DAIBUTSUYō (大仏様, lit. great Buddha style) is a Japanese
religious architectural style which emerged in the late 12th or early
13th century. Together with
Originally called tenjikuyō (天竺様, lit. Indian style), because
it had nothing to do with India it was rechristened by scholar Ōta
Hirotarō during the 20th century, and the new term stuck. Ōta
derived the name from Chōgen's work, particularly
Soon abandoned after its creator's death, probably because it didn't
harmonize with Japanese tastes, it nonetheless influenced other
building styles with its rational solutions. The combination of wayō
and daibutsuyō in particular became so frequent that sometimes it is
classed separately by scholars under the name
new wayō). This grandiose and monumental style is the antithesis of
the simple and traditional wayō style. The Nandaimon at
* 1 History
* 2 Features
* 3 See also
* 4 Examples of the
The style was introduced by priest
Chōgen , who in 1180 directed the
Of his work at the temple only three structures remain, the already
mentioned Nandaimon, which remains the best
Chōgen built other buildings in this style near and around Nara , of which the Amida-dō at Jōdo-ji in Ono is a good extant example.
The style declined quickly after its creator's death, probably because it did not agree with Japanese tastes. Structural elements are treated as design elements, and the building's deliberate roughness is supposed to be part of its beauty, but the concept was probably too alien to Chōgen's contemporaries, and was rejected.
Nandaimon (detail). Note the exposed tōrihijiki
* Thick woodwork and imposing general look * Use of penetrating tie beams
During the Heian period temples were built using only non-penetrating tie beams (nageshi (長押)) made to fit around columns and pillars and nailed. The daibutsuyō style, first, and the zenshūyō style, later, replaced them with penetrating tie-beams (nuki (貫)), which actually pierced the column, and were therefore much more effective against earthquakes. The nageshi was however retained as a purely decorative element.
* Thick, visible structural elements with decorative function
As already mentioned, many structural elements are left uncovered and
have a decorative function. For example, the roof's supporting members
are not covered by a ceiling and are therefore fully visible from
within the temple. The Nandaimon's stabilizing bracket ties
(tōrihijiki (通り肘木)) which run the entire width of the gate
are also fully visible (see photo on the right). (Other styles hide
them, at least partially.) Structural elements are much thicker than
The sashihijiki (挿肘木) is a bracket arm inserted directly into a pillar instead of resting onto a supporting block on top of a pillar, as was normal in the preceding wayō style (see photo on the right). At Tōdai-ji, both the Nandaimon and the Daibutsuden have six sashihijiki one on top of the other (mutesaki tokyō). (On the subject, see also the article Tokyō ).
Another detail unique to this style are the ōgidaruki (扇垂木, lit. fan rafters). The rafters supporting each roof corner spread from a single point, in a fan-like pattern.
The tips of each protruding beam ends in a nose-like structure called kibana (木鼻, lit. wooden nose).
Japanese Buddhist architecture
EXAMPLES OF THE DAIBUTSUYō STYLE
* Tōdai-ji's Nandaimon * Tōdai-ji's Kaizan-dō * Tōdai-ji's Hokke-dō * Jōdo-ji's Amida-dō
* ^ Parent, Mary Neighbour. Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System . Daibutsuyou, retrieved on 6-4-11 * ^ A B C D E F Nishi, Hozumi (1996:20-21) * ^ Fletcher & Cruickshank 1996 , p=738 * ^ Fletcher & Cruickshank 1996 , p=737 * ^ Kudō, Yoshiaki. "Daibutsuyō". Nihon Hyakka Zensho. Shogakukan. Retrieved 6 April 2011. * ^ Hamashima, Masashi (1999). Jisha Kenchiku no Kanshō Kiso Chishiki (in Japanese). Tokyo: Shibundō. p. 160. * ^ A B C D E Nishi, Hozumi (1996:24-25) * ^ Parent, Mary Neighbour. Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System . Nageshi, retrieved on 4-6-11 * ^ Parent, Mary Neighbour. Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System . Tooshihijiki, retrieved on 4-18-11
* Fletcher, Sir Banister ; Cruickshank, Dan (1996) . Sir Banister Fletcher\'s a history of architecture (20th illustrated ed.). Architectural Press. ISBN 0-7506-2267-9 . Retrieved 2009-11-11. * "JAANUS". Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System . * Nishi, Kazuo; Hozumi, Kazuo (1996) . What is Japanese architecture? (illustrated ed.). Kodansha International. ISBN 4-7700-1992-0 . Retrieved 2009-11-11. * Young, David; Young, Michiko Kimura; Yew, Tan Hong (2004). Introduction to Japanese architecture. Periplus Asian architecture (illustrated ed.). Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0-7946-0100-6 . Retrieved 2010-01-11.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to DAIBUTSUYō .
* v * t * e
* Hiyoshi (Hie)
Imperial Crown style (Teikanyōshiki)
TYPES OF BUILDING
* Gates * Approaches
Groups of Traditional Buildings
* Castles * Residences * Shrines * Temples * Other structures
* v * t * e
JAPANESE BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE
* hidden roof * hisashi * irimoya * kaerumata: see nakazonae * kairō * karahafu * karesansui * kentozuka: see nakazonae * komainu * katōmado * mokoshi * moya * nakazonae * Niō or Kongōrikishi * sandō * shichidō garan * shōrō * sōrin * tokyō * tōrō * onigawara
* karamon * nijūmon * niōmon * rōmon * sanmon * sōmon * torii
* Chinjusha * chōzuya/temizuya * -dō * main hall (kon-dō, hon-dō, butsuden) * kuri * kyōzō or kyō-dō * shoin
* gorintō * hōkyōintō * hōtō * kasatōba * sotōba * muhōtō * tahōtō
* A-un * ken
SCHOOLS AND OBJECTS OF WORSHIP
OBJECTS OF WORSHIP
* Amida Nyōrai
* kei (ritual gong) * mokugyō
* bussokuseki * butsudan * Glossary of Japanese Buddhism