers Branch, Love Field Airport, Stemmons Corridor, Victory Park, Downtown, Deep Ellum, Fair Park, South Dallas, and Pleasant Grove.

DART train in Downtown.

The Orange Line initially operated as a peak-service line providing extra capacity on portions of the Green and Red Lines (Bachman Station on the Green Line, through the Downtown transit mall, to Parker Road Station on the Red Line making a "U"-shape). However, the first stage of the Orange Line opened on December 6, 2010, extending its west end from Bachman to Belt Line Station
Belt Line Station
in Irving. The second and final phase opened in August 2014 and provided DFW Airport
DFW Airport
with rail service. DFW Airport
DFW Airport
Station is the terminus for the Orange Line and connects Skylink.[54] This provides passengers the convenience of disembarking the DART rail, proceeding to security check-in and immediately boarding Skylink to be quickly transported to their desired terminal. The Blue Line has also been extended by 4.5 miles to serve Rowlett at the Rowlett Park & Ride facility.[55] In addition to light rail, Amtrak's Texas
Texas
Eagle also serves Union Station, providing long-distance train service to Chicago, San Antonio and Los Angeles once daily. The Trinity Rail Express terminates at Union Station and T&P Station. Industrial Freight Rail Systems[edit] The city's prominence arose from its historical importance as a strong center for commerce and its position along numerous railroad lines. Dallas
Dallas
continues to be a strong center for commerce with long established railroad presence in the country.[56][57] Downtown Trolley[edit] In August 2009, the Regional Transportation Council agreed to seek $96 million in federal stimulus dollars for a trolley project in Dallas and Fort Worth. The Oak Cliff
Oak Cliff
Transit Authority took the lead with leaders envisioning a streetcar line that would link Union Station and the Dallas Convention Center
Dallas Convention Center
in downtown to Oak Cliff, Methodist Medical Center, and the Bishop Arts District
Bishop Arts District
via the Houston
Houston
Street Viaduct.[58] Dallas
Dallas
was awarded a $23 million TIGER grant towards the $58 million Dallas
Dallas
Streetcar Project in February 2010.[59] The Dallas
Dallas
Streetcar Project will link up with the current McKinney Avenue Transit Authority (MATA) trolley line (also known as the M-Line) in Uptown with a new alignment on Olive Street. Airports[edit]

In 2015, the DFW International Airport was the 10th busiest airport in the world by passenger traffic.

Dallas
Dallas
is served by two commercial airports: Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) and Dallas Love Field
Dallas Love Field
(DAL). In terms of size, DFW is the largest airport in the state, the 2nd largest in the United States, and 9th largest in the world; DFW International Airport is larger than the island of Manhattan. In terms of traffic, DFW is the busiest airport in the state, 4th busiest in the United States, and 11th busiest in the world. The headquarters of American Airlines, the largest air carrier in the world ahead of United Airlines
United Airlines
and Delta Air Lines, is located less than a mile from DFW within the city limits of Fort Worth. Similarly, Love Field is located within the city limits of Dallas
Dallas
about 6 miles (10 km) northwest of Downtown, and is headquarters to Southwest Airlines, the largest domestic airline in the United States. DFW International Airport is located in the suburbs slightly north of and equidistant to Downtown Fort Worth
Fort Worth
and Downtown Dallas. Executive & Private Airports Dallas Executive Airport
Dallas Executive Airport
serves as a general aviation airport for the city. Addison Airport
Addison Airport
functions similarly just outside the city limits in the suburb of Addison. Two more general aviation airports are located about 35 miles (56 km) north of Dallas
Dallas
in McKinney, and another two are located in Fort Worth, on the west side of the Metroplex. Also, in far North Fort Worth
Fort Worth
is Alliance Airport, a cargo reliever airport to DFW, as well as a general aviation facility. Utilities[edit] Dallas
Dallas
is served by Dallas
Dallas
Water Utilities, which operates several waste treatment plants and pulls water from several area reservoirs.[60] The city's electric system is maintained by several companies, including Stream Energy, Cirro Energy and Oncor Electric Delivery,[61] whose parent company, Energy Future Holdings Corporation, has headquarters in the city.[62] The city offers garbage pickup and recycling service weekly through its Sanitation Services department.[63] Telephone networks, broadband internet, and cable television service are available from several companies, including AT&T, Time Warner Cable, and Verizon FiOS. Health Care Systems & Medical Research[edit]

Panorama of the Dallas
Dallas
Medical District with UT Southwestern Medical Center

Dallas
Dallas
has many hospitals and a number of medical research facilities within its city limits. One major research center is the Dallas Medical District with the UT Southwestern Medical Center
UT Southwestern Medical Center
in the Stemmons Corridor, along with the affiliated UT Southwestern Medical School. The healthcare complex includes within its bounds Parkland Memorial Hospital, Children's Medical Center, William P. Clements University Hospital (formerly St. Paul University Hospital), and the Zale Lipshy University Hospital. Dallas
Dallas
also has a VA hospital in the southern portion of the city, the Dallas
Dallas
Veterans Affairs Medical Center. The center is home to a Consolidated Mail Outpatient Pharmacy (CMOP), part of an initiative by the Department of Veterans Affairs to provide mail-order prescriptions to veterans using computerization at strategic locations throughout the United States. Other hospitals in the city include Baylor University Medical Center in East Dallas, Methodist Dallas
Dallas
Medical Center in Oak Cliff, Methodist Charlton Medical Center near Duncanville, Medical City Dallas
Dallas
Hospital and Presbyterian Hospital in North Dallas, and the Texas
Texas
Scottish Rite Hospital for Children in Oak Lawn.

Dallas
Dallas
World Aquarium[edit] The Dallas World Aquarium
Dallas World Aquarium
is the premier aquarium of Dallas, Texas located in the West End Historic District. It's also a metropolitan zoo for the City
City
of Dallas. It aids conservation and education by housing many animals that are threatened or endangered as part of a cooperative breeding program with other zoos around the world. It has been an accredited member of the Association of Zoos and Aquariums since 1997, and is a member of the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums.[64]

Three-toed sloth
Three-toed sloth
in the Dallas
Dallas
World Aquarium

The upper level of the aquarium is an artificial reproduction of the Orinoco
Orinoco
Rainforest. The rainforest is an aviary, with birds such as scarlet ibis and toucans flying freely. While winding their way through the rainforest, visitors see the only public display of three-toed sloths and Antillean manatees in the United States, plus animals such as electric eels, caecilians, tamarins, poison dart frogs, Orinoco
Orinoco
crocodiles, and vampire bats. The lower level houses aquaria featuring fish, sea anemones, coral, jellyfish, and other sea animals from around the world. The 10 main tanks feature the aquatic life of Japan, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, British Columbia, the Bahamas, Fiji, Palau, Southern Australia, Lord Howe Island, and the Solomon Islands. Other tanks on display include a large tank with a 40-foot (12 m) tunnel where visitors can observe fish of the continental shelf swimming around them.[65] Dallas
Dallas
Zoo[edit] The city is also home to Texas's first and largest zoo, the 95 acres (0.38 km2) Dallas
Dallas
Zoo, which opened at its current location in 1888.[66] In 2015, the zoo achieved an all-time annual attendance record of 1,000,000+ visitors. The Dallas
Dallas
Zoological Society is supported by over 25,510 membership households and growing.[67] [68] The DZS manages all fundraising, membership, special events, food services, retail operation, volunteer programs, marketing, and public relations for the zoo under management contract with the City
City
of Dallas.[69]

Recreation[edit] The City
City
of Dallas
Dallas
is known for its outdoorsy culture and live music. Many of the residents actively run and cycle year-round enjoying the city lights and sunny days. Golf is a hot topic in Dallas, notably Stevens Park Golf Course with the iconic Metropolis skyline view from the course. Also a hot topic with golf enthusiast is the 2018 announcement of PGA relocating to the Dallas
Dallas
area. [70] [71] Bass fishing is very prevalent in the greater Dallas
Dallas
area with North Texas hosting many fresh water lakes and an abundance of boat access for North Texas
Texas
residents. Katy Trail[edit] The premier trail of Dallas
Dallas
stretching from Victory Park, the 30-acre Katy Trail passes through the Turtle Creek and Knox Park neighborhoods and runs along the east side of Highland Park. The trail currently goes to Central Expressway, however, extensions are underway to extend the trail to the White Rock Lake
White Rock Lake
Trail in Lakewood.[72] In 2015, the Katy Trail was awarded "Best Public Place" from the Urban Land Institute.[73] Parks[edit] Dallas
Dallas
maintains and operates 406 parks on 21,000 acres (85 km2) of parkland. The city's parks contain 17 separate lakes, including White Rock and Bachman lakes, spanning a total of 4,400 acres (17.81 km2). In addition, Dallas
Dallas
is traversed by 61.6 miles (99.1 km) of biking and jogging trails, including the Katy Trail, and is home to 47 community and neighborhood recreation centers, 276 sports fields, 60 swimming pools, 232 playgrounds, 173 basketball courts, 112 volleyball courts, 126 play slabs, 258 neighborhood tennis courts, 258 picnic areas, six 18-hole golf courses, two driving ranges, and 477 athletic fields.[74] Klyde Warren Park[edit]

Klyde Warren Park

Dallas's flagship park is Klyde Warren Park. Named after Klyde Warren, the young son of billionaire Kelcy Warren, Klyde Warren Park
Klyde Warren Park
was built above Woodall Rodgers Freeway and connects Uptown and Downtown, specifically the Arts District. Klyde Warren Park
Klyde Warren Park
is home to countless amenities including: an amphitheater, jogging trails, children's park, My Best Friend's Park (dog park), a putting green, croquet, ping pong, chess, an outdoor library, and two restaurants: Savor and Relish. Food trucks give hungry people another option of dining and are lined along the park's downtown side. There are also weekly planned events including yoga, Zumba, skyline tours, Tai Chi, and meditation.[75] Klyde Warren Park
Klyde Warren Park
is home to a free trolley stop on Olive St., which riders can connect to Downtown, McKinney Avenue, and West Village. Fair Park[edit] Built in 1936 for the Worlds Fair and the Texas
Texas
Centennial Exposition, Fair Park
Fair Park
is the world's largest collection of Art Deco
Art Deco
exhibit buildings, art, and sculptures; Fair Park
Fair Park
is also home to the State Fair of Texas, the largest state fair in the United States. Turtle Creek Park[edit] Built in 1913, Turtle Creek Park is a 23.7 acre linear park[76] in-between Turtle Creek and Turtle Creek Boulevard
Boulevard
in the aptly named Turtle Creek neighborhood. Archaeological surveys discovered dart points and flint chips dating 3,000 years to 1,000 B.C. This site was later discovered to be home to Native Americans who cherished the trees and natural spring water. The park is across Turtle Creek from Kalita Humphreys Theater, designed by Frank Lloyd Wright. Lake Cliff Park[edit] Opened on July 4, 1906, Lake Cliff Park was called "the Southwest's Greatest Playground". The park was home to an amusement park, a large pool, waterslides, the world's largest skating rink, and three theaters, the largest being the 2,500-seat Casino Theater. After the streetcar bridge which brought most of the park visitors collapsed, Lake Cliff Park was sold. The Casino Theater moved and the pool was demolished after a polio scare in 1959. The pool was Dallas's first municipal pool.[72] Reverchon Park[edit] In 1935, Dallas
Dallas
purchased 36 acres (15 ha) from John Cole's estate to develop Reverchon Park.[77] Reverchon Park
Reverchon Park
was named after botanist Julien Reverchon, who left France
France
to live in the La Reunion colony in present-day West Dallas. Reverchon Park
Reverchon Park
was planned to be the crown jewel of the Dallas
Dallas
park system and was even referred to as the "Central Park" of Dallas. Improvements were made throughout the years including the Iris Bowl, picnic settings, a baseball diamond, and tennis courts. The Iris Bowl celebrated many Greek pageants, dances, and other performances. The Gill Well was installed for nearby residents and drew people all across Texas
Texas
who wanted to experience the water's healing powers.[78] The baseball diamond was host to a 1953 exhibition game for the New York Giants and the Cleveland Indians.[79] Trinity River Project[edit] As part of the ongoing Trinity River Project, the Great Trinity Forest, at 6,000 acres (24 km2), is the largest urban hardwood forest in the United States
United States
and is part of the largest urban park in the United States.[80] The Trinity River Audubon Center
Trinity River Audubon Center
is a new addition to the park. Opened in 2008, it serves as a gateway to many trails and other nature viewing activities in the area. The Trinity River Audubon Center is the first LEED-certified building constructed by the City
City
of Dallas
Dallas
Parks and Recreation Department. Preserves[edit] Dallas
Dallas
also hosts three of the twenty-one preserves of the extensive (3,200 acres (13 km2)) Dallas
Dallas
County Preserve System. Both the Joppa Preserve, the McCommas Bluff Preserve the Cedar Ridge Preserve are all within the Dallas
Dallas
city limits. The Cedar Ridge Preserve was formerly known as the Dallas
Dallas
Nature Center, but management was turned over to Audubon Dallas
Dallas
group, which now manages the 633-acre (2.56 km2) natural habitat park on behalf of the city of Dallas and Dallas
Dallas
County. The preserve sits at an elevation of 755 feet (230 m) above sea level, and contains a variety of outdoor activities, including 10 miles (16 km) of hiking trails and picnic areas. Sports[edit] Main article: Sports in Dallas See also: U.S. cities with teams from four major sports The Dallas- Fort Worth
Fort Worth
metropolitan area is home to six major league sports teams: the Dallas Cowboys
Dallas Cowboys
(National Football League), Dallas Mavericks (National Basketball Association), Texas
Texas
Rangers (Major League Baseball), Dallas Stars
Dallas Stars
(National Hockey League), FC Dallas (Major League Soccer), and Dallas Wings
Dallas Wings
(Women's National Basketball Association)

Dallas
Dallas
area major league sports teams

Club League Sport Venue (capacity) Attendance Founded Championships

Dallas
Dallas
Cowboys NFL Football AT&T Stadium (80,000) 91,459[81] 1960 5 Super Bowls
Super Bowls
(1971, 1977, 1992, 1993, 1995)

Texas
Texas
Rangers MLB Baseball Globe Life Park (48,100) 30,763[82] 1972[83] –

Dallas
Dallas
Mavericks NBA Basketball American Airlines Center
American Airlines Center
(19,200) 20,143[84] 1980 1 NBA title (2011)

Dallas
Dallas
Stars NHL Hockey American Airlines Center
American Airlines Center
(18,500) 18,376[85] 1993[86] 1 Stanley Cup
Stanley Cup
(1999)

FC Dallas MLS Soccer Toyota Stadium (20,500) 16,816 1995 2 U.S. Open Cups (1997, 2016)

Dallas
Dallas
Wings WNBA Basketball College Park Center
College Park Center
(7,000) ---- 2015[87]

Dallas
Dallas
Rattlers MLL Lacrosse The Ford Center at the Star (12,000) ---- 2018 The Rattlers are originally based in Rochester, New York
Rochester, New York
from 2001 to 2008 and 2011 to 2017. The MLL announced the team relocation to Frisco, Texas
Texas
in November 2017.

Major league[edit] The Dallas Cowboys
Dallas Cowboys
of the National Football League
National Football League
play in nearby Arlington, Texas. Since joining the league as an expansion team in 1960, the Cowboys have enjoyed substantial success, advancing to eight Super Bowls
Super Bowls
and winning five; according to profootballreference.com, as of the end of the 2009 season, they were the winningest active NFL franchise (based on winning percentage; other teams have more wins). Noted as "America's Team", the Cowboys are financially the most valuable sports franchise in the world, worth approximately 4 billion dollars.[88] In 2009, the Cowboys relocated to their new 80,000-seat stadium in Arlington, which was the site of Super Bowl XLV.[89] The Texas
Texas
Rangers of Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball
play at Globe Life Park in Arlington.[90][91] The Rangers won the American League pennant in 2010 and 2011. Currently the team is managed by Jeff Banister.[92]

Dirk Nowitzki
Dirk Nowitzki
with the Mavericks

The Dallas Mavericks
Dallas Mavericks
play at the American Airlines
American Airlines
Center. They won their first National Basketball Association
National Basketball Association
championship in 2011 led by Dirk Nowitzki. The Dallas Wings
Dallas Wings
is the first Women's National Basketball Association franchise in the metroplex. All home games are played at the College Park Center.

Dallas
Dallas
Stars

FC Dallas
FC Dallas
of Major League Soccer
Major League Soccer
play in Frisco at Toyota Stadium (formerly FC Dallas
FC Dallas
Stadium and Pizza Hut Park), a stadium that opened in 2005.[93] The team was originally called the Dallas
Dallas
Burn and used to play in the Cotton Bowl. Although FC Dallas
FC Dallas
has not yet won a MLS Cup, they won the Lamar Hunt U.S. Open Cup
Lamar Hunt U.S. Open Cup
in 1997 and 2016. Previously, the Dallas Tornado
Dallas Tornado
played the North American Soccer League from 1968 to 1981. The Dallas Stars
Dallas Stars
are members of the National Hockey League
National Hockey League
(NHL). The Stars have won eight division titles in Dallas, two President's Trophies as the top regular season team in the NHL, the Western Conference championship twice, and in 1998–99, the Stanley Cup. The team plays at the American Airlines
American Airlines
Center. The Dallas Rattlers
Dallas Rattlers
are members of Major League Lacrosse
Major League Lacrosse
and became the first professional lacrosse team in the state of Texas
Texas
in November 2017 when the league announced its Rochester, New York
Rochester, New York
franchise was relocating. The Rattlers play at The Ford Center at The Star in Frisco.[94] Minor league[edit] The Dallas Sidekicks (2012)
Dallas Sidekicks (2012)
are an American professional indoor soccer team based in Allen, Texas, a suburb of Dallas. They play their home games in the Allen Event Center. The team is named after the original Dallas
Dallas
Sidekicks that operated from 1984 to 2004. Rugby union
Rugby union
is a developing sport in Dallas
Dallas
as well as the whole of Texas. The multiple clubs, ranging from men's and women's clubs to collegiate and high school, are part of the Texas
Texas
Rugby Football Union.[95] Currently Dallas
Dallas
is one of only 16 cities in the United States included in the Rugby Super League[96] represented by Dallas Harlequins.[97] College[edit]

The Cotton Bowl hosts the annual Red River Showdown.

The only Division I sports program within the Dallas
Dallas
political boundary is the Dallas Baptist University
Dallas Baptist University
Patriots baseball team [98][99] Although outside the city limits, the Mustangs of Southern Methodist University are located in the enclave of University Park. Neighboring cities Fort Worth, Arlington, and Denton are home to the Texas
Texas
Christian University Horned Frogs, University of Texas
Texas
at Arlington Mavericks, and University of North Texas
Texas
Mean Green respectively. The Dallas
Dallas
area hosted the Final Four of the 2014 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament at AT&T Stadium. The college Cotton Bowl Classic
Cotton Bowl Classic
football game was played at the Cotton Bowl through its 2009 game, but has moved to AT&T Stadium. The Red River Showdown, is an American college football rivalry game played annually at the Cotton Bowl Stadium during the second weekend of the State Fair of Texas
State Fair of Texas
in October. The game is played by the Oklahoma Sooners football
Oklahoma Sooners football
team of the University of Oklahoma
University of Oklahoma
and the Texas
Texas
Longhorns football team of the University of Texas
Texas
at Austin. Economy[edit] See also: List of companies in Dallas
List of companies in Dallas
and List of shopping malls in the Dallas– Fort Worth
Fort Worth
Metroplex

Top publicly traded companies in Dallas
Dallas
for 2017 according to revenues with Dallas
Dallas
and U.S. ranks.

DAL

Corporation

US

1

AT&T

9

2

Energy Transfer Equity

79

3

Tenet Healthcare

134

4

Southwest Airlines

138

5

Texas
Texas
Instruments

206

6

Jacobs Engineering

259

7

HollyFrontier
HollyFrontier
Corporation

274

8

Dean Foods

351

9

Builders FirstSource

421

Further information: List of companies in Dallas/Ft.Worth Source:: Dallas
Dallas
Morning News[100]

Comerica
Comerica
Bank Tower, Comerica
Comerica
Bank's national headquarters in Downtown Dallas

In its beginnings, Dallas
Dallas
relied on farming, neighboring Fort Worth's Stockyards, and its prime location on Native American trade routes to sustain itself. Dallas's key to growth came in 1873 with the building of multiple rail lines through the city. As Dallas
Dallas
grew and technology developed, cotton became its boon and by 1900 Dallas
Dallas
was the largest inland cotton market in the world, becoming a leader in cotton gin machinery manufacturing. By the early 1900s, Dallas
Dallas
was a hub for economic activity all over the Southern United States
United States
and was selected in 1914 as the seat of the Eleventh Federal Reserve District. By 1925 Texas
Texas
churned out more than ⅓ of the nation's cotton crop, with 31% of Texas
Texas
cotton produced within a 100-mile (160 km) radius of Dallas. In the 1930s petroleum was discovered east of Dallas
Dallas
near Kilgore, Texas. Dallas's proximity to the discovery put it immediately at the center of the nation's petroleum market. Petroleum discoveries in the Permian Basin, the Panhandle, the Gulf Coast, and Oklahoma
Oklahoma
in the following years further solidified Dallas's position as the hub of the market.[101] The end of World War II left Dallas
Dallas
seeded with a nexus of communications, engineering, and production talent by companies such as Collins Radio Corporation. Decades later, the telecommunications and information revolutions still drive a large portion of the local economy. The city is sometimes referred to as the heart of "Silicon Prairie" because of a high concentration of telecommunications companies in the region, the epicenter of which lies along the Telecom Corridor located in Richardson, a northern suburb of Dallas. The Corridor is home to more than 5,700 companies[102] including Texas Instruments (headquartered in Dallas), Nortel Networks, Alcatel Lucent, AT&T, Ericsson, Fujitsu, Nokia, Rockwell Collins, Cisco Systems, Sprint, Verizon Communications, XO Communications
XO Communications
and until recently[when?] CompUSA
CompUSA
(which is now headquartered in Miami,FL). Texas
Texas
Instruments, a major manufacturer, employs 10,400 people at its corporate headquarters and chip plants in Dallas.[103] In the 1980s Dallas
Dallas
was a real estate hotbed, with the increasing metropolitan population bringing with it a demand for new housing and office space. Several of Downtown Dallas's largest buildings are the fruit of this boom, but over-speculation, the savings and loan crisis and an oil bust brought the 80's building boom to an end for Dallas
Dallas
as well as its city sister Houston. Between the late 1980s and the early 2000s, central Dallas
Dallas
went through a slow period of growth. However, since the early 2000s the central core of Dallas
Dallas
has been enjoying steady and significant growth encompassing both repurposing of older commercial buildings in downtown Dallas
Dallas
into residential and hotel uses as well as the construction of new office and residential towers. The opening of Klyde Warren Park, built across Woodall Rodgers Freeway seamlessly connecting the central Dallas
Dallas
CBD to Uptown/Victory Park, has acted synergistically with the highly successful Dallas
Dallas
Arts District so that both have become catalysts for significant new development in central Dallas. The residential real estate market in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex has not only been resilient but has once again returned to a boom status. Dallas
Dallas
and the greater metro have been leading the nation in apartment construction and net leasing with rents reaching all-time highs. Single family home sales, whether pre-owned or new construction, along with home price appreciation are leading the nation.[104][105] A sudden drop in the price of oil, starting in mid-2014 and accelerating throughout 2015, has not affected Dallas
Dallas
and its greater metro due to the highly diversified nature of its economy. Dallas, and the DFW metro, continue to see strong demand for housing, apartment and office leasing, shopping center space, warehouse and industrial space with overall job growth remaining very robust. Oil-dependent cities and regions have felt significant effects from the downturn but Dallas
Dallas
growth has continued unabated, strengthening in 2015. Significant national headquarters relocations to the area (as exemplified by Toyota's decision to leave California and establish its new North American headquarters in the Dallas
Dallas
region) coupled with significant expansions of regional offices for a variety of corporations and along with company relocations to downtown Dallas
Dallas
are helping drive the current boom in the Dallas
Dallas
economy. Dallas
Dallas
leads Texas's largest cities in Forbes' 2015 ranking of "The Best Place for Business and Careers".[106] The Dallas- Fort Worth
Fort Worth
MSA has one of the largest concentrations of corporate headquarters for publicly traded companies in the United States. Fortune Magazine's 2017 annual list of the Fortune 500
Fortune 500
in America indicates the city of Dallas
Dallas
has 9 Fortune 500
Fortune 500
companies,[107] and the DFW region as a whole has 22,[100] reflecting the continued strong growth in the metro economy and up from 20 the year before.[108] Dallas- Fort Worth
Fort Worth
now represents the largest concentration of Fortune 500
Fortune 500
headquarters in the State of Texas, followed by the Houston
Houston
MSA with its count of 20, down from 24 the year before.[109] In 2008, AT&T relocated their headquarters to Downtown Dallas;[110] AT&T is the largest telecommunications company in the world [111] and the ninth largest company in the nation by revenue for 2017. Additional Fortune 500
Fortune 500
companies headquartered in Dallas
Dallas
in order of ranking include Energy Transfer Equity, Tenet Healthcare, Southwest Airlines, Texas
Texas
Instruments, Jacobs Engineering, HollyFrontier, Dean Foods, and Builders FirstSource. In October 2016, Jacobs Engineering, one of the world's largest engineering companies, relocated from Pasadena, California
Pasadena, California
to Downtown Dallas.[112] Irving is home to 6 Fortune 500
Fortune 500
companies of its own, including ExxonMobil, the largest oil company in the world [113] and the fourth largest company in the nation by revenue for 2017,[107] Fluor (engineering), Kimberly-Clark, Celanese, Michaels Companies, and Vistra Energy.[107] Plano is home to 4 Fortune 500
Fortune 500
companies including J.C. Penney, Alliance Data Systems, Yum China
China
Holdings, and Dr. Pepper Snapple.[107] Ft. Worth is home to 2 Fortune 500
Fortune 500
companies including American Airlines, the largest airline in the world by revenue, fleet size, profit, passengers carried and revenue passenger mile and D.R. Horton, the largest homebuilder in America.[107] One Fortune 500 company, Gamestop, is based in Grapevine. Additional major companies headquartered in Dallas
Dallas
and its metro include Comerica, which relocated its national headquarters to Downtown Dallas
Downtown Dallas
from Detroit in 2007,[114] NTT DATA Services, Regency Energy Partners, Atmos Energy, Neiman Marcus, Think Finance, 7-Eleven, Brinker International, Primoris Services, AMS Pictures, id Software, Ensco plc, Mary Kay Cosmetics, Chuck E. Cheese's, Zale Corporation, and Fossil, Inc.. Many of these companies—and others throughout the DFW metroplex—comprise the Dallas
Dallas
Regional Chamber. Susan G. Komen for the Cure, the world's largest breast cancer organization[115] was founded and is headquartered in Dallas. In addition to its large number of businesses, Dallas
Dallas
has more shopping centers per capita than any other city in the United States and is also home to the second shopping center ever built in the United States, Highland Park Village, which opened in 1931.[116] Dallas
Dallas
is home of the two other major malls in North Texas, the Dallas Galleria and NorthPark Center, which is the 2nd largest mall in Texas. Both malls feature high-end stores and are major tourist draws for the region.[117][118] According to Forbes
Forbes
magazine's annual list of "The Richest People in America" published September 21, 2011, the city itself is now home to 17 billionaires, up from 14 in 2009. In 2009 (with 14 billionaires) the city placed 6th worldwide among cities with the most billionaires.[119][120] The ranking does not even take into account the 8 billionaires who live in the neighboring city of Fort Worth. In 2013, Forbes
Forbes
also ranked Dallas
Dallas
No. 13 on its list of the Best Places for Business and Careers.[121] Dallas
Dallas
is currently the third most popular destination for business travel in the United States, and the Kay Bailey Hutchison Convention Center is one of the largest and busiest convention centers in the country, at over 1,000,000 square feet (93,000 m2), and the world's single-largest column-free exhibit hall.[122] Education[edit] Main article: Education in Dallas There are 337 public schools, 89 private schools, 38 colleges, and 32 libraries in Dallas.[123] Dallas- Fort Worth
Fort Worth
is also home to six Nobel Laureates.[124] Colleges and universities[edit] Further information: List of Dallas- Fort Worth
Fort Worth
area colleges and universities The Dallas
Dallas
area has the highest concentration of colleges and universities in Texas. In addition to those located in the city, the surrounding cities also contains a number of universities, colleges, trade schools, and other educational institutions. The following describes the various universities and their proximity to the city: Colleges and universities in the Dallas
Dallas
city limits[edit]

The University of Texas
Texas
Southwestern Medical School is a medical school located in the city's Stemmons Corridor. It is part of the University of Texas
Texas
Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, one of the largest grouping of medical facilities in the world. The school is very selective, admitting only around 200 students a year. The facility enrolls 3,255 postgraduates and is home to five Nobel Laureates—four in physiology/medicine and one in chemistry. UTSW is part of the University of Texas
Texas
System. Texas
Texas
Woman's University (TWU) has operated a nursing school in Dallas at Parkland Memorial Hospital
Parkland Memorial Hospital
since 1966. The "T. Boone Pickens Institute of Health Sciences- Dallas
Dallas
Center" (IHSD) was opened in 2011 and is a purpose-built educational facility that replaced the original building that TWU had used since 1966. TWU also operated an occupational therapy school at Presbyterian Hospital of Dallas
Presbyterian Hospital of Dallas
from 1977 through 2011 before consolidating those functions into the new IHSD building at Parkland.[125] Paul Quinn College
Paul Quinn College
is a private, historically black college located in southeast Dallas. Originally located in Waco, Texas, it moved to Dallas
Dallas
in 1990 and is housed on the campus of the former Bishop College, another private, historically black college. Dallas billionaire and entrepreneur Comer Cottrell, Jr., founder of ProLine Corporation, bought the campus of Bishop College
Bishop College
and bequeathed it to Paul Quinn College
Paul Quinn College
in 1990 making it the only historically black college in the Dallas
Dallas
area.[126] The University of North Texas
Texas
at Dallas, located along Houston
Houston
School Road.[127] In 2009 UNT at Dallas
Dallas
became the first public university within Dallas
Dallas
city limits.[128] The University of North Texas
Texas
System has requested approval from the Texas
Texas
Legislature and Texas
Texas
Higher Education Coordinating Board for the State's first new public law school in more than 40 years. Plans are for the UNT College of Law to be based at the Old Municipal Building in downtown Dallas.[129]

Dallas
Dallas
Baptist
Baptist
University

Dallas Baptist University
Dallas Baptist University
(DBU) is a private, coeducational university located in the Mountain Creek area of southwest Dallas. Originally located in Decatur, Texas, the school moved to Dallas
Dallas
in 1965.[130] The school currently enrolls over 5,600 students,[131] and offers undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral degrees. Popular subjects include Biblical studies, business, and music degrees. DBU has been recognized by the National Council on Teacher Quality for their high-quality teacher preparatory degrees.[132] The school also maintains an Intensive English Program for international students wishing to enhance their knowledge of the English language. The campus is a Tree Campus USA and is recognized as one of the most beautiful university campuses in the southwest.[133] The school has also become nationally recognized in the past few years for its baseball team which has made several playoff runs.

Dallas
Dallas
Theological Seminary, also within the city limits, is recognized as one of the leading seminaries in the evangelical faith. Situated 3 miles (5 km) east of Downtown Dallas, it currently enrolls over 2,000 graduate students and has graduated over 12,000 alumni. Criswell College, (within two blocks of Dallas
Dallas
Theological Seminary). Criswell was started by First Baptist
Baptist
Church of Dallas
Dallas
in the early 1970s. It presently has around 400 students at both the undergraduate and graduate level studying different Biblical and Christian subjects. Dallas
Dallas
County Community College District, the 2-year educational institution of Dallas
Dallas
County; it has seven campuses located throughout the area with branches in Dallas
Dallas
as well as the surrounding suburbs. DCCCD serves portions of Dallas
Dallas
in Dallas
Dallas
County.

Colleges and universities in the Dallas- Fort Worth
Fort Worth
metropolitan area[edit]

Dallas
Dallas
Hall at Dedman College at Southern Methodist University
Southern Methodist University
in University Park, Texas

Campus Mall at The University of Texas
Texas
at Dallas
Dallas
(actually located in Richardson)

Southern Methodist University
Southern Methodist University
(SMU) is a private, coeducational university in University Park, an independent city that, together with the adjacent town of Highland Park, Dallas
Dallas
surrounds entirely. SMU was founded in 1911 by the Southern Methodist Church and is now run by President Turner. SMU now enrolls 6,500 undergraduates, 1,200 professional students in the law and theology departments, and 3,500 postgraduates.[134][135] According to sources such as the U.S. News & World Report, SMU is the best overall undergraduate college in the Dallas- Fort Worth
Fort Worth
Metroplex and the third best in the State of Texas. The University of Texas
Texas
at Dallas
Dallas
(UTD), is a part of the University of Texas
Texas
System. It is located in the city of Richardson, about 15 miles north of Downtown Dallas. It is located in the heart of the Telecom Corridor. UT Dallas
Dallas
is an R1 or Tier-1 University, classified by the Carnegie Commission on Higher Education as a doctoral-granting university with the highest research activity (it is among 115 universities in the US with this classification). Among universities under the age of 50 years old, UTD ranks No. 1 in the United States and 21st in the world in the 2017 Times Higher Education
Times Higher Education
Young University Rankings.[136] The university has many collaborative research relationships with UT Southwestern Medical Center. UT Dallas is home to approximately 26,797[137] students. The University of Dallas
University of Dallas
(UD), in the suburb of Irving, is an enclave of traditional Roman Catholicism in the mostly Protestant religious landscape of Dallas. St. Albert the Great Dominican Priory and Holy Trinity Seminary are located on campus, while the Cistercian
Cistercian
Monastery and Cistercian
Cistercian
Preparatory School are located just north of the UD campus across Texas
Texas
State Highway 114. The Highlands School, a PK–12 Legionary school, is just west of the UD campus and connects to campus by jogging trails. As a center for religious study, the Cistercian Monastery continues to be notable for scholastic developments in theology. Located in downtown Dallas, El Centro College
El Centro College
is the flagship institution of the Dallas
Dallas
County Community College District. El Centro first opened its campus doors in 1966 and now enrolls over 10,000 students. El Centro was the first college of the DCCCD to offer a nursing program and has established relationships with several top-notch hospitals in the Dallas
Dallas
area. The college is also the only campus within DCCCD that offers a Food & Hospitality Program as well as renowned programs in fashion design and fashion marketing.[138]

University Research Center[edit]

Texas
Texas
A&M- Dallas
Dallas
Research and Extension Center[139]

Other area colleges and universities[edit]

Chemistry & Physics building with planetarium at The University of Texas
Texas
at Arlington

Also in the nearby suburbs and neighboring cities are:

The University of Texas
Texas
at Arlington (UTA) The University of North Texas
Texas
(UNT) in Denton Texas
Texas
Woman's University (TWU) in Denton Tarleton State University – SW Metroplex at Fort Worth
Fort Worth
(Texas A&M University System) University of Phoenix, Dallas
Dallas
Campus in Dallas, Irving, Plano, Arlington, Hurst, and Cedar Hill Dallas Christian College
Dallas Christian College
(DCC) in Farmers Branch Collin College
Collin College
in Collin County Remington College in Garland, Texas, established in July 1997 Remington College (Ft. Worth Campus)

SB Hall with Braniff Tower in the background at the University of Dallas
Dallas
(actually located in Irving).

Also, within the Dallas/ Fort Worth
Fort Worth
area, about 30 miles (48 km) to the west of the city of Dallas, Fort Worth
Fort Worth
has two major universities within its city limits, and one health sciences/medical school:

Texas
Texas
Christian University (TCU) Texas
Texas
Wesleyan University University of North Texas
Texas
Health Science Center at Fort Worth

A number of colleges and universities are also located outside the immediate metropolitan area, including:

Austin College
Austin College
in nearby Sherman Tarleton State University ( Texas
Texas
A&M University System) – Stephenville, Texas Texas
Texas
A&M University–Commerce Southwestern Assemblies of God University
Southwestern Assemblies of God University
in nearby Waxahachie Navarro College
Navarro College
in nearby Corsicana Tarrant County College
Tarrant County College
in Tarrant County

Primary and secondary schools[edit]

Booker T. Washington High School for the Performing and Visual Arts
Booker T. Washington High School for the Performing and Visual Arts
in the Arts District

Most people in the city of Dallas
Dallas
are located within the Dallas Independent School District, the 12th-largest school district in the United States
United States
and second largest in Texas.[140] The school district operates independently of the city and enrolls over 161,000 students.[140] As of 2003 DISD has the majority of K-12 students in the city of Dallas, and a proportionately larger number of students who are not non-Hispanic White.[141] One of the district's magnet schools, The School for the Talented and Gifted
School for the Talented and Gifted
in Oak Cliff, is consistently named the best public school in the United States
United States
by Newsweek, retaining the title for five consecutive years (2012 - 2016).[142] Another one of DISD's schools, the Science and Engineering Magnet, consistently ranks in the top 10 in the same publication.[143][144] Other Dallas
Dallas
high schools named to the list were Hillcrest, W. T. White, Williams Preparatory, and Woodrow Wilson high schools. Woodrow Wilson was also named the top comprehensive high school in Dallas
Dallas
by local publication D Magazine.[when?] A few areas of Dallas
Dallas
also extend into other school districts, including Carrollton-Farmers Branch, Coppell, Duncanville, Garland,[145] Highland Park, Mesquite, Plano, and Richardson. The Plano and Richardson school districts have the largest numbers of public school students in Dallas
Dallas
who are not in Dallas
Dallas
ISD.[141] The Wilmer-Hutchins Independent School District
Wilmer-Hutchins Independent School District
once served portions of southern Dallas, but it was shut down for the 2005–2006 year. WHISD students started attending other Dallas
Dallas
ISD schools during that time. Following the close, the Texas
Texas
Education Agency consolidated WHISD into Dallas
Dallas
ISD. Many school districts in Dallas
Dallas
County, including Dallas
Dallas
ISD, are served by a governmental agency called Dallas
Dallas
County Schools. The system provides busing and other transportation services, access to a massive media library, technology services, strong ties to local organizations for education/community integration, and staff development programs.[146] Private schools[edit] There are many private schools in Dallas, such as Bishop Dunne Catholic School, Bishop Lynch High School, Burton Adventist Academy, Calvary Lutheran School,[147] Dallas
Dallas
Christian Adventist Academy, Dallas
Dallas
Lutheran School,The da Vinci School, Greenhill School, Episcopal School of Dallas, First Baptist
Baptist
Academy of Dallas, The Hockaday School, Jesuit College Preparatory School of Dallas, The June Shelton School, Lakehill Preparatory School, The Lamplighter School, Parish Episcopal School, St. Mark's School of Texas, Ursuline Academy of Dallas, The Winston School, and Yavneh Academy of Dallas
Dallas
and Dallas Christian School is on the borders of Mesquite
Mesquite
and Garland, and Tyler Street Christian Academy in Oak Cliff. Some Dallas
Dallas
residents attend Cistercian
Cistercian
Preparatory School in adjacent Irving, The Highlands School in Irving, Trinity Christian Academy in Addison, and John Paul II High School in [Plano]. Libraries[edit] The city is served by the Dallas Public Library
Dallas Public Library
system. The system was originally created by the Dallas
Dallas
Federation of Women's Clubs with efforts spearheaded by then-president Mrs. Henry (May Dickson) Exall. Her work in raising money led to a grant from philanthropist and steel baron Andrew Carnegie, which enabled the construction of the first branch of the library system in 1901.[148] Today, the library operates 27 branch locations throughout the city, including the 8-story J. Erik Jonsson Central Library in the Government District of Downtown.[149] Climate[edit] Main article: Climate of Dallas

Dallas, Texas

Climate chart (explanation)

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    2.1     57 37

    2.6     61 41

    3.5     69 49

    3.1     77 56

    4.9     84 65

    4.1     92 73

    2.2     96 77

    1.9     96 77

    2.8     89 69

    4.8     79 58

    2.9     67 48

    2.7     58 39

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in inches

Metric conversion

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    52     14 3

    66     16 5

    89     20 9

    78     25 13

    125     29 19

    104     33 23

    56     36 25

    47     36 25

    72     32 21

    122     26 15

    73     20 9

    70     14 4

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in mm

Dallas
Dallas
has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfa) that is characteristic of the Southern Plains of the United States. It is also continental, characterized by a relatively wide annual temperature range. Located at the lower end of Tornado
Tornado
Alley, it is often prone to extreme weather, tornadoes and hailstorms. Summers in Dallas
Dallas
are very hot and humid. July and August are typically the hottest months, with an average high of 96.0 °F (36 °C) and an average low of 76.7 °F (25 °C). The all-time record high is 113 °F (45 °C), set on June 26 and 27, 1980 during the Heat Wave of 1980 at nearby Dallas–Fort Worth Airport.[150][151] Winters in Dallas
Dallas
are mild to cool. January is typically the coldest month, with an average daytime high of 56.8 °F (14 °C) and an average nighttime low of 37.3 °F (3 °C). The normal daily average temperature in January is 47.0 °F (8.3 °C) but sharp swings in temperature as strong cold fronts known as "Blue Northers" pass through the Dallas
Dallas
region, forcing daytime highs below the 50 °F (10 °C) mark for several days at a time and often between days with high temperatures above 80 °F (27 °C). Snow accumulation is seen in the city in about 70% of winter seasons, and snowfall generally occurs 1–2 days out of the year for a seasonal average of 1.5 inches (3.8 cm). Some areas in the region, however, receive more than that, while other areas receive negligible snowfall or none at all.[152] The all-time record low temperature within the city itself is −3 °F (−19 °C), set on January 18, 1930. Spring and autumn are transitional seasons with moderate and pleasant weather. Vibrant wildflowers (such as the bluebonnet, Indian paintbrush and other flora) bloom in spring and are planted around the highways throughout Texas.[153] Springtime weather can be quite volatile, but temperatures themselves are mild. The weather in Dallas is also generally pleasant from late September to early December and on many winter days. Autumn often brings more storms and tornado threat, but usually fewer and less severe than in spring. Each spring, cold fronts moving south from the North will collide with warm, humid air streaming in from the Gulf Coast, leading to severe thunderstorms with lightning, torrents of rain, hail, and occasionally, tornadoes. Over time, tornadoes have probably been the biggest natural threat to the city, as it is located near the heart of Tornado
Tornado
Alley. A few times each winter in Dallas, warm and humid air from the south will override cold, dry air, resulting in freezing rain or ice and causing disruptions in the city if the roads and highways become slick. Temperatures reaching 70 °F (21 °C) on average occur on at least 4 days each winter month. Dallas
Dallas
averages 26 annual nights at or below freezing,[150] with the winter of 1999–2000 holding the all-time record as having the fewest freezing nights, with 14. During this same span of 15 years,[specify] the temperature in the region has only twice dropped below 15 °F (−9 °C), though it will generally fall below 20 °F (−7 °C) in most (67%) years.[150] In sum, extremes and variations in winter weather are more readily seen in Dallas
Dallas
and Texas
Texas
as a whole than along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts, due to the state's location in the interior of the North American continent. The lack of any mountainous terrain to the north leaves it open to the sweep of Arctic weather systems. The U.S. Department of Agriculture places Dallas
Dallas
in Plant Hardiness Zone 8a.[154][155] However, mild winter temperatures in the past 15 to 20 years have encouraged the horticulture of some cold-sensitive plants such as Washingtonia filifera
Washingtonia filifera
and Washingtonia robusta
Washingtonia robusta
palms. According to the American Lung Association, Dallas
Dallas
has the 12th highest air pollution among U.S. cities, ranking it behind Los Angeles and Houston.[156] Much of the air pollution in Dallas
Dallas
and the surrounding area comes from a hazardous materials incineration plant in the small town of Midlothian and from concrete installations in neighbouring Ellis County.[157] The average daily low in Dallas
Dallas
is 57.4 °F (14.1 °C) and the average daily high is 76.9 °F (24.9 °C). Dallas receives approximately 37.6 inches (955 mm) of rain per year. The record snowfall for Dallas
Dallas
was 11.2 inches (28 cm) on February 11, 2010.

Climate data for Dallas
Dallas
(Love Field), 1981–2010 normals,[a] extremes 1913–present[b]

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °F (°C) 88 (31) 95 (35) 97 (36) 100 (38) 103 (39) 112 (44) 111 (44) 111 (44) 110 (43) 100 (38) 92 (33) 89 (32) 112 (44)

Mean maximum °F (°C) 76.4 (24.7) 80.2 (26.8) 85.6 (29.8) 89.4 (31.9) 95.2 (35.1) 98.2 (36.8) 103.0 (39.4) 103.9 (39.9) 98.8 (37.1) 92.3 (33.5) 82.9 (28.3) 76.8 (24.9) 105.0 (40.6)

Average high °F (°C) 56.8 (13.8) 60.8 (16) 68.7 (20.4) 76.7 (24.8) 84.2 (29) 91.6 (33.1) 96.0 (35.6) 96.4 (35.8) 88.7 (31.5) 78.5 (25.8) 67.1 (19.5) 57.5 (14.2) 77.0 (25)

Average low °F (°C) 37.3 (2.9) 41.1 (5.1) 48.5 (9.2) 56.2 (13.4) 65.4 (18.6) 72.8 (22.7) 76.7 (24.8) 76.8 (24.9) 69.0 (20.6) 58.2 (14.6) 47.6 (8.7) 38.5 (3.6) 57.4 (14.1)

Mean minimum °F (°C) 21.7 (−5.7) 24.3 (−4.3) 30.5 (−0.8) 40.2 (4.6) 52.1 (11.2) 63.0 (17.2) 69.7 (20.9) 68.5 (20.3) 53.8 (12.1) 42.3 (5.7) 31.3 (−0.4) 22.9 (−5.1) 16.7 (−8.5)

Record low °F (°C) −3 (−19) 2 (−17) 11 (−12) 30 (−1) 39 (4) 53 (12) 56 (13) 57 (14) 36 (2) 26 (−3) 17 (−8) 1 (−17) −3 (−19)

Average precipitation inches (mm) 2.06 (52.3) 2.59 (65.8) 3.49 (88.6) 3.07 (78) 4.92 (125) 4.11 (104.4) 2.21 (56.1) 1.87 (47.5) 2.84 (72.1) 4.79 (121.7) 2.88 (73.2) 2.74 (69.6) 37.57 (954.3)

Average snowfall inches (cm) 0.5 (1.3) 0.6 (1.5) 0.1 (0.3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) trace 0.3 (0.8) 1.5 (3.8)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 6.7 6.5 7.6 6.7 9.7 8.0 4.9 4.6 5.3 7.5 6.6 6.6 80.7

Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 0.5 0.2 0.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 0.3 1.3

Average relative humidity (%) 67.5 66.4 63.7 65.3 69.7 65.8 59.8 59.5 66.5 65.7 67.4 67.5 65.4

Mean monthly sunshine hours 183.5 178.3 227.7 236.0 258.4 297.8 332.4 304.5 246.2 228.1 183.8 173.0 2,849.7

Percent possible sunshine 58 58 61 61 60 69 76 74 66 65 59 56 64

Source: NOAA
NOAA
(sun and relative humidity 1961–1990 at DFW Airport)[c][159][160][161]

Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of Dallas

Historical population

Census Pop.

1850 1,073

1860 698

−34.9%

1870 3,000

329.8%

1880 10,358

245.3%

1890 38,069

267.5%

1900 42,639

12.0%

1910 92,104

116.0%

1920 158,976

72.6%

1930 269,475

69.5%

1940 294,734

9.4%

1950 434,462

47.4%

1960 679,684

56.4%

1970 844,401

24.2%

1980 904,078

7.1%

1990 1,006,977

11.4%

2000 1,188,580

18.0%

2010 1,197,816

0.8%

Est. 2016 1,317,929 [162] 10.0%

Source:[163][164][165]

[166]

Demographic profile 2010[167] 1990[168] 1970[168] 1950[168]

White 50.7% 55.3% 74.2% 86.8%

 —Non-Hispanic 28.8% 47.7% 66.9%[169] n/a

Black or African American 24.7% 29.5% 24.9% 13.1%

Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 42.4% 20.9% 7.5%[169] n/a

Asian 2.9% 2.2% 0.2% –

As of the 2010 Census, Dallas
Dallas
had a population of 1,197,816. The median age was 31.8. According to the 2010 Census, 50.7% of the population was White (28.8% non-Hispanic white), 24.8% was Black or African American, 0.7% American Indian and Alaska Native, 2.9% Asian, 2.6% from two or more races. 42.4% of the total population was of Hispanic or Latino origin (they may be of any race).[170] At the 2006–2010 American Community Survey
American Community Survey
5-Year Estimates, among the Hispanic population, 36.8% of Dallas
Dallas
was Mexican, 0.3% Puerto Rican, 0.2% Cuban and 4.3% other Hispanic or Latino.[171][172][173] There were 458,057 households at the 2010 census, out of which 29.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.1% were headed by married couples living together, 16.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 42.0% were classified as non-family households. 33.7% of all households had one or more people under 18 years of age, and 17.6% had one or more people who were 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.42.[174] At the 2010 census, the city's age distribution of the population showed 26.5% under the age of 18 and 8.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31.8 years. 50.0% of the population was male and 50.0% was female.[174] According to the 2005–2007 American Community Survey, the median income for a household in the city was $40,147, and the median income for a family was $42,670. Male full-time workers had a median income of $32,265 versus $32,402 for female full-time workers. The per capita income for the city was $25,904. About 18.7% of families and 21.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.6% of those under age 18 and 13.4% of those aged 65 or over. The median price for a house was $129,600.[175]

Map of racial distribution in Dallas, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian Hispanic, or Other (yellow)

Dallas's population was historically predominantly white (non-Hispanic whites made up 82.8% of the population in 1930),[168] but its population has diversified due to immigration and "white flight" over the 20th century. Today the non-Hispanic white population has declined to less than one-third of the city's population.[176] Dallas
Dallas
is a major destination for Mexican immigrants. The southwestern portion of the city, particularly Oak Cliff
Oak Cliff
is chiefly inhabited by Hispanic residents. The southeastern portion of the city Pleasant Grove is chiefly inhabited by black and Hispanic residents, while the southern portion of the city is predominantly black. The West and East sides of the city are predominantly Hispanic; Garland
Garland
also has a large Spanish speaking population. North Dallas
North Dallas
is many enclaves of predominantly white, black and especially Hispanic residents. The Dallas-Fort-Worth Metroplex has an estimated 70,000 Russian-speakers (as of November 6, 2012[177]) mostly immigrants from the former Soviet Bloc. Included in this population are Russians, Russian Jews, Ukrainians, Belorussians, Moldavians, Uzbek, Kirghiz, and others. The Russian-speaking population of Dallas
Dallas
has continued to grow in the sector of "American husbands-Russian wives". Russian DFW has its own newspaper The Dallas
Dallas
Telegraph. In addition, Dallas
Dallas
and its suburbs are home to a large number of Asian residents[178] including those of Indian, Vietnamese, Chinese, Korean, Filipino, Japanese, and other heritage.[179] There are also a significant number of people from the Horn of Africa, immigrants from Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia. With so many immigrant groups, there are often multilingual signs in the linguistic landscape.

Trilingual sign on shop in multilingual neighborhood: English, Spanish, Amharic.

According to U.S. Census American Community Survey
American Community Survey
data released in December 2013, 23 percent of Dallas
Dallas
County residents were foreign-born, while 16 percent of Tarrant County residents were foreign-born.[180] Recognized for having the sixth largest lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) population in the nation, the Dallas
Dallas
metropolitan is widely noted for being home to a thriving and diverse LGBT community.[181] Throughout the year there are many well-established LGBT
LGBT
events held in the area, most notably the annual Alan Ross Texas Freedom (Pride) Parade and Festival held every September since 1983 which draws tens of thousands from around the world.[182] For decades, the Oak Lawn and Bishop Arts districts have been known as the epicenters of the LGBT
LGBT
community in Dallas.[183] Religion According to a 2014 study by the Pew Research Center, Christianity
Christianity
is the most prevalently practiced religion in Dallas
Dallas
(78%).[184][185] There is a large Protestant Christian influence in the Dallas community. Methodist, Baptist, and Presbyterian churches are prominent in many neighborhoods and anchor two of the city's major private universities ( Southern Methodist University
Southern Methodist University
and Dallas
Dallas
Baptist University). Dallas
Dallas
is also home to two evangelical seminaries, the Dallas Theological Seminary
Dallas Theological Seminary
and Criswell College
Criswell College
and many Bible schools including Christ For The Nations Institute. The Christian creationist apologetics group Institute for Creation Research is headquartered in Dallas. Dallas
Dallas
is called "Prison Ministry Capital of the World" by prison ministry community. It is a home for International Network of Prison Ministries, Coalition of Prison Evangelists, Bill Glass Champions for Life, for more than 30 years to Chaplain Ray's International Prison Ministry, and for more than 60 other prison ministries. The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
is also a significant organization in the Dallas area and operates the University of Dallas, a liberal-arts university in the Dallas
Dallas
suburb of Irving. The Cathedral Santuario de Guadalupe in the Arts District is home to the second-largest Catholic church membership in the United States
United States
and overseas over 70 parishes in the Dallas
Dallas
Diocese. The Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
operates the Jesuit College Preparatory School of Dallas. Dallas
Dallas
is also home to three Eastern Orthodox Christian churches.[186] The city of Dallas
Dallas
and Dallas
Dallas
County have more Catholic than Protestant residents, while the converse is usually true for the suburban areas of Dallas. Dallas's Jewish population of approximately 45,000 is the largest of any city in Texas.[187] Since the establishment of the city's first Jewish cemetery in 1854 and its first congregation (which would eventually be known as Temple Emanu-El) in 1873, Dallas
Dallas
Jews have been well represented among leaders in commerce, politics, and various professional fields in Dallas
Dallas
and elsewhere. See History of the Jews in Dallas, Texas
Texas
for more information. The city is also home to a sizable Latter-day Saint
Latter-day Saint
community. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has twenty two stakes throughout Dallas
Dallas
and surrounding suburbs.[188] The Church built the Dallas
Dallas
Texas
Texas
Temple, the first temple in Texas, in the city in 1984.[189] Jehovah's Witnesses
Jehovah's Witnesses
also have a large number of members throughout Dallas
Dallas
and surrounding suburbs. There are several Unitarian Universalist
Unitarian Universalist
congregations, including First Unitarian Church of Dallas, founded in 1903.[190] Furthermore, a large Muslim community
Muslim community
exists in the north and northeastern portions of Dallas, as well as in the northern Dallas suburbs. The oldest mosque in Texas
Texas
is located in Denton, about 40 miles (64 km) north of Downtown Dallas. The oldest mosque in Dallas
Dallas
is Masjid Al-Islam located just south of Downtown Dallas. There is also an Islamic Center in Irving. Dallas
Dallas
also has a large Buddhist community. Immigrants from Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Nepal, Tibet, Japan, China, Taiwan, and Sri Lanka have all contributed to the Buddhist population, which is concentrated in the northern suburbs of Garland, Plano and Richardson. Numerous Buddhist temples dot the Metroplex, including The Buddhist Center of Dallas, Lien Hoa Vietnamese Temple of Irving, and Kadampa Meditation Center Texas
Texas
and Wat Buddhamahamunee of Arlington. A sizable Sikh
Sikh
community resides in Dallas
Dallas
and its surrounding suburbs. There are at least three Sikh
Sikh
Gurudwaras in this metropolitan area.[191][192][193] For the atheist, agnostic, nonbeliever, and strictly spiritual individuals, there is "The Winter SolstiCelebration". After 15 years, this celebration has become a minor Dallas
Dallas
cultural tradition for the "spiritual but not religious" people of North Texas. "That gentle rejection of commonly held ideas fills many of those who will take part in the event. They are mostly people who refuse to be pigeonholed by any one religion – but who long for the sense of community that an organized faith supplies."[194] Government and politics[edit] Government[edit] Main article: Government of Dallas See also: List of mayors of Dallas
List of mayors of Dallas
and Sister cities of Dallas

Dallas
Dallas
Municipal Building. Built in 1913, this was Dallas's old City Hall and was where Lee Harvey Oswald
Lee Harvey Oswald
was shot.

The city uses a council-manager government, with Mike Rawlings
Mike Rawlings
serving as Mayor, T.C. Broadnax serving as city manager,[195] and 14 council members serving as representatives to the 14 council districts in the city.[196][197][198] This organizational structure was recently contested by some in favor of a strong-mayor city charter, only to be rejected by Dallas
Dallas
voters. In 1969 Anita N. Martínez become the first Hispanic to sit as a council women in Dallas's city council.[199] Policing in Dallas
Dallas
is provided predominantly by the Dallas
Dallas
Police Department, which has around 3,500 officers.[200] The Dallas
Dallas
chief of police is U. Renee Hall (effective September 5, 2017).[201] The Police Headquarters are located in the Cedars neighborhood of South Dallas.

The Dallas
Dallas
Police headquarters in the Cedars neighborhood.

Fire protection and emergency medical services in the city are provided by Dallas
Dallas
Fire-Rescue, which has 1,800 firefighters[202] and 58 working fire stations in the city limits.[203] The Dallas
Dallas
Fire & Rescue chief is David Coatney[204] The department operates the Dallas
Dallas
Firefighter's Museum built in 1907 along Parry Avenue near Fair Park. Dallas's oldest remaining fire station building still stands at the corner of McKinney Ave. and Leonard and was built in 1892. It was the home of Engine Co. Number 1, and is now a picture framing shop. In the 2006–2007 fiscal year, the city's total budget (the sum of operating and capital budgets) was $2.3 billion.[205] The city has seen a steady increase in its budget throughout its history due to sustained growth: the budget was $1.7 billion in 2002–2003,[206] $1.9 billion in 2003–2004,[206] $2.0 billion in 2004–2005,[207] and $2.2 billion in 2005–2006.[207] Crime[edit] Further information: 2016 shooting of Dallas
Dallas
police officers

Dallas

Crime rates* (2012)

Violent crimes

Homicide 154

Robbery 4,093

Aggravated assault 3,647

Total violent crime 8,380

Property crimes

Burglary 16,090

Larceny-theft 31,148

Motor vehicle theft 7,062

Arson 581

Total property crime 54,300

Notes

*Number of reported crimes per 100,000 population.

2012 population: 1,241,549

Source: 2012 FBI UCR Data

According to the FBI, a city to city comparison of crime rates is not meaningful, because recording practices vary from city to city, citizens report different percentages of crimes from one city to the next, and the actual number of people physically present in a city is unknown.[208] With that in mind, Dallas's violent crime rate (12.06 per 1,000 people) is lower than that of St Louis
St Louis
(24.81), Detroit (24.22), Baltimore
Baltimore
(16.96), Philadelphia
Philadelphia
(15.62), Cleveland
Cleveland
(15.47), Miami (15.09), Washington, D.C. (14.48), Kansas City
City
(14.44) and Boston (13.39). However, Houston
Houston
(11.69), Los Angeles (7.87), and New York City
City
(6.38) have lower violent crime rates than Dallas.[209] Federal and state government[edit] National and state legislators representing Dallas:

Federal[210]

House of Representatives Senate

Name Party District Name Party

Sam Johnson Republican District 3 John Cornyn Republican

Jeb Hensarling Republican District 5 Ted Cruz Republican

Kenny Marchant Republican District 24

Michael C. Burgess Republican District 26

Eddie Bernice Johnson Democrat District 30

Pete Sessions Republican District 32

Marc Veasey Democrat District 33

State[210]

House of Representatives Senate

Name Party District Name Party District

Eric Johnson Democrat District 100 Bob Deuell
Bob Deuell
[4] Republican District 2

Stefani Carter Republican District 102 Ken Paxton
Ken Paxton
[5] Republican District 8

Rafael Anchia Democrat District 103 Kelly Hancock
Kelly Hancock
[6] Republican District 9

Roberto R. Alonzo Democrat District 104 John Carona [7] Republican District 16

Linda Harper-Brown Republican District 105 Royce West [8] Democrat District 23

Kenneth Sheets Republican District 107

Dan Branch Republican District 108

Helen Giddings Democrat District 109

Toni Rose Democrat District 110

Yvonne Davis Democrat District 111

Angie Chen Button Republican District 112

Cindy Burkett Republican District 113

Jason Villalba Republican District 114

Bennett Ratliff Republican District 115

The United States
United States
District Court for the Northern District of Texas, which exercises original jurisdiction over 100 counties in North and West Texas, convenes in the Earle Cabell Federal Building and Courthouse in the Government District of Downtown. The same building additionally houses United States
United States
Bankruptcy and Magistrate Courts and a United States
United States
Attorney office. Dallas
Dallas
also is the seat of the Fifth Court of Appeals of Texas. Politics[edit] Overall, Dallas
Dallas
is centrist, with conservative Republicans dominating a sliver of suburban neighborhoods in North Dallas
North Dallas
and Democratic voters spreading the remaining majority of the city, especially the central and southern sectors. Jim Schutze of the Dallas Observer said in 2002 "the early vote in majority-black precincts in Southern Dallas
Dallas
is the city's only disciplined vote. Especially in citywide elections on issues that are not entwined in the internal politics of the black community, the Southern Dallas
Dallas
African-American vote has a history of responding obediently to the call of leadership."[211] In the 2004 U.S. Presidential elections, 57% of Dallas
Dallas
voters voted for John Kerry
John Kerry
over George W. Bush.[212] Dallas
Dallas
County as a whole was closely divided, with 50% of voters voting for Bush and 49% voting for Kerry.[213] Results in the 2008 and 2012 elections favored Barack Obama, with the 44th President receiving 57% of Dallas
Dallas
County voters in both years, with greater margins in the city of Dallas
Dallas
itself. In the 2016 U.S. Presidential election, approximately 68% of Dallas voters voted for Hillary Clinton, with 28% of city voters voting for Donald Trump.[214] Dallas
Dallas
County as a whole saw 61% of voters voting for Clinton, with 35% support for Trump.[214] In 2004, Lupe Valdez
Lupe Valdez
was elected Dallas
Dallas
County Sheriff. An open lesbian, Valdez is currently the only female sheriff in the state of Texas. Despite controversies in her handling of county jails, she won re-election in 2008 with a 10-point victory over Republican challenger Lowell Cannaday.[215]

Media[edit] See also: Newspapers of Dallas, Texas; List of radio stations in Texas; List of television stations in Texas
Texas
§ Dallas/Fort Worth; List of movies set in Dallas, Texas; and List of television shows set in Dallas Dallas
Dallas
has numerous local newspapers, magazines, television stations and radio stations that serve the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex
Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex
as a whole, which is the 5th-largest media market in the United States.[216] Dallas
Dallas
has one major daily newspaper, The Dallas
Dallas
Morning News, which was founded in 1885 by A. H. Belo
A. H. Belo
and is A. H. Belo's flagship newspaper. The Dallas
Dallas
Times Herald, started in 1888, was the Morning News' major competitor until Belo
Belo
purchased the paper on December 8, 1991 and closed the paper down the next day. Other daily newspapers are Al Día, a Spanish-language paper published by Belo, Quick, a free, summary-style version of the Morning News, and a number of ethnic newspapers printed in languages such as Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese. Other publications include the Dallas
Dallas
Weekly, the Oak Cliff
Oak Cliff
Tribune and the Elite News, all weekly news publications. The Dallas
Dallas
Morning News also puts out a weekly publication, neighborsgo, which comes out every Friday and focuses on community news. Readers can post stories and contribute content to the website. The Dallas Observer and the North Texas
Texas
Journal are also alternative weekly newspapers, D Magazine, is a notable monthly magazine about business, life, and entertainment in the Metroplex. Local visitor magazines include "WHERE Magazine" and "Travelhost" – available at hotel desks or in guest rooms. In addition, the Park Cities and suburbs such as Plano also have their own community newspapers. Also, THE magazine covers the contemporary arts scene. In terms of the larger metro area, the Fort Worth
Fort Worth
Star-Telegram is another significant daily newspaper, covering Fort Worth/Tarrant County and its suburbs. It also publishes a major Spanish-language newspaper for the entire Metroplex known as La Estrella. To the north of Dallas
Dallas
and Fort Worth, the Denton Record-Chronicle primarily covers news for the city of Denton and Denton County. Area television stations affiliated with the major broadcasting networks (network O&O's highlighted in bold) include KDFW
KDFW
4 (Fox), KXAS 5 (NBC), WFAA 8 (ABC) (which for many years was owned by Belo alongside the Morning News), KTVT
KTVT
11 (CBS), KERA 13 (PBS), KUVN 23 (UNI), KDFI
KDFI
27 (MNTV), KDAF
KDAF
33 (The CW) and KXTX 39 (TMD). KTXA-21 is an independent station formerly affiliated with the now-defunct UPN network. 63 radio stations operate within range of Dallas.[217] The city of Dallas
Dallas
operates WRR 101.1 FM, the area's main classical music station, from city offices in Fair Park.[218] Its original sister station, licensed as WRR-AM in 1921, is the oldest commercially operated radio station in Texas
Texas
and the second-oldest in the United States, after KDKA (AM)
KDKA (AM)
in Pittsburgh.[219] Because of the city's centrally located geographical position and lack of nearby mountainous terrain, high-power class A medium-wave stations KRLD and WBAP can broadcast as far as southern Canada at night and can be used for emergency messages when broadcasting is down in other major metropolitan areas in the United States. Hispanic Broadcasting Corporation (HBC), the largest company in the Spanish-language radio station business, is based in Dallas.[220] In 2003, HBC was acquired by Univision and became Univision Radio Inc., but the radio company remains headquartered in the city.[221] Slavic Voice of America
Slavic Voice of America
media group serves Russian-speaking Americans out of Dallas, TX. Cuisine[edit] Dallas
Dallas
is known for its barbecue, authentic Mexican, and Tex-Mex cuisine. Famous products of the Dallas
Dallas
culinary scene include the frozen margarita.[222] Notable people[edit] Main article: List of people from Dallas Sister cities[edit]

This article contains a list of miscellaneous information. Please relocate any relevant information into other sections or articles. (July 2017)

Dallas
Dallas
has six Sister cities and five Friendship cities.[223]

Sister cities:

Brno, Czech Republic[224] Dijon, France Monterrey, Mexico Riga, Latvia Saratov, Russia Taipei, Taiwan[225]

Friendship cities:

Sendai, Japan Tianjin, People's Republic of China Qingdao, Shandong
Shandong
Province, People's Republic of China Dalian, Liaoning
Liaoning
Province, People's Republic of China Nanjing, Jiangsu
Jiangsu
Province, People's Republic of China

See also[edit]

Texas
Texas
portal Dallas
Dallas
Fort Worth
Fort Worth
Metroplex portal

Dallas
Dallas
(1978 TV series) 2015 attack on Dallas
Dallas
police 2016 shooting of Dallas
Dallas
police officers Dallas
Dallas
(other) I-35 Corridor List of museums in North Texas National Register of Historic Places listings in Dallas
Dallas
County, Texas Texas
Texas
Triangle

Notes[edit]

^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010. ^ Official records for Dallas
Dallas
were kept at the Weather Bureau Office in downtown from 15 October 1913 to August 1940, and at Love Field since September 1940.[158] ^ Sunshine normals are based on only 24 years of data.

References[edit]

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Dallas
from the US Census ^ "American Factfinder". census.gov. Archived from the original on February 12, 2011. Retrieved August 27, 2011.  ^ a b "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (DP-1): Dallas
Dallas
city, Texas". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Archived from the original on September 11, 2013. Retrieved January 12, 2012.  ^ United States
United States
Census Bureau. " Dallas
Dallas
(city) QuickFacts from the U.S. Census Bureau". United States
United States
Census Bureau. Archived from the original on November 18, 2013. Retrieved November 13, 2013.  ^ "Cordell, Dennis D., Southern Methodist University
Southern Methodist University
(Dallas) and Garcia y Griego, Manuel, University of Texas
Texas
at Arlington, "The Integration of Nigerian and Mexican immigrants in Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas", working paper, 2005". Retrieved August 14, 2010.  ^ "70,000 Russian-speakers in Dallas, According to Mayor of Dallas". Russian Dallas
Dallas
- Руский Даллас. April 18, 2017. Retrieved April 18, 2017.  ^ Schnyder, Mark. "Asian-American Growth Steady in North Texas". nbcdfw.com. nbcdfw.com. Retrieved November 21, 2016.  ^ " Dallas
Dallas
Population and Demographics". areaconnect.com. Retrieved November 21, 2016.  ^ Corrie Maclaggan, Share of Foreign-Born Texans Growing, Texas Tribune (January 2, 2014). ^ "RECAP: Dallas
Dallas
LGBT
LGBT
Travel". Visit Dallas. Archived from the original on July 8, 2016. Retrieved January 24, 2014.  ^ "Dallas' annual gay pride parade draws thousands, spreads the love". Dallasnews.com. Retrieved August 27, 2017.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 8, 2016. Retrieved January 24, 2014.  ^ Major U.S. metropolitan areas differ in their religious profiles, Pew Research Center ^ "America's Changing Religious Landscape". Pew Research Center: Religion & Public Life. May 12, 2015.  ^ "Orthodox churches in Dallas, Texas". Superpages.com. Retrieved May 11, 2013.  ^ Jewish population small in number, large in influence in Texas Archived May 12, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. by Glenn Dromgoole. Abilene Reporter-News, March 11, 2007. Retrieved April 27, 2012. This article is a review of Lone Stars of David: The Jews of Texas, ed. Hollace Ava Weiner and Rabbi Kenneth D. Roseman (Brandeis University Press). ^ " Dallas
Dallas
Texas
Texas
Temple District". Ldschurchtemples.org. Retrieved February 2, 2015.  ^ " Dallas
Dallas
Texas
Texas
LDS (Mormon) Temple". Ldschurchtemples.com. Archived from the original on April 12, 2013. Retrieved May 11, 2013.  ^ "First Unitarian Church of Dallas
Dallas
official site". Dallasuu.org. Retrieved May 11, 2013.  ^ " Sikh
Sikh
Temple of North Texas". Sikhtempledallas.org. Archived from the original on April 11, 2010. Retrieved May 23, 2010.  ^ "Gurdwara Singh Sabha of North Texas, Richardson". Gurdwararichardson.org. Archived from the original on April 17, 2010. Retrieved May 23, 2010.  ^ " Sikh
Sikh
Gurdwaras in USA – Sikh
Sikh
Gurdwara in USA". Gurdwara.us. Retrieved May 23, 2010.  ^ " Dallas
Dallas
solstice celebration fills a void for the nonreligious". Archived from the original on December 25, 2007. Retrieved December 21, 2007.  ^ Martinez, Krystina. "New City
City
Manager T.C. Broadnax Says 'It's A Great Time' To Come To Dallas". Retrieved February 24, 2017.  ^ City
City
of Dallas
Dallas
– Mayor Archived January 29, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved October 16, 2006. ^ City
City
of Dallas
Dallas
City
City
Manager Archived July 24, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved January 13, 2007. ^ City
City
of Dallas
Dallas
– Government Archived October 19, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved October 16, 2006. ^ Villasana, Sol. Dallas's Little Mexico. Arcadia. p. 116. ISBN 978-0-7385-7979-5.  ^ "Stimulus Money Will Put More Cops on Dallas
Dallas
Streets". Dallas Morning News. 2009. Archived from the original on January 20, 2013. Retrieved August 7, 2009.  ^ [2]. Retrieved April 30, 2010. ^ " Dallas
Dallas
– Serving you!". City
City
of Dallas. 2006. Retrieved May 4, 2006.  ^ Dallas Fire-Rescue
Dallas Fire-Rescue
Archived September 19, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. – Station List – Note stations 40 and 50 do not exist, thus listing of 57–2 = 55. Retrieved May 4, 2006. ^ " City
City
of Dallas: Dallas Fire-Rescue
Dallas Fire-Rescue
Department". Dallasfirerescue.com. Retrieved August 27, 2017.  ^ City
City
of Dallas
Dallas
FY06-07 Adopted Budget Overview. (PDF). Retrieved October 17, 2006. ^ a b City
City
of Dallas
Dallas
FY03-04 Adopted Budget Overview Archived May 24, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.. (PDF). Retrieved May 9, 2006. ^ a b City
City
of Dallas
Dallas
FY05-06 Adopted Budget Overview Archived May 24, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.. (PDF). Retrieved May 9, 2006. ^ "Preliminary Annual Uniform Crime Report, January–December, 2006". Fbi.gov. June 4, 2007. Archived from the original on January 14, 2010. Retrieved May 23, 2010.  ^ "Table 4, Offenses Reported to Law Enforcement by State by City 100,000 and over in Population, Index". Fbi.gov. Archived from the original on January 14, 2010. Retrieved May 23, 2010.  ^ a b State of Texas
Texas
- Who Represents me?. Retrieved 3 June 2006. ^ Schutze, Jim. "Absentee Minded." Dallas
Dallas
Observer. August 30, 2001. 2. Retrieved on January 12, 2010. ^ "DemocraticResearch Blog". Pages.sbcglobal.net. July 4, 2001. Archived from the original on May 8, 2010. Retrieved May 23, 2010.  ^ "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections – State Data". Uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved August 14, 2010.  ^ a b " Dallas
Dallas
– Election Results". Dallas
Dallas
County Elections. November 21, 2016. Retrieved November 23, 2016.  ^ [3]. Retrieved on November 10, 2008. Archived December 28, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Fall 2006 Market Ratings". Arbitron.com. Retrieved May 11, 2013.  ^ "Dallas, Texas". Radio-locator.com. Retrieved May 11, 2013.  ^ "Dallas' Fair Park
Fair Park
Newsletter". Dallascityhall.com. Archived from the original on January 21, 2013. Retrieved May 11, 2013.  ^ WRR Classical 101.1 FM: The First Radio Station In Texas, est. 1921 – About WRR. Retrieved on May 9, 2006. Archived July 4, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Emailwire.com – "Hispanic Broadcasting Corporation Announces Renan Almendarez Coello, El Cucuy De La Mañana, 'is Taking His Career to New Heights' Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.". Originally published January 30, 2003. Retrieved on October 19, 2006. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on August 10, 2015. Retrieved October 20, 2006. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Business.com – Hispanic Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved on October 19, 2006. Archived August 24, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Nelson, Colleen McCain (October 5, 2005). "One Man's Invention, Forever Frozen In Time – Dallas: Margarita
Margarita
Machine Takes Its Rightful Place In History". Dallas
Dallas
Morning News. Archived from the original on March 2, 2006. Retrieved February 7, 2007.  ^ "Sister Cities". Dallas-ecodev.org. Archived from the original on May 28, 2010. Retrieved May 23, 2010.  ^ " City
City
of Brno
Brno
Foreign Relations: Partnership agreements – Dallas". City
City
of Brno
Brno
– Brno.cz. Archived from the original on January 15, 2016. Retrieved April 3, 2016.  ^ " Taipei
Taipei
– International Sister Cities". Taipei
Taipei
City
City
Council. Archived from the original on November 2, 2012. Retrieved August 23, 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

Herbert E. Bolton, Athanase de Mezieres and the Louisiana-Texas Frontier 1768–1780, Cleveland: Arthur H. Clark Company, 1914. John William Rogers, The Lusty Texans of Dallas, E. P. Dutton, 1951. Jim Schutze, The Accommodation: The Politics of Race in an American City, New York: Citadel Press, 1987. Nancy Smith, Dallas
Dallas
International with J.R.Ewing, Outskirts Press, 2012. Nancy Smith, Dallas
Dallas
Celebrity in the Glamorous 1980s Era of Ronald and Nancy Reagan, Denver: Outskirts, 2016. Roy H. Williams and Kevin James Shay, And Justice for All: The Untold History of Dallas, Fort Worth: CGS, 1999.

External links[edit]

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Municipalities and communities of Collin County, Texas, United States

County seat: McKinney

Cities

Allen Anna Blue Ridge Carrollton‡ Celina‡ Dallas‡ Farmersville Frisco‡ Garland‡ Josephine‡ Lavon Lowry Crossing Lucas McKinney Melissa Murphy Nevada Parker Plano‡ Princeton Richardson‡ Royse City‡ Sachse‡ Van Alstyne‡ Weston Wylie‡

Towns

Fairview Hebron‡ New Hope Prosper‡ St. Paul

CDP

Westminster

Other unincorporated communities

Altoga Arnold Beverly Hill Bloomdale Branch Buckner Chambersville Chambliss Clear Lake Climax Collin Copeville Cowley Culleoka Deep Water Point Estates Desert Fayburg Forest Grove Frognot Kelly Lavon Beach Estates Lavon Shores Estates Little Ridge Marilee Milligan Millwood New Mesquite Pebble Beach Sunset Acres Pecan Grove Pike Rhea Mills Rockhill Roland Sedalia Snow Hill Trinity Park Valdasta Verona Walnut Grove Wetsel Winningkoff Yucote Acres

Historical communities

Lebanon Lolaville Renner Shepton

Ghost towns

Biggers Nickelville Parris

Footnotes

‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties

v t e

Municipalities and communities of Dallas
Dallas
County, Texas, United States

County seat: Dallas‡

Cities

Balch Springs Carrollton‡ Cedar Hill‡ Cockrell Hill Combine‡ Coppell‡ Dallas‡ DeSoto Duncanville Farmers Branch Ferris‡ Garland‡ Glenn Heights‡ Grand Prairie‡ Grapevine‡ Hutchins Irving Lancaster Lewisville‡ Mesquite‡ Ovilla‡ Richardson‡ Rowlett‡ Sachse‡ Seagoville‡ University Park Wilmer Wylie‡

Towns

Addison Highland Park Sunnyvale

Unincorporated communities

Sand Branch

Historical communities

Alpha Buckingham Duck Creek East Dallas Embree Fruitdale Hatterville Hord's Ridge Kleberg La Reunion Liberty Grove Long Creek New Hope Oak Cliff Pleasant Grove Preston Hollow Renner Rylie Scyene Trinity Mills Tripp

Footnotes

‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties

v t e

Municipalities and communities of Denton County, Texas, United States

County seat: Denton

Cities

Argyle Aubrey Carrollton‡ Celina‡ Coppell‡ Corinth Dallas‡ Denton Fort Worth‡ Frisco‡ Grapevine‡ Haslet‡ Highland Village Justin Krugerville Krum Lake Dallas Lakewood Village Lewisville‡ Little Elm Oak Point Pilot Point Plano‡ Roanoke Sanger Southlake‡ The Colony

Towns

Bartonville Copper Canyon Corral City Cross Roads DISH Double Oak Flower Mound‡ Hackberry Hebron‡ Hickory Creek Lincoln Park Northlake Ponder Prosper‡ Providence Village Shady Shores Trophy Club‡ Westlake‡

CDPs

Lantana Paloma Creek Paloma Creek South Savannah

Unincorporated communities

Alliance‡ Bolivar Navo

Ghost towns

Alton Elizabethtown

Footnotes

‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties

v t e

Municipalities and communities of Kaufman County, Texas, United States

County seat: Kaufman

Cities

Combine‡ Cottonwood Crandall Dallas‡ Forney Heath‡ Kaufman Kemp Mesquite‡ Seagoville‡ Seven Points‡ Terrell

Towns

Mabank‡ Oak Grove Oak Ridge Post Oak Bend City Scurry Talty

Villages

Grays Prairie Rosser

CDPs

Elmo Travis Ranch

Unincorporated communities

Ables Springs Abner Becker Cartwright Cedar Grove Cedarvale Cobb College Mound Colquitt Frog Gastonia Heartland Hiram Jiba Lawrence Lively Lone Star Markout McCoy Ola Peeltown Poetry Prairieville Rand Stubbs Styx Tolosa Union Valley Warsaw Wilson

Footnotes

‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties

v t e

Municipalities and communities of Rockwall County, Texas, United States

County seat: Rockwall

Cities

Dallas‡ Fate Heath‡ McLendon-Chisholm Mobile City Rockwall Rowlett‡ Royse City‡ Wylie‡

Footnotes

‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties

v t e

Municipalities and communities of Tarrant County, Texas, United States

County seat: Fort Worth

Cities

Arlington Azle‡ Bedford Benbrook Blue Mound Burleson‡ Colleyville Crowley‡ Dallas‡ Dalworthington Gardens Euless Everman Forest Hill Fort Worth‡ Grand Prairie‡ Grapevine‡ Haltom City Haslet‡ Hurst Keller Kennedale Lake Worth Mansfield‡ Newark‡ North Richland Hills Pelican Bay Reno‡ Richland Hills River Oaks Saginaw Sansom Park Southlake‡ Watauga Westworth Village White Settlement

Towns

Edgecliff Village Flower Mound‡ Lakeside Pantego Trophy Club‡ Westlake‡ Westover Hills

CDPs

Briar‡ Pecan Acres‡ Rendon Eagle Mountain‡‡

Unincorporated communities

Alliance‡ Avondale Boss Eagle Acres Lake Crest Estates Lake Forest Lake Shore Estates

Historical communities

Belt Junction Bisbee Bransford Center Point Ederville Garden Acres Handley Johnsons Station

Ghost towns

Birds Dido

Footnotes

‡ This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties ‡‡ Previously considered a census-designated place

v t e

Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington

Counties

Collin Dallas Denton Ellis Hood Hunt Johnson Kaufman Parker Rockwall Somervell Tarrant Wise

Major cities

Dallas Fort Worth Arlington

Cities and towns 100k–300k

Carrollton Denton Frisco Garland Grand Prairie Irving Lewisville McKinney Mesquite Plano Richardson

Cities and towns 25k–99k

Allen Bedford Cedar Hill Cleburne The Colony Coppell DeSoto Duncanville Euless Farmers Branch Flower Mound Grapevine Haltom City Highland Village Hurst Keller Lancaster Mansfield North Richland Hills Rockwall Rowlett Southlake Wylie

Cities and towns 10k–25k

Addison Balch Springs Benbrook Burleson Colleyville Corinth Ennis Forest Hill Forney Greenville Sachse Saginaw Seagoville Terrell University Park Watauga Waxahachie Weatherford White Settlement

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Metropolitan areas

Abilene Amarillo Austin–Round Rock Beaumont–Port Arthur Brownsville–Harlingen College Station–Bryan Corpus Christi Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington El Paso Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land Killeen–Temple Laredo Longview Lubbock McAllen–Edinburg–Mission Midland Odessa San Angelo San Antonio–New Braunfels Sherman–Denison Texarkana Tyler Victoria Waco Wichita Falls

Counties

See: List of counties in Texas

v t e

County seats of Texas

A

Abilene Albany Alice Alpine Amarillo Anahuac Anderson Andrews Angleton Anson Archer City Aspermont Athens Austin

B

Baird Ballinger Bandera Bastrop Bay City Beaumont Beeville Bellville Belton Benjamin Big Lake Big Spring Boerne Bonham Boston Brackettville Brady Breckenridge Brenham Brownfield Brownsville Brownwood Bryan Burnet

C

Caldwell Cameron Canadian Canton Canyon Carrizo Springs Carthage Center Centerville Channing Childress Clarendon Clarksville Claude Cleburne Coldspring Coleman Colorado City Columbus Comanche Conroe Cooper Corpus Christi Corsicana Cotulla Crane Crockett Crosbyton Crowell Crystal City Cuero

D

Daingerfield Dalhart Dallas Decatur Del Rio Denton Dickens Dimmitt Dumas

E

Eagle Pass Eastland Edinburg El Paso Eldorado Emory

F

Fairfield Falfurrias Farwell Floresville Floydada Fort Davis Fort Stockton Fort Worth Franklin Fredericksburg

G

Gail Gainesville Galveston Garden City Gatesville George West Georgetown Giddings Gilmer Glen Rose Goldthwaite Goliad Gonzales Graham Granbury Greenville Groesbeck Groveton Guthrie

H

Hallettsville Hamilton Haskell Hebbronville Hemphill Hempstead Henderson Henrietta Hereford Hillsboro Hondo Houston Huntsville

J

Jacksboro Jasper Jayton Jefferson Johnson City Jourdanton Junction

K

Karnes City Kaufman Kermit Kerrville Kingsville Kountze

L

La Grange Lamesa Lampasas Laredo Leakey Levelland Liberty Linden Lipscomb Littlefield Livingston Llano Lockhart Longview Lubbock Lufkin

M

Madisonville Marfa Marlin Marshall Mason Matador McKinney Memphis Menard Mentone Meridian Mertzon Miami Midland Monahans Montague Morton Mount Pleasant Mount Vernon Muleshoe

N

Nacogdoches New Braunfels Newton

O

Odessa Orange Ozona

P

Paducah Paint Rock Palestine Palo Pinto Pampa Panhandle Paris Pearsall Pecos Perryton Pittsburg Plains Plainview Port Lavaca Post

Q

Quanah Quitman

R

Rankin Raymondville Refugio Richmond Rio Grande City Robert Lee Roby Rockport Rocksprings Rockwall Rusk

S

San Angelo San Antonio San Augustine San Diego San Marcos San Saba Sanderson Sarita Seguin Seminole Seymour Sherman Sierra Blanca Silverton Sinton Snyder Sonora Spearman Stanton Stephenville Sterling City Stinnett Stratford Sulphur Springs Sweetwater

T

Tahoka Throckmorton Tilden Tulia Tyler

U

Uvalde

V

Van Horn Vega Vernon Victoria

W

Waco Waxahachie Weatherford Wellington Wharton Wheeler Wichita Falls Woodville

Z

Zapata

v t e

Mayors of cities with populations exceeding 100,000 in Texas

Sylvester Turner
Sylvester Turner
(D) (Houston) Ron Nirenberg
Ron Nirenberg
(I) (San Antonio) Mike Rawlings
Mike Rawlings
(D) (Dallas) Steve Adler (D) (Austin) Betsy Price
Betsy Price
(R) (Fort Worth) Dee Margo
Dee Margo
(R) (El Paso) Jeff Williams (R) (Arlington) Joe McComb (R) (Corpus Christi) Harry LaRosiliere
Harry LaRosiliere
(I) (Plano) Pete Saenz
Pete Saenz
(D) (Laredo) Dan Pope (R) (Lubbock) Douglas Athas (Garland) Beth Van Duyne (R) (Irving) Ginger Nelson (Amarillo) Ron Jensen (Grand Prairie) Tony Martinez (Brownsville) Johnny Isbell (Pasadena) Brian Loughmiller (R) (McKinney) Stan Pickett (Mesquite) Jim Darling (McAllen) Jeff Cheney (Frisco) Jose Segarra (Killeen) Kyle Deaver (Waco) Kevin Falconer (R) (Carrollton) Jerry Morales (Midland) Chris Watts (Denton) Norm Archibald (Abilene) Becky Ames (R) (Beaumont) David Turner (Odessa) Alan McGraw (Round Rock) Glenn Barham (Wichita Falls) Paul Voelker (Richardson) Dean Ueckert (Lewisville) Martin Heines (Tyler) Tom Reid (Pearland) Nancy Berry (College Station)

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