The Info List - Dag Hammarskjöld

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Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjöld (Swedish: [dɑːɡ ²hamarˌɧœld] ( listen); 29 July 1905 – 18 September 1961) was a Swedish diplomat, economist, and author who served as the second Secretary-General of the United Nations
Secretary-General of the United Nations
from April 1953 until his death in a plane crash in September 1961. At the age of 47 years upon his appointment, Hammarskjöld was the youngest to have held the post. Additionally, he is one of only four people to be awarded a posthumous Nobel Prize[1] and was the only United Nations Secretary-General to die while in office. He was killed in a DC-6 airplane crash en route to cease-fire negotiations during the Congo Crisis. Hammarskjöld has been referred to as one of the two best secretaries-general of the United Nations,[2] and his appointment has been mentioned as the most notable success for the UN.[3] United States President John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
called Hammarskjöld "the greatest statesman of our century."[4]


1 Early life and education 2 Career 3 United Nations
United Nations

3.1 Nomination and election 3.2 Tenure

4 Death 5 Personal life

5.1 Spirituality and Markings

6 Legacy

6.1 Honors 6.2 People's views 6.3 Eponymous structures 6.4 Other commemorations

7 Notes 8 References 9 Bibliography 10 External links

Early life and education[edit]

Hammarskjöld's birthplace in Jönköping.

Dag Hammarskjöld
Dag Hammarskjöld
was born in Jönköping
to the noble family Hammarskjöld (also spelled Hammarskiöld or Hammarsköld). He spent most of his childhood in Uppsala. His home there, which he considered his childhood home, was Uppsala
Castle. He was the fourth and youngest son of Hjalmar Hammarskjöld, Prime Minister of Sweden
from 1914 to 1917,[5] and Agnes Hammarskjöld (née Almquist). Hammarskjöld's family was ennobled in 1610 due to deeds of the warrior Peder Mikaelsson (after 1610) Hammarskiöld (approximately 1560 - 12 April 1646), an officer in the cavalry who fought for both sides in the War against Sigismund, where he took the name Hammarskiöld at his ennobling. Hammarskjöld's ancestors had served the Monarchy of Sweden
since the 17th century.[citation needed] Hammarskjöld studied first at Katedralskolan and then at Uppsala University. By 1930, he had obtained Licentiate of Philosophy and Master of Laws degrees. Before he finished his law degree he had already obtained a job as Assistant Secretary of the Unemployment Committee.[6] Career[edit]

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From 1930 to 1934, Hammarskjöld was Secretary of a governmental committee on unemployment. During this time he wrote his economics thesis, "Konjunkturspridningen" ("The Spread of the Business Cycle"), and received a doctorate from Stockholm University.[6][dead link] In 1936, he became secretary of the Sveriges Riksbank
Sveriges Riksbank
and was soon promoted. From 1941 to 1948, he served as chairman of the bank.[citation needed] Hammarskjöld quickly developed a successful career as a Swedish public servant. He was secretary of the Riksbank (the central bank of Sweden) 1935–1941, state secretary in the Ministry of Finance 1936–1945, governor of the Riksbank 1941–1948, Swedish delegate to the OEEC (Organization for European Economic Cooperation) 1947–1953, cabinet secretary for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs 1949–1951 and minister without portfolio in Tage Erlander's government 1951–1953.[6][dead link] He helped coordinate government plans to alleviate the economic problems of the post- World War II
World War II
period and was a delegate to the Paris conference that established the Marshall Plan. In 1950, he became head of the Swedish delegation to UNISCAN, a forum to promote economic cooperation between the United Kingdom and the Scandinavian countries.[7] Although Hammarskjöld served in a cabinet dominated by the Social Democrats, he never officially joined any political party.[citation needed] In 1951, Hammarskjöld was vice chairman of the Swedish delegation to the United Nations General Assembly
United Nations General Assembly
in Paris. He became the chairman of the Swedish delegation to the General Assembly in New York in 1952. On 20 December 1954, he was elected to take his father's vacated seat in the Swedish Academy.[citation needed] United Nations
United Nations
Secretary-General[edit] Nomination and election[edit]

"We understand you've been designated Secretary-General of the United Nations." "This April Fool's Day joke is in extremely bad taste: it's nonsense!"

–Exchange between a Stockholm journalist and Hammarskjöld on early news of his nomination by the UN Security Council, 31 May—1 April 1953[8]

On 10 November 1952 Trygve Lie
Trygve Lie
announced his resignation as Secretary-General of the United Nations. Several months of debate and negotiations between the Western powers and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in the UN Security Council ensued, during which many successors were suggested but no compromise was reached. On 23 March 1953[9] British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden, acquainted with Hammarskjöld from his service at the Organization for European Economic Cooperation and impressed by his work there, recommended him to the United Kingdom's ambassador to the UN, Gladwyn Jebb. Jebb, who did not know Hammarskjöld very well, in turn passed the suggestion to Henri Hoppenot, France's permanent representative to the Security Council. The Americans and the Soviets were not well acquainted with Hammarskjöld either. They hoped to seat a secretary-general that would focus on administrative issues and refrain from participating in political discussion. Hammarskjöld's reputation at the time was, in the words of biographer Emery Kelèn, "that of a brilliant economist, an unobtrusive technician, and an aristro-bureaucrat". As a result, there was little to no controversy in his recommendation;[8] the Soviet permanent representative, Valerian Zorin, found Hammarskjöld "harmless". The United Kingdom, France, the United States, and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
secretly negotiated his nomination as a compromise.[10] On 31 March Hammarskjöld's name was officially submitted to the Security Council for a vote. The other council members were unaware of the discussions between the world powers and were surprised by the recommendation. Regardless, he won the nomination with 10 votes in favor, none in opposition, and one abstention (from the Republic of China, which was upset with Sweden's diplomatic recognition of the People's Republic of China).[11] Hammarskjöld first heard of his nomination via a phone call that night from a Stockholm journalist.[a] He initially did not believe the news, though more calls from the media eventually convinced him it was true. The Swedish mission in New York confirmed the nomination at 03:00 and a communique from the Security Council was soon thereafter delivered to him.[12] Following consultation with the Swedish cabinet and his father, Hammarskjöld decided to accept the nomination.[11] He sent a wire to the Security Council:[13]

"With strong feeling personal insufficiency I hesitate to accept candidature but I do not feel I could refuse to assume the task imposed on me should the [UN General] Assembly follow the recommendation of the Security Council by which I feel deeply honoured."

Later in the day Hammarskjöld held a press conference at the Swedish Foreign Ministry. According to diplomat Sverker Åström, he displayed an intense interest and knowledge in the affairs of the UN which he had never indicated he had before.[13] The UN General Assembly elected Hammarskjöld on 7 April with 57 votes out of 59. He was sworn in as Secretary-General on 10 April 1953.[11] He was unanimously reelected on 26 September 1957 for another term, taking effect on 10 April 1958.[14] Tenure[edit]

Hammarskjöld (age 48) outside the UN headquarters
UN headquarters
in New York City, 1953

Immediately following the assumption of the Secretariat, Hammarskjöld attempted to establish a good rapport with his staff. He made a point in going to every UN department to shake hands with as many workers as possible, eating in the cafeteria as often as possible, and relinquishing the Secretary-General's private elevator for general use.[15] He began his term by establishing his own secretariat of 4,000 administrators and setting up regulations that defined their responsibilities. He was also actively engaged in smaller projects relating to the UN working environment. For example, he planned and supervised every detail in the creation of a "meditation room" at the UN headquarters. This is a place dedicated to silence, where people can withdraw into themselves, regardless of their faith, creed, or religion.[16] During his term, Hammarskjöld tried to smooth relations between Israel
and the Arab states. Other highlights include a 1955 visit to China to negotiate the release of 11 captured US pilots who had served in the Korean War,[5] the 1956 establishment of the United Nations Emergency Force, and his intervention in the 1956 Suez Crisis. He is given credit by some historians for allowing participation of the Holy See within the United Nations
United Nations
that year.[17] In 1960, the former Belgian Congo
Belgian Congo
and then newly independent Congo asked for UN aid in defusing the Congo Crisis. Hammarskjöld made four trips to Congo, but his efforts toward the decolonisation of Africa were considered insufficient by the Soviet Union; in September 1960, the Soviet government denounced his decision to send a UN emergency force to keep the peace. They demanded his resignation and the replacement of the office of Secretary-General by a three-man directorate with a built-in veto, the "troika." The objective was, citing the memoirs of Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev, to "equally represent interests of three groups of countries: capitalist, socialist and recently independent."[18][6] Death[edit] Main article: 1961 Ndola
United Nations
United Nations
DC-6 crash

Flight path of Hammarskjöld's aircraft (pink line) and the decoy (black line), September 1961

Hammarskjöld's grave in Uppsala

In September 1961, Hammarskjöld learned about fighting between "non-combatant" UN forces and Moise Tshombe's Katangese troops. Hammarskjöld was en route to negotiate a cease-fire on 18 September when his Douglas DC-6
Douglas DC-6
airliner SE-BDY crashed with no survivors near Ndola, Northern Rhodesia
Northern Rhodesia
(now Zambia). Hammarskjöld and 15 others perished in the crash, whose circumstances are still unclear. There is some evidence that suggests the plane was shot down.[19][20][21] Hammarskjöld's death set off a succession crisis at the United Nations,[22] as there was no line of succession and the Security Council had to vote on a successor.[23] Göran Björkdahl (a Swedish aid worker) wrote in 2011 that he believed Dag Hammarskjöld's death was a murder committed, in part, to benefit mining companies like Union Minière, after Hammarskjöld had made the UN intervene in the Katanga crisis. Björkdahl based his assertion on interviews with witnesses of the plane crash, near the border of the DRC with Zambia, and on archival documents.[24][25] Former U.S. President Harry Truman
Harry Truman
commented that Hammarskjöld "was on the point of getting something done when they killed him. Notice that I said 'when they killed him'."[26] On 16 March 2015, United Nations
United Nations
Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon appointed members to an Independent Panel of Experts which would examine new information related to Hammarskjöld's death. The three-member panel, led by Mohamed Chande Othman, the Chief Justice of Tanzania, also included Kerryn Macaulay (Australia's representative to ICAO) and Henrik Larsen (a ballistics expert from the Danish National Police).[27] The panel's 99-page report, released 6 July 2015, assigned "moderate" value to nine new eyewitness accounts and transcripts of radio transmissions. Those accounts suggested that Hammarskjöld's plane was already on fire as it landed, and that other jet aircraft and intelligence agents were nearby.[28] Over the years, multiple claims have been made that the plane was shot down, and that Hammarskjöld was actually killed in an assassination plot involving some combination of the CIA, MI6, a Belgian Mining Company, a South African paramilitary unit, because he was pushing for the Congo’s independence, which would have hurt the interests of any of those forces.[29] Documents suggesting CIA involvement came to light when the South African National Intelligence Agency turned over a file to the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission related to the 1993 assassination of Chris Hani, the leader of the South African Communist Party. These documents included an alleged plot to "remove" Hammarskjöld and contained a supposed statement from CIA director Allen Dulles
Allen Dulles
that: "Dag is becoming troublesome … and should be removed." However the authenticity of these documents has not been established.[29] Personal life[edit] Following his appointment as UN Secretary-General, Hammarskjöld carried a copy of the oath of office with him on his travels. It was found in one of his books in the Ndola
crash site.[30] Spirituality and Markings[edit] In 1953, soon after his appointment as United Nations Secretary-General, Hammarskjöld was interviewed on radio by Edward R. Murrow. In this talk Hammarskjöld declared:

But the explanation of how man should live a life of active social service in full harmony with himself as a member of the community of spirit, I found in the writings of those great medieval mystics [ Meister Eckhart
Meister Eckhart
and Jan van Ruysbroek] for whom 'self-surrender' had been the way to self-realization, and who in 'singleness of mind' and 'inwardness' had found strength to say yes to every demand which the needs of their neighbours made them face, and to say yes also to every fate life had in store for them when they followed the call of duty as they understood it.[31]

Hammarskjöld's only book, Vägmärken
(Markings), was published in 1963. A collection of his diary reflections, the book starts in 1925, when he was 20 years old, and ends the month before his death in 1961.[32] This diary was found in his New York house, after his death, along with an undated letter addressed to then Swedish Permanent Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs, Leif Belfrage. In this letter, Hammarskjöld wrote:

These entries provide the only true 'profile' that can be drawn ... If you find them worth publishing, you have my permission to do so.

The foreword is written by W.H. Auden, a friend of Hammarskjöld's.[33] Markings was described by the late theologian, Henry P. Van Dusen, as "the noblest self-disclosure of spiritual struggle and triumph, perhaps the greatest testament of personal faith written ... in the heat of professional life and amidst the most exacting responsibilities for world peace and order."[34] Hammarskjöld wrote, for example:

We are not permitted to choose the frame of our destiny. But what we put into it is ours. He who wills adventure will experience it – according to the measure of his courage. He who wills sacrifice will be sacrificed – according to the measure of his purity of heart.[35]

Markings is characterised by Hammarskjöld's intermingling of prose and haiku poetry in a manner exemplified by the 17th-century Japanese poet Basho in his Narrow Roads to the Deep North.[36] In his foreword to Markings, the English poet W. H. Auden
W. H. Auden
quotes Hammarskjöld as stating:

In our age, the road to holiness necessarily passes through the world of action.[37]

The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America
Evangelical Lutheran Church in America
commemorates the life of Hammarskjöld as a renewer of society, on the anniversary of his death, 18 September.[citation needed] Legacy[edit] Honors[edit]

Hammarskjöld posthumously received the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
in 1961, having been nominated before his death. Honorary degrees: Carleton University
Carleton University
in Ottawa (then called Carleton College)[38] awarded its first-ever honorary degree to Hammarskjöld in 1954, when it presented him with a Legum Doctor, honoris causa. The University has continued this tradition by conferring an honorary doctorate upon every subsequent Secretary-General of the United Nations. He also held honorary degrees from Oxford University, United Kingdom; in the United States from Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Columbia, the University of Pennsylvania, Amherst, Johns Hopkins, the University of California, and Ohio University; in Sweden, Uppsala
University; and in Canada from McGill University
McGill University
as well as Carleton.[39]

People's views[edit]

John F. Kennedy: After Hammarskjöld's death, U.S. president John F. Kennedy regretted that he had opposed the UN policy in the Congo and said: "I realise now that in comparison to him, I am a small man. He was the greatest statesman of our century."[4] In 2011, The Financial Times
The Financial Times
wrote that Hammarskjöld has remained the benchmark against which later UN Secretaries-General have been judged.[40] Historians' views:

Historian Paul Kennedy
Paul Kennedy
hailed Hammarskjöld in his book, The Parliament of Man, as perhaps the greatest UN Secretary-General because of his ability to shape events, in contrast with his successors.[citation needed] In contrast, the conservative popular historian Paul Johnson, in A History of the Modern World from 1917 to the 1980s (1983), was highly critical of Hammarskjöld's judgment.[citation needed]

Eponymous structures[edit]

University's Dag Hammarskjöld
Dag Hammarskjöld
Law Library.


The Dag Hammarskjöld
Dag Hammarskjöld
Library, a part of the United Nations headquarters, was dedicated on 16 November 1961 in honour of the late Secretary-General. Uppsala University
Uppsala University
Library: There is also a Dag Hammarskjöld
Dag Hammarskjöld
Law Library at his alma mater, Uppsala

Buildings and rooms:

The Waterloo Co-operative Residence Incorporated has a student dormitory named after Dag Hammarskjöld. Columbia University: The School of International and Public Affairs at Columbia University
Columbia University
has a Dag Hammarskjöld
Dag Hammarskjöld
Lounge. The graduate school is dedicated to the principles of international peace and cooperation that Hammarskjöld embodied. Stanford University: Dag Hammarskjöld
Dag Hammarskjöld
House, on the Stanford University campus, is a residence cooperative for undergraduate and graduate students with international backgrounds and interests at Stanford.[41] The Geneva School of Diplomacy and International Relations in Geneva, Switzerland, has a room named after him. Dag Hammarskjöld Stadium is the main football stadium of Ndola, Zambia. Hammarskjöld's flight crashed in the outskirts of Ndola. Dag Hammarskjöld
Dag Hammarskjöld
College: founded in Columbia, Maryland, in 1972, educated international students from 1972-1974. The concept that international relations are relationships between individuals, and that the better we understand each other, the better chance there is for world peace, was the centerpiece for this college. The college admitted students from both undergraduate and postgraduate levels while they lived in an international community. Makerere University in Uganda has Dag Hammarskjöld
Dag Hammarskjöld
Hall of residence for graduate students.


Dag Hammarskjöldsleden is a road in Gothenburg, Sweden. Dag Hammarskjölds Gade is a street in Aalborg, Denmark. Dag Hammarskjölds Väg is a street in Lund, Sweden. Dag Hammarskjölds Väg is at about 8.2 km one of the longest streets in Uppsala, Sweden. Several other streets in Sweden
share this name. Dag Hammarskjølds vei is a residential street in Fyllingsdalen, in Bergen, Norway. Dag Hammarskjöld's Allé is a street in Copenhagen, Denmark. The headquarters of the United Nations
United Nations
Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (CEPAL) in Santiago, Chile
Santiago, Chile
lies on Avenida Dag Hammarskjöld. The headquarters of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (German Society for International Cooperation, GIZ), is on Dag-Hammarskjöld-Weg in Eschborn, Germany. Hammarskjöldplatz is the wide square to the north entrance of the Messe Berlin
Messe Berlin
fairgrounds in Berlin, Germany.[42]

Dag Hammarskjöld Plaza
Dag Hammarskjöld Plaza
is public park near the headquarters of the United Nations
United Nations
in New York City;[43] several of the surrounding office buildings are also named after him, like:

One Dag Hammarskjöld
Dag Hammarskjöld

There's a public square in Haedo, Buenos Aires, Argentina, named after him.

Dag Hammarskjöldhof is a street and a shopping center in the town of Utrecht, Netherlands. Dag Hammarskjöldlaan is a street in the town of Castricum, Netherlands. Dag Hammarskjöldhof is a street in the town of Gouda, Netherlands. Dag Hammarskjöldlaan is a street in the town of Hellevoetsluis, Netherlands. Hammarskjöldstraat is a street in the town of Hoofddorp, Netherlands. Dag Hammarskjöldsvei street in Fyllingsdalen, Bergen, Norway Hammarskjöld Road is a road in the town of Harlow, UK. Hammarskjöld Drive in Burnaby, BC, Canada. Dag Hammarskjöld
Dag Hammarskjöld
is a street in Tunis, Tunisia.

Schools: Several schools have been named after Hammarskjöld, including Hammarskjold Middle School in East Brunswick Township, New Jersey; Dag Hammarskjold Middle School in Wallingford, Connecticut; Dag Hammarskjold Elementary School in Parma, Ohio; Dag Hammarskjold Elementary (PS 254) in Brooklyn, New York; Dag Hammarskjold School#6 in Rochester, New York; Dag Hammarskjold Elementary School in Oakland (now an airport parking business) and Hammarskjold High School in Thunder Bay, Ontario. Dag Hammarskjöld
Dag Hammarskjöld

The Dag Hammarskjöld
Dag Hammarskjöld
centre in Uppsala
(housing the secretariat of the Dag Hammarskjöld
Dag Hammarskjöld

In 1962, the Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation
Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation
was created as Sweden's national memorial to Dag Hammarskjöld.[44]

Other commemorations[edit]

Religious commemoration: He is also commemorated as a peacemaker in the Calendar of Saints of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America on 18 September of each year. Memorial awards:

Medal: On 22 July 1997, the U.N. Security Council in resolution 1121(1997) established the Dag Hammarskjöld Medal in recognition and commemoration of those who have lost their lives as a result of UN peacekeeping operations.[45] Hammarskjöld himself was one of the first three recipients. Prize in Peace and Conflict Studies: Colgate University
Colgate University
annually awards a student the Dag Hammarskjöld
Dag Hammarskjöld
Prize in Peace and Conflict Studies based on outstanding work in the program.[46] Medallion by the sculptor Harald Salomon issued in Denmark 1962 to help financing the Danish Foreign Aid Program.

1962 Medal Dag Hammarskjöld
Dag Hammarskjöld
by the Danish sculptor Harald Salomon

Postage Stamps: Many countries issued postage stamps commemorating Hammarskjöld.[47] The United Nations Postal Administration
United Nations Postal Administration
issued 5- and 15-cent stamps in 1962. They show the UN flag at half-mast and bear the simple inscription, "XVIII IX MCMLXI". The United States Hammarskjöld commemorative 4-cent postage stamp, issued on 23 October 1962, was actually released twice. Famous for its misprint, the second issue is often referred to as the Dag Hammarskjöld
Dag Hammarskjöld
invert. On 6 April 2011, the Bank of Sweden
announced that Hammarskjöld's image will be used on the 1000-kronor banknote, the highest-denomination banknote in Sweden.[48] The new currency was introduced in 2015.[49]

Memorial at the United Nations
United Nations
Headquarters in New York City


^ The nomination was leaked early by a delegate of the Security Council, who informed a corespondent of the vote as they left the council chamber to go to the restroom.[12] Earlier in March, Hammarskjöld had discussed the succession problem of the UN Secretariat with artist Bo Beskow. When Beskow suggested that Hammarskjöld would be suitable for the office, the latter replied, "Nobody is crazy enough to propose me—and I would be crazy to accept."[13]


^ " Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
Facts".  ^ "Next U.N. secretary general - The Japan Times".  This article names Kofi Annan
Kofi Annan
as the other one. ^ "How Not to Select the Best UN Secretary-General". 28 October 2015.  ^ a b Linnér S (2007). " Dag Hammarskjöld
Dag Hammarskjöld
and the Congo crisis, 1960–61" (PDF). Uppsala
University. p. Page 28. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 April 2012.  ^ a b Sze, Szeming (December 1986). Working for the United Nations: 1948-1968 (Digital ed.). Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh. p. 20. Retrieved 7 November 2014.  ^ a b c d "Biography, at Dag Hammerskjoldse". Daghammarskjold.se. Archived from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 2013-09-10.  ^ "Dag Hammarskjöld" [biography]. United Nations. un.org. Retrieved 2017-10-13. ^ a b Lipsey 2013, p. 117. ^ Lipsey 2013, pp. 113, 116. ^ Heller 2001, p. 14. ^ a b c Heller 2001, p. 15. ^ a b Lipsey 2013, pp. 117–118. ^ a b c Lipsey 2013, p. 118. ^ Heller 2001, p. 21. ^ Lipsey 2013, p. 135. ^ Mary Cherif; Nathalie Leroy; Anna Banchieri; Armando Da Silva. "The Meditation Room in the UN Headquarters". UN.org. Retrieved 2013-09-10.  ^ "Holy See's Presence in the International Organizations". Vatican.va. 22 April 2002. Archived from the original on 2014-02-15. Retrieved 2013-09-10.  ^ [1] Archived 22 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Borger, Julian (17 August 2011). "Dag Hammarskjöld: evidence suggests UN chief's plane was shot down". The Guardian. Retrieved 2014-08-02.  ^ Borger, Julian (4 April 2014). "Dag Hammarskjöld's plane may have been shot down, ambassador warned". The Guardian. Retrieved 2014-08-02.  ^ Susan Williams, Who Killed Hammarskjold? 2011, Hurst Publishers, 2014, Oxford University
Oxford University
Press ^ Halberstam, David (19 September 1961). "Hammarskjold Dies In African Air Crash; Kennedy Going To U. N. In Succession Crisis". The New York Times.  ^ Hamilton, Thomas J. (23 September 1961). "Interim U.N. Head is Urged by Rusk; His Timing Scored". The New York Times. p. 1.  ^ Bjorkdahl, Goran (17 August 2011). "Dag Hammarskjöld: I have no doubt Dag Hammarskjold's plane was brought down". The Guardian. Retrieved 2014-08-02.  ^ Bjorkdahl, Goran (February 2013). "EYEWITNESSES: The Hammarskjold Plane Crash. International Peacekeeping, Vol.20, No.1, February 2013, pp.98-115". Taylor & Francis. Retrieved 2014-08-02.  ^ Jamie Doward, "Spy messages could finally solve mystery of UN chief’s death crash", The Guardian
The Guardian
13 December 2014. ^ "UN announces members of panel probing new information on Dag Hammarskjöld death". UN News Centre. 16 March 2015. Retrieved 18 March 2015.  ^ Associated Press (6 July 2015). "Panel: Possible Aerial Attack on Hammarskjold Plane in 1961". The New York Times. The New York Times. Retrieved 6 July 2015.  ^ a b "U.N. to Probe Whether Iconic Secretary-General Was Assassinated". Retrieved 17 December 2017.  ^ Lipsey 2013, p. 124. ^ Henry P Van Dusen. Dag Hammarskjold: A Biographical Interpretation of Markings Faber and Faber London 1967 p 47. ^ Hartman, Thom (3 March 2005). Markings - the spiritual diary of Dag Hammarskjöld. BuzzFlash. ^ Auden, with Leif Sjoberg, translated the book into English. Hammarskjold, Dag (1964). Markings. New York: Ballantine Books.  ^ Henry P Van Dusen. Dag Hammarskjold: A Biographical Interpretation of Markings Faber and Faber London 1967 p 5 ^ Dag Hammarskjold: Markings Leif Sjoberg and WH Auden (trans) Faber and Faber London 1964 p 63. ^ Dag Hammarskjold: Markings Leif Sjoberg and WH Auden (trans) Faber and Faber London 1964 p149 ^ WH Auden Foreword to Dag Hammarskjold: Markings Leif Sjoberg and WH Auden (trans) Faber and Faber London 1964 p 23. ^ Carleton Through the Years Archived 12 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine.. Accessed 2011-03-31 ^ Mary Cherif; Nathalie Leroy; Anna Banchieri; Armando Da Silva. "Dag Hammarskjöld: The Un Years". UN.org. Retrieved 2011-09-19.  ^ Alec Russell (13 May 2011). "The road to redemption". The Financial Times. Retrieved 2011-05-14.  ^ "Hammarskjold House About". Stanford.edu. Archived from the original on 8 August 2011. Retrieved 19 September 2011.  ^ "Event Area North" (PDF). Messe Berlin. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 February 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2013.  ^ "Neighborhood News". New York magazine. March 14, 2011.  ^ "Convening thinkers and doers: Sweden's Dag Hammarskjold Foundation". Interenvironment.org. 25 November 1975. Archived from the original on 1 October 2011. Retrieved 19 September 2011.  ^ United Nations Security Council
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Verbatim Report 3802. S/PV/3802 22 July 1997. Retrieved 2007-08-21. ^ "Colgate University : P-CON Fellowships and Awards". Colgate.edu. Retrieved 2011-09-19. [dead link] ^ Mary Cherif; Nathalie Leroy; Anna Banchieri; Armando Da Silva. "Selection of stamps commemorating the life of Dag Hammarskjöld". UN.org. Retrieved 2013-09-10.  ^ "Sveriges Riksbank/Riksbanken – Sweden's new banknotes and coins". Riksbank.com. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-19.  ^ "Sweden's New Bank Notes". unknown. Retrieved 2015-01-08. 


Durel, Bernard, op, (2002), «Au jardin secret d’un diplomate suédois: Jalons de Dag Hammarskjöld, un itinéraire spirituel», La Vie Spirituelle (Paris). T. 82, pp. 901–922. Fröhlich, Manuel (2008) "Political ethics and the United Nations: Dag Hammarskjöld as Secretary-General". Routledge, London. Heller, Peter B. (2001). The United Nations
United Nations
under Dag Hammarskjold, 1953-1961. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9781461702092.  Lipsey, Roger (2013). Hammarskjöld: A Life (illustrated ed.). University of Michigan Press. ISBN 9780472118908.  Urquhart, Brian, (1972), Hammarskjold. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. Velocci, Giovanni, cssr, (1998), «Hammarskjold Dag», in Luigi Borriello, ocd – Edmondo Caruana, ocarm – Maria Rosaria Del Genio – N. Suffi (dirs.), Dizionario di mistica. Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Città del Vaticano, pp. 624–626. Lichello, Robert (1972) "Dag Hammarskjold: A Giant in Diplomacy." Samhar Press, Charlotteville, N.Y. ISBN 978-0-87157-501-2.

External links[edit]

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– biography, quotes, photos and videos UNSG Dag Hammarskjold Conference on 9–10 November 2011 at Peace Palace Video of Hammarskjöld's funeral in Pathe archive UNSG Ban Ki-Moon Lays Wreath Honouring Dag Hammarskjold of 1 October 2009 and UNSG with King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden UNSG Kofi Annan, Dag Hammarskjöld
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(pdf) About Dag Hammarskjöld
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( Dag Hammarskjöld
Dag Hammarskjöld
Foundation) United Nations
United Nations
Secretaries-General Dag Hammarskjöld, Secretary-General at the official website of the UN Biography The Nobel Prize Letters say Hammarskjöld's death Western plot Media briefing by Archbishop Desmond Tutu 18 September 1961 UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld
Dag Hammarskjöld
is killed and BBC Audio of Dag Hammarskjold's response to Russian pressure From UPI Audio Archives Dag Hammarskjöld's FBI files hosted at the Internet Archive

Cultural offices

Preceded by Hjalmar Hammarskjöld Swedish Academy, Seat No.17 1954–1961 Succeeded by Erik Lindegren

Positions in intergovernmental organisations

Preceded by Trygve Lie United Nations
United Nations
Secretary-General April 1953 – September 1961 Succeeded by U Thant

Awards and achievements

Preceded by Albert Lutuli Laureate of the Nobel Peace Prize 1961 Succeeded by Linus Pauling

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Laureates of the Nobel Peace Prize


1901 Henry Dunant / Frédéric Passy 1902 Élie Ducommun / Charles Gobat 1903 Randal Cremer 1904 Institut de Droit International 1905 Bertha von Suttner 1906 Theodore Roosevelt 1907 Ernesto Moneta / Louis Renault 1908 Klas Arnoldson / Fredrik Bajer 1909 A. M. F. Beernaert / Paul Estournelles de Constant 1910 International Peace Bureau 1911 Tobias Asser / Alfred Fried 1912 Elihu Root 1913 Henri La Fontaine 1914 1915 1916 1917 International Committee of the Red Cross 1918 1919 Woodrow Wilson 1920 Léon Bourgeois 1921 Hjalmar Branting / Christian Lange 1922 Fridtjof Nansen 1923 1924 1925 Austen Chamberlain / Charles Dawes


1926 Aristide Briand / Gustav Stresemann 1927 Ferdinand Buisson / Ludwig Quidde 1928 1929 Frank B. Kellogg 1930 Nathan Söderblom 1931 Jane Addams / Nicholas Butler 1932 1933 Norman Angell 1934 Arthur Henderson 1935 Carl von Ossietzky 1936 Carlos Saavedra Lamas 1937 Robert Cecil 1938 Nansen International Office for Refugees 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 International Committee of the Red Cross 1945 Cordell Hull 1946 Emily Balch / John Mott 1947 Friends Service Council / American Friends Service Committee 1948 1949 John Boyd Orr 1950 Ralph Bunche


1951 Léon Jouhaux 1952 Albert Schweitzer 1953 George Marshall 1954 United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees 1955 1956 1957 Lester B. Pearson 1958 Georges Pire 1959 Philip Noel-Baker 1960 Albert Lutuli 1961 Dag Hammarskjöld 1962 Linus Pauling 1963 International Committee of the Red Cross / League of Red Cross Societies 1964 Martin Luther King Jr. 1965 UNICEF 1966 1967 1968 René Cassin 1969 International Labour Organization 1970 Norman Borlaug 1971 Willy Brandt 1972 1973 Lê Đức Thọ (declined award) / Henry Kissinger 1974 Seán MacBride / Eisaku Satō 1975 Andrei Sakharov


1976 Betty Williams / Mairead Corrigan 1977 Amnesty International 1978 Anwar Sadat / Menachem Begin 1979 Mother Teresa 1980 Adolfo Pérez Esquivel 1981 United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees 1982 Alva Myrdal / Alfonso García Robles 1983 Lech Wałęsa 1984 Desmond Tutu 1985 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War 1986 Elie Wiesel 1987 Óscar Arias 1988 UN Peacekeeping
Forces 1989 Tenzin Gyatso (14th Dalai Lama) 1990 Mikhail Gorbachev 1991 Aung San Suu Kyi 1992 Rigoberta Menchú 1993 Nelson Mandela / F. W. de Klerk 1994 Shimon Peres / Yitzhak Rabin / Yasser Arafat 1995 Pugwash Conferences / Joseph Rotblat 1996 Carlos Belo / José Ramos-Horta 1997 International Campaign to Ban Landmines / Jody Williams 1998 John Hume / David Trimble 1999 Médecins Sans Frontières 2000 Kim Dae-jung


2001 United Nations / Kofi Annan 2002 Jimmy Carter 2003 Shirin Ebadi 2004 Wangari Maathai 2005 International Atomic Energy Agency / Mohamed ElBaradei 2006 Grameen Bank / Muhammad Yunus 2007 Al Gore / Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2008 Martti Ahtisaari 2009 Barack Obama 2010 Liu Xiaobo 2011 Ellen Johnson Sirleaf / Leymah Gbowee / Tawakkol Karman 2012 European Union 2013 Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons 2014 Kailash Satyarthi / Malala Yousafzai 2015 Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet 2016 Juan Manuel Santos 2017 International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons

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Swedish Nobel laureates


1903: Svante Arrhenius 1926: Theodor Svedberg 1929: Hans von Euler-Chelpin 1948: Arne Tiselius 2015: Tomas Lindahl


1909: Selma Lagerlöf 1916: Verner von Heidenstam 1931: Erik Axel Karlfeldt
Erik Axel Karlfeldt
(posthumously) 1951: Pär Lagerkvist 1966: Nelly Sachs 1974: Eyvind Johnson
Eyvind Johnson
/ Harry Martinson 2011: Tomas Tranströmer


1908: Klas Pontus Arnoldson 1921: Hjalmar Branting 1930: Nathan Söderblom 1961: Dag Hammarskjöld
Dag Hammarskjöld
(posthumously) 1982: Alva Myrdal


1912: Gustaf Dalén 1924: Manne Siegbahn 1970: Hannes Alfvén 1981: Kai Siegbahn

Physiology or Medicine

1911: Allvar Gullstrand 1955: Hugo Theorell 1967: Ragnar Granit 1970: Ulf von Euler 1981: Torsten Wiesel 1982: Sune Bergström
Sune Bergström
/ Bengt I. Samuelsson 2000: Arvid Carlsson

Economic Sciences

1974: Gunnar Myrdal 1977: Bertil Ohlin

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 United Nations

António Guterres, Secretary-General Amina J. Mohammed, Deputy Secretary-General Miroslav Lajčák, General Assembly President

United Nations
United Nations

United Nations
United Nations


Principal organs

General Assembly


Security Council


Economic and Social Council Secretariat

Secretary-General Deputy Secretary-General Under-Secretary-General

International Court of Justice


Trusteeship Council

Secretariat Offices and Departments

Headquarters Envoy on Youth Spokesperson for the Secretary-General Geneva Palace of Nations Nairobi Vienna Economic and Social Affairs Political Affairs Public Information

Dag Hammarskjöld
Dag Hammarskjöld

Safety and Security Palestinian Rights Peacekeeping
Operations Internal Oversight Legal Affairs Developing Countries Sport for Development and Peace Disarmament Affairs Outer Space Affairs Partnerships Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs UN organizations by location United Nations
United Nations
Office for Developing Countries Sexual Violence in Conflict

Programmes and specialized agencies




OzonAction UNEP/GRID-Arendal UNEP-WCMC




Members / observers

Full members Founding members

UNSC Permanent members


European Union


League of Nations Four Policemen Declaration by United Nations Peacekeeping

history timeline



Security Council vetoes General Assembly

66th 67th

Security Council

Cyprus Iran Iraq Israel Lebanon Nagorno-Karabakh North Korea Palestine Syria Western Sahara


Secretary-General (2006 2016) International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
2011 General Assembly President (2012 2016) Security Council (2015 2016)


Bretton Woods system Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Criticism Delivering as One Flag

Honour Flag

Four Nations Initiative Genocide Convention UN Global Compact ICC International Decade for a Culture of Peace and Non-Violence for the Children of the World International Years UN laissez-passer Military Staff Committee Official languages Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons Peacekeeping Treaty Series UN Day Universal Declaration of Human Rights Millennium Declaration

Summit Development Goals

Security Council veto power UN reform

Security Council reform

UN Art Collection UN Memorial Cemetery Korea


Outline UN television film series (1964–1966) In popular culture

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Secretaries-General of the League of Nations
League of Nations
and the United Nations

League of Nations (1919–1945)

James Eric Drummond (United Kingdom) Joseph Louis Anne Avenol
Joseph Louis Anne Avenol
(France) Seán Lester
Seán Lester
(Irish Free State)

United Nations (since 1945)

Gladwyn Jebb1 (United Kingdom) Trygve Lie
Trygve Lie
(Norway) Dag Hammarskjöld
Dag Hammarskjöld
(Sweden) U Thant
U Thant
(Burma) Kurt Waldheim
Kurt Waldheim
(Austria) Javier Pérez de Cuéllar
Javier Pérez de Cuéllar
(Peru) Boutros Boutros-Ghali
Boutros Boutros-Ghali
(Egypt) Kofi Annan
Kofi Annan
(Ghana) Ban Ki-moon
Ban Ki-moon
(South Korea) António Guterres
António Guterres


United Nations
United Nations
Secretariat Deputy Secretary-General of the United Nations Under- Secretary-General of the United Nations U.N. Secretary General Memoirs

1 Provisional Secretary-General prior to the election of Trygve Lie.

Authority control

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