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DAKHAMUNZU (sometimes Dahamunzu) is the name of an Egyptian queen known from the Hittite annals The Deeds of Suppiluliuma , which were composed by Suppiluliuma I 's son Mursili II . The identity of this queen has not yet been established with any degree of certainty and Dakhamunzu
Dakhamunzu
has variously been identified as either Nefertiti
Nefertiti
, Meritaten or Ankhesenamen . The identification of this queen is of importance both for Egyptian chronology and for the reconstruction of events during the late Eighteenth Dynasty .

The episode in The Deeds of Suppiluliuma that features Dakhamunzu
Dakhamunzu
is often referred to as the Zannanza affair, after the name of a Hittite prince who was sent to Egypt to marry her.

CONTENTS

* 1 Context * 2 The Zannanza affair * 3 Aftermath * 4 Identification of the Egyptian protagonists

* 5 Notes ">

The deaths of both Suppiluliuma and his immediate successor Arnuwanda II might be seen as an indirect result of the Zannanza affair because both succumbed to a plague brought to Hattusa
Hattusa
by the prisoners from Amqu.

IDENTIFICATION OF THE EGYPTIAN PROTAGONISTS

Initially the name Dakhamunzu
Dakhamunzu
was believed to be a misreading of Sankhamun, a supposed version of Ankhesenamun
Ankhesenamun
, Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
's widow. This emendation is however now seen as unjustified and it is rather assumed that Dakhamunzu
Dakhamunzu
is a Hittite rendering of the Egyptian title ta hemet nesu (the king's wife) instead of a proper name of a queen. As a consequence Dakhamunzu
Dakhamunzu
has variously been identified as either Nefertiti
Nefertiti
, Meritaten or Ankhesenamen.

Nibhururiya, the name of the recently deceased Pharaoh as it is recorded in the annals, might equally be seen as a rendering of the prenomen of either Akhenaten
Akhenaten
(Neferkheperure ) or Tutankhamun (Nebkheperure) and the flexibility of the chronology of the period admits both possibilities. The chronology of events requires that the death of Nibhururiya occurs near the end of Suppiluliuma's life and therefore conventional Egyptian chronology favours Tutankhamun. It is also assumed that the situation at the Egyptian court (i.e. the lack of male royal offspring) fits better with the period after Tutankhamun's death. In this case Dakhamunzu
Dakhamunzu
should be identified as Ankhesenamun, while the anonymous pharaoh from Suppiluliuma's draft letter can be identified as Ay , a servant Dakhamunzu
Dakhamunzu
did not want to marry.

Alternative Egyptian or Hittite chronologies however make Akhenaten a more likely candidate for Nibhururiya. Comparison between the probable times of death for Akhenaten
Akhenaten
(after the vintaging of wine, i.e. at the end of September or the start of October) and Tutankhamun (in December, based on floral and faunal evidence from his tomb) with the account found in the Hittite annals (which places the reception of Dakhamunzu's first letter in late autumn) also seems to favour the identification of Nibhururiya with Akhenaten. Further evidence to support this identification might come from one of the Amarna letters which seems to deal with the same military actions against Amqu that are reported in the Hittite annals. Since the Amarna archives seems to have been abandoned and closed by the end of Tutankhamun's reign, the presence of this letter there suggest he cannot have been the recently deceased pharaoh from the annals. The recently proposed identification of an Egyptian official named Armaa, who appears in a Hittite document relating events from Mursili II's regnal years 7 and 9, as Horemheb
Horemheb
in his function of viceroy and commander in Asia (i.e. before his ascent to the throne) would also rule out Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
as possible candidate for Nibhururiya.

The identification of Nibhururiya as Akhenaten
Akhenaten
does however complicate the identity of Dakhamunzu
Dakhamunzu
because besides his great royal wife Nefertiti, Meritaten seems to have held the title ta hemet nesu in relation to her father as well. in this case the identity of Dakhamunzu
Dakhamunzu
is largely depended on the identity of Akhenaten's co-regent and successor . Those who see evidence for a gradually changing role for Nefertiti
Nefertiti
(from great royal wife, over co-regent to sole ruler after Akhenaten's death) will naturally identify Dakhamunzu as Nefertiti
Nefertiti
and they see the Zannanza affair as further evidence for Nefertiti's continuing importance in the late- Amarna period. In this case it is believed that, in spite of her changed role at the Egyptian court, to the outside world she would have remained to be known as the king's wife and a parallel is drawn between the Hatshepsut
Hatshepsut
-Tuthmosis III co-rule earlier in the 18th dynasty and a co-regency between Nefertiti
Nefertiti
and Tutankhamun, the latter king can then be identified as the unnamed pharaoh from Suppiluliuma's letter, supplanting Nefertiti on the Egyptian throne. Other's however maintain that Nefertiti predeceased her husband and they will therefore identify Dakhamunzu/Akhenaten's female co-regent as Meritaten. In this scenario Smenkhare can be identified as the new unnamed pharaoh, who would then be the servant Dakhamunzu
Dakhamunzu
was unwilling to marry, although the identification of Smenkhkare
Smenkhkare
as Zannanza is also suggested as a (more unlikely) possibility.

NOTES & REFERENCES

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C D E F Reeves (2001) p.175 * ^ A B Aldred, C., Akhenaten, King of Egypt (Thames and Hudson, 1988) p. 297 * ^ A B Güterbock (1956) p.94 * ^ Reeves, C.N., Akhenaten, Egypt's False Prophet (Thames and Hudson, 2001) p. 64 * ^ A B Güterbock (1956) p.95 * ^ Güterbock, H.G., "The Deeds of Suppiluliuma as told by his son, Mursilli II", Journal of Cuneiform Studies, 10 (1956) p. 96 * ^ Güterbock, H.G., "The Deeds of Suppiluliuma as told by his son, Mursilli II", Journal of Cuneiform Studies, 10 (1956) pp. 96-97 * ^ Güterbock, H.G., "The Deeds of Suppiluliuma as told by his son, Mursilli II", Journal of Cuneiform Studies, 10 (1956) p. 97 * ^ Güterbock, H.G., "The Deeds of Suppiluliuma as told by his son, Mursilli II", Journal of Cuneiform Studies, 10 (1956) pp. 97-98 * ^ A B C Reeves, C.N., Akhenaten, Egypt's False Prophet (Thames and Hudson, 2001) p. 176 * ^ Güterbock, H.G., "The Deeds of Suppiluliuma as told by his son, Mursilli II", Journal of Cuneiform Studies, 10 (1956) p. 108 * ^ A B Aldred, C., Akhenaten, King of Egypt (Thames and Hudson, 1988) p. 298 * ^ https://www.webcitation.org/query?url=http://www.geocities.com/TimesSquare/Alley/4482/Ay.html;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Amarna Period
Amarna Period

PHARAOHS

* Akhenaten
Akhenaten
* Smenkhkare
Smenkhkare
* Neferneferuaten * Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
* Ay

ROYAL FAMILY

* Tiye * Nefertiti
Nefertiti
* Kiya
Kiya
* " The Younger Lady
The Younger Lady
" * Tey

CHILDREN

* Meritaten * Meketaten * Ankhesenamun
Ankhesenamun
* Neferneferuaten Tasherit * Neferneferure
Neferneferure
* Setepenre * Meritaten Tasherit * Ankhesenpaaten Tasherit
Ankhesenpaaten Tasherit

* Nobles * Officials

* Mutbenret
Mutbenret
* Aperel
Aperel
* Bek * Huya * Meryre II
Meryre II
* Nakhtpaaten
Nakhtpaaten
* Panehesy
Panehesy
* Parennefer
Parennefer
* Penthu
Penthu
* Thutmose

LOCATIONS

* Akhetaten * Karnak * KV55
KV55
* KV62
KV62
* Amarna Tombs

OTHER

* Amarna letters * Amarna succession * Aten
Aten
* Atenism
Atenism
* Dakhamunzu * Amarna

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