Daf Yomi (Hebrew: דף יומי, Daf Yomi, "page of the day" or
"daily folio") is a daily regimen of learning the
Oral Torah and its
commentaries (also known as the Gemara), in which each of the 2,711
pages of the Babylonian Talmud are covered in sequence. A daf, or
blatt in Yiddish, consists of both sides of the page. Under this
regimen, the entire Talmud is completed, one day at a time, in a cycle
of seven and a half years.
Tens of thousands of
Jews worldwide study in the Daf Yomi
program, and over 300,000 participate in the
Siyum HaShas, an
event celebrating the culmination of the cycle of learning. The Daf
Yomi program has been credited with making Talmud study accessible to
Jews who are not Torah scholars, contributing to Jewish
continuity after the Holocaust, and having a unifying factor among
3.2 Learning resources
5 See also
8 External links
Rabbi Meir Shapiro, initiator of Daf Yomi.
The novel idea of
Jews in all parts of the world studying the same daf
each day, with the goal of completing the entire Talmud, was put forth
at the First World Congress of the
World Agudath Israel which took
Vienna starting from Elul 3, 5683 / August 15, 1923 and which
lasted for ten days. The proposal for the study of Daf Hayomi was
made on Elul 7 or 9, 5683 (August 19 or 21, 1923)  by Rabbi Meir
Rav of Sanok, Poland, and future rosh yeshiva of
Lublin and the resolution was adopted on Elul 10,
5683. In those years, only some of the 63 tractates of the Talmud
were being studied regularly, such as Berachot, Shabbat, and Eruvin,
which deal with practical laws, while others, such as Zevachim and
Temurah, were hardly studied. Rabbi Shapiro also viewed the
program as a way to unify the Jewish people. As he explained to the
What a great thing! A Jew travels by boat and takes gemara Berachot
under his arm. He travels for 15 days from Eretz Yisrael to America,
and each day he learns the daf. When he arrives in America, he enters
a beis medrash in New York and finds
Jews learning the very same daf
that he studied on that day, and he gladly joins them. Another Jew
leaves the States and travels to Brazil or Japan, and he first goes to
the beis medrash, where he finds everyone learning the same daf that
he himself learned that day. Could there be greater unity of hearts
Originally, Rabbi Shapiro saw
Daf Yomi as an obligation only for the
religious youth of Poland. However, the idea was greeted
enthusiastically by the nearly 600 delegates at the Congress,
including many Torah leaders from Europe and America, who accepted it
a universal obligation for all Jews.
The first cycle of
Daf Yomi commenced on the first day of Rosh
Hashanah 5684 (11 September 1923), with tens of thousands of
Europe, America and Israel learning the first daf of the first
tractate of the Talmud, Berachot. To show support for the idea, the
Gerrer Rebbe, Rabbi Avraham Mordechai Alter, learned the first daf of
Berachot in public on that day. On 12 November 1924 Tractate
Berachot was completed, with small siyums (celebrations marking the
completion of study of a Talmudic tractate) in local communities. At
that time, Rabbi Shapiro published a calendar for the entire cycle of
Daf Yomi study. (For the first cycle, there were only 2,702 pages
of Talmud on the schedule; later leading Rabbis increased it to
2,711, changing the edition used for Tractate Shekalim, taken from
the Jerusalem Talmud, to one with more pages.) The siyum for the
completion of Tractate Pesachim took place after the laying of the
cornerstone for Yeshivas Chachmei Lublin. At that time, Rabbi Shapiro
conceived the idea of contributing daily groschen to help raise money
for the building. Each day, each person who studied
Daf Yomi was asked
to set aside a grosh (a Polish penny), and at the end of the tractate,
to donate the sum to the yeshiva. The Gerrer
contributed the entire sum of 2,700 groschen (27 złoty) to support
The Second World Congress of the World Agudath Israel, held in 1929,
coincided with the completion of Tractate Zevachim.
Siyum HaShas took place on 2 February 1931 (15
Shevat 5691) in
several cities in Europe and in Jerusalem, with the main venue being
the newly opened Yeshivas Chachmei
Lublin in Lublin, Poland. Tens of
Jews attended these events. Rabbi Shapiro presided over
Siyum in his yeshiva in the presence of many leaders of Polish
Jewry. In the United States, Siyums were held in
The completion of the
Daf Yomi cycle is celebrated in an event known
Siyum HaShas ("completion of the Shas"). In America, the
Siyum HaShas is organized by the Agudath Israel of America.
Attendance at each successive recent
Siyum HaShas has grown. In 1997
Siyum HaShas was celebrated by some 70,000 participants in
the U.S.; at the 11th
Siyum HaShas in 2005, participation had
grown to 120,000 in the U.S. and 300,000 around the world.
Siyum HaShas in America was held on August 1, 2012 at the
MetLife Stadium at the
Meadowlands Sports Complex
Meadowlands Sports Complex in New Jersey, which
has capacity for over 90,000 attendees. All seats were sold out.
Satellite broadcasts were piped to many other locations, including
Lublin in Poland. Tens of thousands attended
celebrations in Israel.
With 2,711 pages in the Talmud, one
Daf Yomi cycle takes about 7
years, 5 months. The completion of each tractate is typically
celebrated with a small siyum, and the completion of the entire cycle
is celebrated at an event known as the
Daf Yomi can be studied alone, with a chavruta (study partner), in a
daily shiur (class) led by a rabbi or teacher, via a telephone shiur,
CD-ROM, or audio and online resources. Typically,
Daf Yomi shiurim are
held in synagogues, yeshivas, and offices. They also take place in
the United States Senate,
Wall Street board rooms, and on the Long
Island Rail Road, in the last car of two commuter trains departing Far
Rockaway at 7:51 am and 8:15 am, respectively, for
Daf Yomi shiurim are piped into the
in-flight sound system of all
El Al flights. A typical Daf
Yomi shiur lasts one hour. Participants typically study the text
with only the most basic commentary, that of Rashi, but some shiurim
are more elaborate.
Bilingual page of the Koren Talmud Bavli
The Schottenstein Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, an
English-language translation and interpretation published in 73
volumes between 1990 and 2004 by ArtScroll, has been credited with
significantly increasing the number of English speakers participating
Daf Yomi program.
ArtScroll planned the publication of each
tractate to coincide with its study in the
Daf Yomi cycle,
releasing the final volume to coincide with the 11th
Siyum HaShas in
2005. The Schottenstein Talmud was also translated into Hebrew.
ArtScroll released in 2012 a mobile app that contained the entire
The Koren Talmud Bavli by
Koren Publishers offers the Vilna Daf along
with a bilingual section (English-Aramaic) with color maps, images,
and extensive historical, scientific, biographical, and linguistic
notes by Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz. To facilitate comprehension and
reading fluency, the Aramaic text and
Rashi commentary feature
punctuation and vowels, and the text is fully annotated. The Koren
Talmud Bavli with Rabbi Steinsaltz's commentary has been credited with
opening access to Talmud study for
Jews of all backgrounds.
The Dafyomi Advancement Forum, founded by
Kollel Iyun Hadaf in 1996,
is a free resource center offering English-language translations,
outlines, charts, analyses and lectures on every daf, as well as
answers to any question by email.
Meoros HaDaf HaYomi, founded in 1999, disseminates a weekly Daf Yomi
study sheet in both Hebrew and English via email and regular mail.
This organization also trains
Daf Yomi teachers in its battei medrash
(study halls) in
Bnei Brak and Jerusalem. It has recorded shiurim on
the daf on
CD-ROM in English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and French.
Additional resources to assist those endeavoring to complete the cycle
for the first time are a range of audiotapes, online websites, and
iPods preloaded with lectures covering every page of the Talmud.
Soon after its introduction,
Daf Yomi inspired the founding of other
Yomi (Daily) study programs for key texts of Judaism. These include
Mishnah Yomis (the daily study of Mishnah), Nach Yomi (the daily study
Nevi'im and Ketuvim), and Mussar Yomi (the daily study of Mussar
literature). In 1980 the Gerrer
Rebbe introduced Yerushalmi Yomi,
a daily schedule for completing the entire Jerusalem Talmud. In
1984 the Lubavitcher
Mishneh Torah Yomi, a daily
study schedule for Maimonides'
Mishneh Torah which covers all the
material in a yearly cycle.
For other study cycles, see Torah study#Study cycles
Hadaf Hayomi street in Bnei Brak
Other study cycles:
Amud Yomi – daily study of a single folio of the Babylonian Talmud
(approx 14-year cycle)
Yerushalmi Yomi – daily study of the
Jerusalem Talmud (4 1/3-year
Mishneh Torah Yomi – daily study (1- or 3-year cycle)
Mishnah Berurah Yomit – daily study (2.5- or 5-year cycle)
Shulchan Aruch Yomi – daily study (1-year cycle)
Halacha Yomis (Shulchan Aruch) – daily study (4-year cycle)
Shnayim mikra ve-echad targum (
Weekly Torah portion
Weekly Torah portion with Rashi) –
weekly or daily study (1-year cycle)
Shemiras Halashon Yomi (approximately 6-month cycle of learning the
Chofetz Chaim and Shemiras Halashon by Rabbi Yisrael Meir Kagan)
^ Goldman (2000), p. 264.
^ a b Schram (2009), pp. 162–164.
^ a b Slutsky, Carolyn (30 November 1999). "
Daf Yomi program has
Polish roots". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Archived from the original
on 15 April 2013. Retrieved 14 June 2012.
^ a b Heilman (1995), pp. 315-316.
^ Schloss (2002), p. 296.
^ Becher (2005), p. 420.
^ Frand (1999), p. 242.
^ Baumol, A Blaze in the Darkening Gloom page 164 states the
convention started on the Elul 3, 5683 and on page 171 he writes it
lasted for ten days.
^ Mandelbaum, David Avraham Yeshivat Chachmei
Lublin Volume II, pp.
208 puts the date as Elul 9, 5683 (August 21, 1923), however Halachmi,
Dovid in Yeshivat Chachmei
Lublin and its founder Rabbi Meir Schapiro
pp. 31 puts the date as Elul 7, 5683 (August 19, 1923) as does
Skorsky, Ahron in Volume I of Rabbi Meir Schapiro Bmishnah Boimer
Ubmaas, p. 296. Zeidman, Hillel
(http://www.daat.ac.il/daat/chinuch/mosdot/hahmey-2.htm - accessed
7/18/14) has the date as Elul 5.
^ In Mandelbaum, Dovid Avraham Igrot Vtoldot Moreinu Maharam Shapiro
pp. 63 there is a picture of a poster related to the upcoming (first)
Siyum Hashas and in it Rabbi Shapiro writes "Then on the tenth day of
Elul 5683 the Knesiah Gedolah decided - upon my advice that God gave
me - the learning of a worldwide lecture of Daf Yomi". See also
(http://www.daat.ac.il/daat/chinuch/mosdot/hahmey-2.htm - accessed
7/18/14) who writes regarding another proposal made by Rabbi Meir
Schapiro at that same convention (the establishment of Yeshivat
Chachmei Lublin) that it was adopted on Elul 10, 5883.
^ a b c d e f Shlomi, B. "A Brilliant Idea: Daf Yomi". Hamodia
Magazine, 3 May 2012, pp. 18–20.
^ a b Marks, Yehudah. "It's Question Time at
Daf Yomi Kollel: Jews
from around the world can get instant answers – in English – to
their questions on Gemara, halachah, and many other areas of Jewish
interest". Hamodia, 24 May 2012, pp. A30–31.
^ a b "Rabbi Meir Shapira – The
Lublin and Creator of Daf
Yomi". Hevrat Pinto. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
^ Baumol (1994), pp. 161-165.
^ a b Shlomi, B. "The Historic First
10 May 2012, pp. 12–13.
^ Baumol, "A Blaze in the Darkening Gloom", p. 172.
^ Horowitz, Yisroel. "Celebrating
Siyum HaShas in America". Hamodia
Magazine, 21 June 2012, p. 3.
^ Shas, an acronym for Shisha Sidrei (Mishnah) or "Six Orders of the
Mishnah", is another name for the Talmud.
^ Henry, Marilyn (28 September 1997). "Tens of thousands to mark end
of Talmud study cycle". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 11 October 2007.
All told, 70,000 are expected to participate in the event, which was
organized in North America by Agudath Israel of America.
^ Bauman, Casriel (6 June 2012). "Majority of
Siyum Hashas Tickets
Sold Out". matzav.com. Retrieved 24 June 2012.
Lublin & Poland Tour". nesivos.com. 2012. Archived
from the original on 25 June 2012. Retrieved 12 June 2012.
^ Klein, Yonoson (24 May 2012). "Dirshu World Siyum: 48 hours of
achdus, simcha, and accomplishment". Five Towns Jewish Times.
Retrieved 24 June 2012. [permanent dead link]
^ Walz, Steve K. (11 January 2012). "Behind The Plans For Jerusalem
Siyum Hashas Celebration". The Jewish Press. Retrieved 12 June
^ "Jerusalem City Hall Says 'NO' to Funding
Siyum HaShas for Shas".
Yeshiva World News. 19 June 2012. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
^ a b Heilman, U; Lerner. "Tractates on Track: Learning on the
railroad". Jewish Holiday Online. Archived from the original on 25 May
2013. Retrieved 7 July 2012. first2= missing last2= in Authors
^ Scharfstein, Sol (1999). Understanding Jewish Holidays and Customs:
Historical and Contemporary. KTAV Publishing House. p. 165.
^ Schuster, Dana (6 January 2011). "Easy Riders: Meet the 'commuter
pals' who make trips to work cheery instead of dreary". New York Post.
Retrieved 7 July 2012.
^ a b Frand, Yissocher (1999). Listen To Your Messages: And other
observations on contemporary Jewish life. Mesorah Publications Ltd.
p. 239. ISBN 9781578191390.
^ "VIDEO & PHOTOS: Today's Historic
Siyum HaShas On The LIRR".
Yeshiva World News. 31 March 2014. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
^ "Midstream". Midstream. Theodor Herzl Foundation. 40: 44.
^ Yated Ne'eman staff (9 March 2005). "
Jews Around the Globe Celebrate
Completion of Shas". Dei'ah VeDibur. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
^ Castle, Dovid (1996). Living with the Sages:
Rashi and the
Tosafists. 1. Feldheim Publishers.
^ a b Shubert, Baruch (7 March 2012). "Artscroll Set to Release
Digital Version of Schottenstein Talmud". The Jewish Voice. Retrieved
24 June 2012.
^ Zakon (2005), p. 262.
^ Liberman Mintz and Goldstein (2005), p. 161.
^ Lipman, Steve. "On The Same Page: Studying the seven-year Talmud
cycle together, a Modern Orthodox family embodies the spirit of Daf
Yomi program.", The Jewish Week, February 25, 2005. Accessed October
11, 2007. "
ArtScroll is issuing the 73rd and final volume of its
Schottenstein English translation to coincide with the
^ Gordon, Uri. "Book Review: Koren Talmud Bavli with Commentary by
Rabbi Adin Even-Israel Steinsaltz". Lookjed. Archived from the
original on 24 June 2014. Retrieved 24 June 2014.
^ Ackerman, Matthew (26 June 2012). "America's Most Important Jewish
Event?". Commentary Magazine. Retrieved 24 June 2014.
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Authors of the Dafyomi Advancement Forum".
dafyomi.co.il. Retrieved 10 June 2012.
^ Meoros HaDaf HaYomi, pp. vii-x.
^ Mindlin, Alex (17 March 2005). "2,000 Talmud Tapes, Or One Loaded
IPod". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 October 2007. Enter the
ShasPod. For $399, Mr. Shmidman sends his customers a 20-gigabyte iPod
loaded with Talmud lectures given by Rabbi Dovid Grossman of Los
^ Baumol, "A Blaze in the Darkening Gloom", p. 167.
^ Holder (1986), p. 315.
^ Loewenthal (2009), pp. 303-304.
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Historical and Contemporary. KTAV Publishing House.
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E-daf.com – Study resources in English and Hebrew
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"Along the Talmudic Trail: How learning Talmud every day, rain or
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