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One of the modern systems of plant taxonomy, the Dahlgren system was published by monocot specialist Rolf Dahlgren in 1975[1] and revised in 1977,[2] and 1980.[3] However, he is best known for his two treatises on monocotyledons in 1982 [4] and revised in 1985.[5] His wife Gertrud Dahlgren continued the work after his death.[6] Dahlgren ranked the dicotyledons and monocotyledons as subclasses of the class of flowering plants (angiosperms) and further divided them into superorders. Originally (1975) he used the suffix -anae, as did Cronquist, to designate these, but in 1980 changed this to -florae in accordance with Thorne. In the 1989 revision, published by his wife, the alternate names Magnoliidae and Liliidae were dropped in favour of Dicotyledon and Monocotyledon, and the suffix -florae reverted to -anae (e.g. Alismatanae
Alismatanae
for Alismatiflorae). Reveal provides an extensive listing of Dahlgren's classification.[7] (Note the synonyms, both nomenclatural and taxonomic, for each name in the system.)

Contents

1 1980 system

1.1 Summary 1.2 Magnoliidae (Dicotyledons)

2 1982 system (Monocotyledons)

2.1 Summary 2.2 Details

3 1985 system (Monocotyledons)

3.1 Summary 3.2 Details

3.2.1 Liliiflorae 3.2.2 Ariflorae 3.2.3 Triuridiflorae 3.2.4 Alismatiflorae 3.2.5 Bromeliiflorae 3.2.6 Zingiberiflorae 3.2.7 Commeliniflorae 3.2.8 Cyclanthiflorae 3.2.9 Areciflorae 3.2.10 Pandaniflorae

4 Notes 5 References 6 Bibliography

1980 system[edit] Summary[edit]

class Magnoliopsida
Magnoliopsida
(Flowering Plants ( Angiospermae
Angiospermae
or Magnoliophyta)

subclass Magnoliidae (Dicotyledons) 24 superorders

superorder Magnoliiflorae superorder Nymphaeiflorae superorder Ranunculiflorae superorder Caryophylliflorae superorder Polygoniflorae superorder Malviflorae superorder Violiflorae superorder Theiflorae superorder Primuliflorae superorder Rosiflorae superorder Podostemiflorae superorder Fabiflorae superorder Proteiflorae superorder Myrtiflorae superorder Rutiflorae superorder Santaliflorae superorder Balanophoriflorae superorder Araliiflorae superorder Asteriflorae superorder Solaniflorae superorder Corniflorae superorder Loasiflorae superorder Gentianiflorae superorder Lamiiflorae

subclass Liliidae (Monocotyledons) 7 superorders

superorder Alismatiflorae superorder Triuridiflorae superorder Ariflorae superorder Liliiflorae superorder Zingiberiflorae superorder Commeliniflorae superorder Areciflorae

Magnoliidae (Dicotyledons)[edit]

subclass Magnoliiflorae

superorder Magnolianae

order Annonales

family Annonaceae family Myristicaceae family Eupomatiaceae family Canellaceae family Austrobaileyaceae

order Aristolochiales

family Aristolochiaceae

order Rafflesiales

family Rafflesiaceae family Hydnoraceae

order Magnoliales

family Degeneriaceae family Himantandraceae family Magnoliaceae

order Lactoridales

family Lactoridaceae

order Winterales

family Winteraceae

order Chloranthales

family Chloranthaceae

order Illiciales

family Illiciaceae family Schisandraceae

order Laurales

family Amborellaceae family Trimeniaceae family Monimiaceae family Gomortegaceae family Calycanthaceae family Lauraceae

order Nelumbonales

family Nelumbonaceae

superorder Nymphaeiflorae

order Piperales

family Saururaceae family Piperaceae

order Nymphaeales

family Cabombaceae family Nymphaeaceae family Ceratophyllaceae

superorder Ranunculiflorae

order Ranunculales

family Lardizabalaceae family Sargentodoxaceae family Menispermaceae family Kingdoniaceae family Circaeasteraceae family Ranunculaceae family Hydrastidaceae family Berberidaceae

order Papaverales

family Papaveraceae family Fumariaceae

superorder Caryophylliflorae

order Caryophyllales

family Molluginaceae family Caryophyllaceae family Phytolaccaceae family Achatocarpaceae family Agdestidaceae family Basellaceae family Portulacaceae family Stegnospermataceae family Nyctaginaceae family Aizoaceae family Halophytaceae family Cactaceae family Didiereaceae family Hectorellaceae family Chenopodiaceae family Amaranthaceae

superorder Polygoniflorae

order Polygonales

family Polygonaceae

superorder Malviflorae

order Malvales

family Sterculiaceae family Plagiopteraceae family Bixaceae family Cochlospermaceae family Cistaceae family Sphaerosepalaceae family Sarcolaenaceae family Huaceae family Tiliaceae family Dipterocarpaceae family Bombacaceae family Malvaceae

order Urticales

family Ulmaceae family Moraceae family Cecropiaceae family Barbeyaceae family Cannabaceae family Urticaceae

order Euphorbiales

family Euphorbiaceae family Simmondsiaceae family Pandaceae family Aextoxicaceae family Dichapetalaceae

order Plumbaginales

family Plumbaginaceae family Limoniaceae

order Thymelaeales

family Gonystylaceae family Thymelaeaceae

order Rhamnales

family Rhamnaceae

superorder Violiflorae

order Violales

family Flacourtiaceae family Berberidopsidaceae family Aphloiaceae family Physenaceae family Passifloraceae family Dipentodontaceae family Peridiscaceae family Scyphostegiaceae family Violaceae family Turneraceae family Malesherbiaceae family Caricaceae

order Cucurbitales

family Achariaceae family Cucurbitaceae family Begoniaceae family Datiscaceae

order Salicales

family Salicaceae

order Tamaricales

family Tamaricaceae family Frankeniaceae

order Capparales

family Capparaceae family Brassicaceae family Tovariaceae family Resedaceae family Gyrostemonaceae family Bataceae family Moringaceae

order Tropaeolales

family Tropaeolaceae family Limnanthaceae

order Salvadorales

family Salvadoraceae

superorder Theiflorae

order Dilleniales

family Dilleniaceae

order Paeoniales

family Glaucidiaceae family Paeoniaceae

order Theales

family Stachyuraceae family Pentaphylacaceae family Marcgraviaceae family Quiinaceae family Ancistrocladaceae family Dioncophyllaceae family Nepenthaceae family Medusagynaceae family Caryocaraceae family Strasburgeriaceae family Ochnaceae family Chrysobalanaceae family Oncothecaceae family Scytopetalaceae family Theaceae family Bonnetiaceae family Clusiaceae family Elatinaceae

order Lecythidales

family Lecythidaceae

superorder Primuliflorae

order Primulales

family Myrsinaceae family Aegicerataceae family Theophrastaceae family Primulaceae family Coridaceae

order Ebenales

family Sapotaceae family Styracaceae family Lissocarpaceae family Ebenaceae

superorder Rosiflorae

order Trochodendrales

family Trochodendraceae family Tetracentraceae

order Cercidiphyllales

family Cercidiphyllaceae family Eupteleaceae

order Hamamelidales

family Hamamelidaceae family Platanaceae family Myrothamnaceae

order Balanopales

family Balanopaceae

order Fagales

family Nothofagaceae family Fagaceae family Corylaceae family Betulaceae

order Juglandales

family Rhoipteleaceae family Juglandaceae

order Myricales

family Myricaceae

order Casuarinales

family Casuarinaceae

order Buxales)

family Buxaceae family Daphniphyllaceae family Didymelaceae

order Geissolomatales

family Geissolomataceae

order Cunoniales

family Cunoniaceae family Baueraceae family Brunelliaceae family Davidsoniaceae family Eucryphiaceae family Bruniaceae family Grubbiaceae

order Saxifragales

family Saxifragaceae family Francoaceae family Greyiaceae family Brexiaceae family Grossulariaceae family Iteaceae family Cephalotaceae family Crassulaceae

order Droserales

family Droseraceae family Lepuropetalaceae family Parnassiaceae

order Rosales

family Rosaceae family Neuradaceae family Malaceae family Amygdalaceae family Anisophylleaceae family Crossosomataceae family Surianaceae family Rhabdodendraceae

order Gunnerales

family Gunneraceae

superorder Podostemiflorae

order Podostemales

family Podostemaceae
Podostemaceae
(including Tristichaceae)

superorder Fabiflorae

order Fabales

family Mimosaceae family Caesalpiniaceae family Fabaceae

superorder Proteiflorae

order Proteales

family Proteaceae

order Elaeagnales

family Elaeagnaceae

superorder Myrtiflorae

order Myrtales

family Psiloxylaceae family Heteropyxidaceae family Myrtaceae family Onagraceae family Trapaceae family Lythraceae family Combretaceae family Melastomataceae family Memecylaceae family Crypteroniaceae family Oliniaceae family Penaeaceae family Rhynchocalycaceae family Alzateaceae

order Haloragales

family Haloragaceae

superorder Rutiflorae

order Sapindales

family Coriariaceae family Anacardiaceae family Leitneriaceae family Podoaceae family Sapindaceae family Hippocastanaceae family Aceraceae family Akaniaceae family Bretschneideraceae family Emblingiaceae family Staphyleaceae family Melianthaceae family Sabiaceae) family Meliosmaceae family Connaraceae

order Rutales

family Rutaceae family Ptaeroxylaceae family Cneoraceae family Simaroubaceae family Tepuianthaceae family Burseraceae family Meliaceae

order Polygalales

family Malpighiaceae family Trigoniaceae family Vochysiaceae family Polygalaceae family Krameriaceae

order Geraniales

family Zygophyllaceae family Nitrariaceae family Peganaceae family Balanitaceae family Erythroxylaceae family Humiriaceae family Linaceae family Ctenolophonaceae family Ixonanthaceae family Lepidobotryaceae family Oxalidaceae
Oxalidaceae
(including Averrhoaceae) family Geraniaceae family Dirachmaceae family Ledocarpaceae family Vivianiaceae family Biebersteiniaceae

order Linales (incorporated into Geraniales)

family Linaceae family Humiriaceae family Ctenolophonaceae family Ixonanthaceae family Erythroxylaceae family Lepidobotryaceae family Oxalidaceae

order Celastrales

family Stackhousiaceae family Lophopyxidaceae family Cardiopteridaceae family Corynocarpaceae family Celastraceae

order Rhizophorales

family Rhizophoraceae family Elaeocarpaceae

order Balsaminales

family Balsaminaceae

superorder Santaliflorae

order Santalales

family Olacaceae family Opiliaceae family Loranthaceae family Medusandraceae family Misodendraceae family Eremolepidaceae family Santalaceae family Viscaceae

superorder Balanophoriflorae

order Balanophorales

family Cynomoriaceae family Balanophoraceae

superorder Araliiflorae

order Pittosporales

family Pittosporaceae family Tremandraceae family Byblidaceae

order Araliales

family Araliaceae family Apiaceae

superorder Asteriflorae

order Campanulales

family Pentaphragmataceae family Campanulaceae family Lobeliaceae

order Asterales

family Asteraceae

superorder Solaniflorae

order Solanales

family Solanaceae family Sclerophylacaceae family Goetzeaceae family Convolvulaceae family Cuscutaceae family Cobaeaceae family Polemoniaceae

order Boraginales

family Hydrophyllaceae family Ehretiaceae family Boraginaceae family Lennoaceae family Hoplestigmataceae

superorder Corniflorae

order Fouquieriales

family Fouquieriaceae

order Ericales

family Actinidiaceae family Clethraceae family Cyrillaceae family Ericaceae family Empetraceae family Monotropaceae family Pyrolaceae family Epacridaceae

order Eucommiales

family Eucommiaceae

order Sarraceniales

family Sarraceniaceae

order Cornales

family Garryaceae family Alangiaceae family Nyssaceae family Cornaceae family Roridulaceae family Davidiaceae family Escalloniaceae family Helwingiaceae family Torricelliaceae family Aucubaceae family Aralidiaceae family Diapensiaceae family Phellinaceae family Aquifoliaceae family Paracryphiaceae family Sphenostemonaceae family Symplocaceae family Icacinaceae family Montiniaceae family Columelliaceae family Stylidiaceae
Stylidiaceae
(including Donatiaceae) family Alseuosmiaceae family Hydrangeaceae family Sambucaceae family Viburnaceae family Menyanthaceae family Adoxaceae family Phyllonomaceae family Tribelaceae family Eremosynaceae family Pterostemonaceae family Tetracarpaeaceae

order Dipsacales

family Caprifoliaceae family Valerianaceae family Dipsacaceae family Morinaceae family Calyceraceae

superorder Loasiflorae

order Loasales

family Loasaceae

superorder Gentianiflorae

order Goodeniales

family Goodeniaceae

order Oleales

family Oleaceae

order Gentianales

family Desfontainiaceae family Loganiaceae family Dialypetalanthaceae family Rubiaceae family Theligonaceae family Gentianaceae family Saccifoliaceae family Apocynaceae family Asclepiadaceae

superorder Lamiiflorae

order Lamiales

family Retziaceae family Stilbaceae family Buddlejaceae family Scrophulariaceae family Myoporaceae family Globulariaceae family Plantaginaceae family Lentibulariaceae family Pedaliaceae family Trapellaceae family Martyniaceae family Gesneriaceae family Bignoniaceae family Acanthaceae family Verbenaceae family Lamiaceae family Callitrichaceae

order Hydrostachyales

family Hydrostachyaceae

order Hippuridales

family Hippuridaceae

1982 system (Monocotyledons)[edit] Summary[edit] 6 Superorders

Superorder Alismatiflorae Superorder Ariflorae Superorder Liliiflorae Superorder Zingiberiflorae Superorder Commeliniflorae Superorder Areciflorae

Details[edit]

Superorder Alismatiflorae
Alismatiflorae
5 Orders Superorder Ariflorae 1 Order

Order Arales

Superorder Liliiflorae
Liliiflorae
11 Orders

Order Dioscoreales Order Taccales Order Asparagales

Family Smilacaceae Family Petermanniaceae Family Philesiaceae Family Convallariaceae Family Asparagaceae Family Herreriaceae Family Dracaenaceae Family Doryanthaceae Family Dasypogonaceae Family Phormiaceae Family Xanthorrhoeaceae Family Agavaceae Family Hypoxidaceae Family Asphodelaceae Family Aphyllanthaceae Family Dianellaceae Family Tecophilaeaceae Family Cyanastraceae Family Eriospermaceae Family Hemerocallidaceae Family Funkiaceae Family Hyacinthaceae Family Alliaceae Family Amaryllidaceae

Order Liliales

Family Iridaceae Family Geosiridaceae Family Colchicaceae Family Alstroemeriaceae Family Tricyrtidaceae Family Calochortaceae Family Liliaceae Family Melanthiaceae

Order Burmanniales Order Orchidales Order Pontederiales Order Haemodorales Order Philydrales Order Velloziales Order Bromeliales

Superorder Zingiberiflorae
Zingiberiflorae
1 Order

Order Zingiberales

Superorder Commeliniflorae
Commeliniflorae
8 Orders Superorder Areciflorae
Areciflorae
3 Orders

1985 system (Monocotyledons)[edit] Summary[edit] 10 superorders

Superorder Liliiflorae Superorder Ariflorae Superorder Triuridiflorae Superorder Alismatiflorae Superorder Bromeliiflorae Superorder Zingiberiflorae Superorder Commeliniflorae Superorder Cyclanthiflorae Superorder Areciflorae Superorder Pandaniflorae

Details[edit] Liliiflorae[edit]

Superorder Liliiflorae
Liliiflorae
6 Orders p. 107

order Dioscoreales

family Trichopodaceae family Dioscoreaceae family Taccaceae family Stemonaceae family Trilliaceae family Smilacaceae family Petermanniaceae

order Asparagales

family Philesiaceae family Luzuriagaceae family Convallariaceae family Asparagaceae family Ruscaceae family Herreriaceae family Dracaenaceae family Nolinaceae family Asteliaceae family Hanguanaceae family Dasypogonaceae family Calectasiaceae family Blandfordiaceae family Xanthorrhoeaceae family Agavaceae family Hypoxidaceae family Tecophilaeaceae family Cyanastraceae family Eriospermaceae family Ixioliriaceae family Phormiaceae family Doryanthaceae family Hemerocallidaceae family Asphodelaceae family Anthericaceae family Aphyllanthaceae family [[Funkiaceae]] family Hyacinthaceae family Alliaceae family Amaryllidaceae

tribe Amaryllideae tribe Hippeastrae tribe Lycoridae tribe Stenomesseae tribe Eucharideae tribe Pancratieae tribe Narcisseae tribe Galantheae

order Melanthiales

family Melanthiaceae family Campynemaceae

order Burmanniales

family Burmanniaceae family Thismiaceae family Corsiaceae

order Liliales

family Alstroemeriaceae family Colchicaceae family Uvulariaceae family Calochortaceae family Liliaceae family Geosiridaceae family Iridaceae

order Orchids

family Apostasiaceae family Cypripediaceae family Orchidaceae

Ariflorae[edit]

Superorder Ariflorae 1 Order p. 275

order Arales

family Araceae family Lemnaceae

Triuridiflorae[edit]

Superorder Triuridiflorae 1 Order p. 287

order Triuridales

family Triuridaceae

Alismatiflorae[edit]

Superorder Alismatiflorae
Alismatiflorae
2 Orders p. 292

order Alismatales

family Aponogetonaceae family Butomaceae family Limnocharitaceae family Alismataceae family Hydrocharitaceae

order Najadales

family Scheuchzeriaceae family Juncaginaceae family Potamogetonaceae family Posidoniaceae family Zosteraceae family Zannichelliaceae family Cymodoceaceae family Najadaceae

Bromeliiflorae[edit]

Superorder Bromeliflorae 6 Orders p. 323

order Velloziales

family Velloziaceae

order Bromeliales

family Bromeliaceae

order Philydrales

family Philydraceae

order Haemodorales

family Haemodoraceae

order Pontederiales

family Pontederiaceae

order Typhales

family Sparganiaceae family Typhaceae

Zingiberiflorae[edit]

Superorder Zingiberiflorae
Zingiberiflorae
1 Order p. 350

order Zingiberales

family Lowiaceae family Musaceae family Heliconiaceae family Strelitziaceae family Zingiberaceae family Costaceae family Cannaceae family Marantaceae

Commeliniflorae[edit]

Superorder Commeliniflorae
Commeliniflorae
4 Orders p. 374

order Commelinales

family Commelinaceae family Mayacaceae family Xyridaceae family Rapateaceae family Eriocaulaceae

order Hydatellales

family Hydatellaceae

order Cyperales

family Juncaceae family Thurniaceae family Cyperaceae

order Poales

family Flagellariaceae family Joinvilleaceae family Poaceae family Ecdeiocolaceae family Anarthriaceae family Restionaceae family Centrolepidaceae

Cyclanthiflorae[edit]

Superorder Cyclanthiflorae
Cyclanthiflorae
1 Order p. 461

order Cyclanthales

family Cyclanthaceae

Areciflorae[edit]

Superorder Areciflorae
Areciflorae
1 Order p. 467

order Arecales

family Arecaceae

Pandaniflorae[edit]

Superorder Pandaniflorae
Pandaniflorae
1 Order p. 480

order Pandanales

family Pandanaceae

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

^ Dahlgren 1975. ^ Dahlgren 1977. ^ Dahlgren 1980. ^ Dahlgren & Clifford 1982. ^ Dahlgren, Clifford & Yeo 1985. ^ Dahlgren 1989. ^ JL Reveal:Dahlgren System of Angiosperm Classification 1997

Bibliography[edit]

Dahlgren, Gertrud (July 1989). "An updated angiosperm classification". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 100 (3): 197–203. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.1989.tb01717.x.  Dahlgren, R. (1975). "A system of classification of angiosperms to be used to demonstrate the distribution of characters". Botaniska Notiser. 128: 119–147.  Dahlgren, Rolf (1977). A commentary on a diagrammatic presentation of the angiosperms in relation to the distribution of character states. pp. 253–284. , in Kubitzki (1977) Kubitzki, Klaus, ed. (1977). Flowering Plants : Evolution and classification of higher categories. Symposium, Hamburg, September 8–12, 1976. Plant Systematics & Evolution - Supplementum 1. Wien: Springer. p. 416. ISBN 978-3-211-81434-5. Retrieved 13 August 2015.  Dahlgren, R. M. T. (February 1980). "A revised system of classification of the angiosperms". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 80 (2): 91–124. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.1980.tb01661.x.  Dahlgren, Rolf; Clifford, H. T. (1982). The monocotyledons: A comparative study. London and New York: Academic Press.  Dahlgren, R.M.; Clifford, H.T.; Yeo, P.F. (1985). The families of the monocotyledons. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-642-64903-5. Retrieved 10 February 2014.  Additional excerpts

v t e

List of systems of plant taxonomy

Pre-Linnaean

John Ray
John Ray
system (1686–1704)

A discourse on the seeds of plants Methodus plantarum nova De Variis Plantarum Methodis Dissertatio Brevis Methodus plantarum emendata et aucta

Pre-Darwinian

Linnaean system (1735–51)

Systema Naturae Species Plantarum Genera Plantarum Philosophia Botanica

Adanson system (1763)

Familles naturelles des plantes

De Jussieu system (1789)

Genera Plantarum, secundum ordines naturales disposita juxta methodum in Horto Regio Parisiensi exaratam

De Candolle system (1819–24)

Théorie élémentaire de la botanique, ou exposition des principes de la classification naturelle et de l'art de décrire et d'etudier les végétaux Prodromus systemati naturalis regni vegetabilis sive enumeratio contracta ordinum, generum specierumque plantarum huc usque cognitarum, juxta methodi naturalis normas digesta

Berchtold and Presl system (1820–1823)

O Prirozenosti Rostlin

Agardh system (1825)

Classes Plantarum

Gray system (1821)

The Natural Arrangement of British Plants

Dumortier
Dumortier
system (1829)

Analyse des familles des plantes

Lindley system (1830–45)

An Introduction to the Natural System of Botany The Vegetable Kingdom

Don system (1834)

General History of Dichlamydious Plants.

Bentham & Hooker system (1862–83)

Genera plantarum ad exemplaria imprimis in herbariis kewensibus servata definita.

Baillon system (1867–94)

Histoire des plantes

Post- Darwinian
Darwinian
(Phyletic)

Nineteenth century

Eichler system (1875–1886)

Blüthendiagramme: construirt und erläutert Syllabus der Vorlesungen über Phanerogamenkunde

Engler system
Engler system
(1886–1924)

Führer durch den Königlich botanischen Garten der Universität zu Breslau Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien Das Pflanzenreich

van Tieghem system (1891)

Traité de botanique

Twentieth century

Dalla Torre & Harms system (1900–07)

Genera Siphonogamarum, ad systema Englerianum conscripta

Warming system (1912)

Haandbog i den systematiske botanik

Hallier system (1912)

L'origine et le système phylétique des angiospermes

Bessey system (1915)

The phylogenetic taxonomy of flowering plants

Wettstein system (1901–35)

Handbuch der systematischen Botanik

Lotsy system (1907–11)

Vorträge über botanische Stammesgeschichte, gehalten an der Reichsuniversität zu Leiden. Ein Lehrbuch der Pflanzensystematik.

Hutchinson system (1926–73)

The families of flowering plants, arranged according to a new system based on their probable phylogeny

Calestani system (1933)

Le origini e la classificazione delle Angiosperme

Kimura system (1956)

Système et phylogénie des monocotyledones

Emberger system (1960)

Traité de Botanique systématique

Melchior system (1964)

Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien

Takhtajan system (1966–97)

A system and phylogeny of the flowering plants Flowering plants: origin and dispersal Diversity and classification of flowering plants

Cronquist system
Cronquist system
(1968–81)

The evolution and classification of flowering plants An integrated system of classification of flowering plants

Goldberg system (1986–89

Classification, Evolution and Phylogeny of the Families of Dicotyledons

Dahlgren system (1975–85)

The families of the monocotyledons: structure, evolution, and taxonomy

Thorne system (1968–2000)

An updated phylogenetic classification of the flowering plants

Kubitzki system (1990–)

The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants

Reveal system (1999)

Reveal System of Angiosperm Classification

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group System (1998–2009)

An ordinal classification for the families of flowering plants (APG I) An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV Angiosperm Phylogeny Website

See also

Plantae at Wikispecies

Note: This is a selected list of the more influential systems. There are many other systems, for instance a review of earlier systems, published by Lindley in his 1853 edition, and Dahlgren (1982). Examples include the works of Scopoli, Bat

.