Dada (/ˈdɑːdɑː/) or Dadaism was an art movement of the European
avant-garde in the early 20th century, with early centers in Zürich,
Switzerland at the Cabaret Voltaire (circa 1916);
New York Dada
New York Dada began
circa 1915, and after 1920
Dada flourished in Paris. Developed in
reaction to World War I, the
Dada movement consisted of artists who
rejected the logic, reason, and aestheticism of modern capitalist
society, instead expressing nonsense, irrationality, and
anti-bourgeois protest in their works. The art of the
movement spanned visual, literary, and sound media, including collage,
sound poetry, cut-up writing, and sculpture. Dadaist artists expressed
their discontent with violence, war, and nationalism, and maintained
political affinities with the radical left.
Cover of the first edition of the publication
Dada by Tristan Tzara;
There is no consensus on the origin of the movement's name; a common
story is that the Austrian artist
Richard Huelsenbeck plunged a knife
at random into a dictionary, where it landed on "dada", a colloquial
French term for a hobby horse. Others note that it suggests the first
words of a child, evoking a childishness and absurdity that appealed
to the group. Still others speculate that the word might have been
chosen to evoke a similar meaning (or no meaning at all) in any
language, reflecting the movement's internationalism.
The roots of
Dada lie in pre-war avant-garde. The term anti-art, a
precursor to Dada, was coined by
Marcel Duchamp around 1913 to
characterize works which challenge accepted definitions of art.
Cubism and the development of collage and abstract art would inform
the movement's detachment from the constraints of reality and
convention. The work of French poets, Italian Futurists and the German
Expressionists would influence Dada's rejection of the tight
correlation between words and meaning. Works such as
Ubu Roi (1896)
by Alfred Jarry, and the ballet Parade (1916–17) by
Erik Satie would
also be characterized as proto-Dadaist works. The
principles were first collected in Hugo Ball's
Dada Manifesto in 1916.
The Dadaist movement included public gatherings, demonstrations, and
publication of art/literary journals; passionate coverage of art,
politics, and culture were topics often discussed in a variety of
media. Key figures in the movement included Hugo Ball, Marcel Duchamp,
Emmy Hennings, Hans Arp, Raoul Hausmann, Hannah Höch, Johannes
Baader, Tristan Tzara, Francis Picabia, Huelsenbeck, George Grosz,
John Heartfield, Man Ray, Beatrice Wood, Kurt Schwitters, Hans
Richter, Max Ernst, and
Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven
Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven among others. The
movement influenced later styles like the avant-garde and downtown
music movements, and groups including Surrealism, nouveau réalisme,
pop art and Fluxus.
2.4 New York
3 Poetry, music and sound
Art techniques developed
5.2 Cut-up technique
7 See also
10 External links
Francis Picabia, (left) Le saint des saints c'est de moi qu'il s'agit
dans ce portrait, 1 July 1915; (center) Portrait d'une jeune fille
americaine dans l'état de nudité, 5 July 1915: (right) J'ai vu et
c'est de toi qu'il s'agit, De Zayas! De Zayas! Je suis venu sur les
rivages du Pont-Euxin, New York, 1915
Dada was an informal international movement, with participants in
Europe and North America. The beginnings of
Dada correspond to the
outbreak of World War I. For many participants, the movement was a
protest against the bourgeois nationalist and colonialist interests,
which many Dadaists believed were the root cause of the war, and
against the cultural and intellectual conformity—in art and more
broadly in society—that corresponded to the war.
Avant-garde circles outside France knew of pre-war Parisian
developments. They had seen (or participated in) Cubist exhibitions
held at Galeries Dalmau, Barcelona (1912), Galerie
Der Sturm in Berlin
Armory Show in New York (1913), SVU Mánes in Prague
(1914), several Jack of Diamonds exhibitions in Moscow and at De
Moderne Kunstkring, Amsterdam (between 1911 and 1915). Futurism
developed in response to the work of various artists. Dada
subsequently combined these approaches.
Many Dadaists believed that the 'reason' and 'logic' of bourgeois
capitalist society had led people into war. They expressed their
rejection of that ideology in artistic expression that appeared to
reject logic and embrace chaos and irrationality. For example,
George Grosz later recalled that his Dadaist art was intended as a
protest "against this world of mutual destruction."
According to Hans Richter
Dada was not art: it was "anti-art."
Dada represented the opposite of everything which art stood for. Where
art was concerned with traditional aesthetics,
aesthetics. If art was to appeal to sensibilities,
Dada was intended
Hugo Ball expressed it, "For us, art is not an end in itself ...
but it is an opportunity for the true perception and criticism of the
times we live in."
A reviewer from the American
Art News stated at the time that "Dada
philosophy is the sickest, most paralyzing and most destructive thing
that has ever originated from the brain of man."
Art historians have
Dada as being, in large part, a "reaction to what many of
these artists saw as nothing more than an insane spectacle of
Dada artists described the movement as "a phenomenon
bursting forth in the midst of the postwar economic and moral crisis,
a savior, a monster, which would lay waste to everything in its
path... [It was] a systematic work of destruction and
demoralization... In the end it became nothing but an act of
To quote Dona Budd's The Language of
Dada was born out of negative reaction to the horrors of the First
World War. This international movement was begun by a group of artists
and poets associated with the Cabaret Voltaire in Zürich. Dada
rejected reason and logic, prizing nonsense, irrationality and
intuition. The origin of the name
Dada is unclear; some believe that
it is a nonsensical word. Others maintain that it originates from the
Romanian artists Tristan Tzara's and Marcel Janco's frequent use of
the words "da, da," meaning "yes, yes" in the Romanian language.
Another theory says that the name "Dada" came during a meeting of the
group when a paper knife stuck into a French–German dictionary
happened to point to 'dada', a French word for 'hobbyhorse'.
The movement primarily involved visual arts, literature, poetry, art
manifestos, art theory, theatre, and graphic design, and concentrated
its anti-war politics through a rejection of the prevailing standards
in art through anti-art cultural works.
Hannah Höch, Cut with the
Dada Kitchen Knife through the Last Weimar
Beer-Belly Cultural Epoch in Germany, 1919, collage of pasted papers,
90×144 cm, Nationalgalerie, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin
In 1916, Hugo Ball, Emmy Hennings, Tristan Tzara, Jean Arp, Marcel
Janco, Richard Huelsenbeck, Sophie Taeuber, and Hans Richter, along
with others, discussed art and put on performances in the Cabaret
Voltaire expressing their disgust with the war and the interests that
Some sources state that
Dada coalesced on October 6 at the
Cabaret Voltaire. Other sources state that
Dada did not originate
fully in a Zürich literary salon but grew out of an already vibrant
artistic tradition in Eastern Europe, particularly Romania, that
transposed to Switzerland when a group of Jewish modernist artists
(Tzara, Janco, Arthur Segal, and others) settled in Zürich. In the
years prior to the First World War similar art had already risen in
Bucharest and other Eastern European cities; it is likely that Dada's
catalyst was the arrival in Zürich of artists like Tzara and
Having left Germany and Romania during the Great War, the artists
found themselves in Switzerland, a country recognized for its
neutrality. Inside this space of political neutrality they decided to
use abstraction to fight against the social, political, and cultural
ideas of that time. The Dadaists believed those ideas to be a
byproduct of bourgeois society, a society so apathetic it would rather
fight a war against itself than challenge the status quo.
Janco recalled, "We had lost confidence in our culture. Everything had
to be demolished. We would begin again after the tabula rasa. At the
Cabaret Voltaire we began by shocking common sense, public opinion,
education, institutions, museums, good taste, in short, the whole
prevailing order." 
The Cabaret closed its doors in early July and then at the first
public soirée at Waag Hall on July 14, 1916, Ball recited the
first manifesto. In 1917, Tzara wrote a second
considered one of the most important
Dada writings, which was
published in 1918. Other manifestos followed.
A single issue of the magazine Cabaret Voltaire was the first
publication to come out of the movement.
After the cabaret closed down,
Dada activities moved on to a new
Hugo Ball left for Bern. Tzara began a relentless
campaign to spread
Dada ideas. He bombarded French and Italian artists
and writers with letters, and soon emerged as the
Dada leader and
master strategist. The Cabaret Voltaire re-opened, and is still in the
same place at the Spiegelgasse 1 in the Niederdorf.
Zürich Dada, with Tzara at the helm, published the art and literature
Dada beginning in July 1917, with five editions from Zürich
and the final two from Paris.
Other artists, such as
André Breton and Philippe Soupault, created
“literature groups to help extend the influence of Dada.”
After the fighting of the First World War had ended in the armistice
of November 1918, most of the Zürich Dadaists returned to their home
countries, and some began
Dada activities in other cities. Others,
such as the Swiss native Sophie Taeuber, would remain in Zürich into
Cover of Anna Blume, Dichtungen, 1919
"Berlin was a city of tightened stomachers, of mounting, thundering
hunger, where hidden rage was transformed into a boundless money lust,
and men's minds were concentrating more and more on questions of naked
existence... Fear was in everybody's bones "- Richard Hülsenbeck
The groups in Germany were not as strongly anti-art as other groups.
Their activity and art were more political and social, with corrosive
manifestos and propaganda, satire, public demonstrations and overt
political activities. The intensely political and war-torn environment
of Berlin had a dramatic impact on the ideas of Berlin Dadaists.
Conversely, New York's geographic distance from the war spawned its
more theoretically-driven, less political nature.
In February 1918, while the Great War was approaching its climax,
Huelsenbeck gave his first
Dada speech in Berlin, and he produced a
Dada manifesto later in the year. Following the
October Revolution in
Russia, by then out of the war,
Hannah Höch and
George Grosz used
Dada to express communist sympathies. Grosz, together with John
Heartfield, Höch and Hausmann developed the technique of photomontage
during this period.
After the war, the artists published a series of short-lived political
magazines and held the First International
Dada Fair, 'the greatest
project yet conceived by the Berlin Dadaists', in the summer of
1920. As well as work by the main members of Berlin
Grosz, Raoul Hausmann, Hannah Höch, Johannes Baader, Huelsenbeck and
Heartfield – the exhibition also included the work of Otto Dix,
Francis Picabia, Jean Arp, Max Ernst, Rudolf Schlichter, Johannes
Baargeld and others. In all, over 200 works were exhibited,
surrounded by incendiary slogans, some of which also ended up written
on the walls of the Nazi's
Entartete Kunst exhibition in 1937. Despite
high ticket prices, the exhibition lost money, with only one recorded
The Berlin group published periodicals such as Club Dada, Der Dada,
Everyman His Own Football, and
In Cologne, Ernst, Baargeld, and Arp launched a controversial Dada
exhibition in 1920 which focused on nonsense and anti-bourgeois
sentiments. Cologne's Early Spring Exhibition was set up in a pub, and
required that participants walk past urinals while being read lewd
poetry by a woman in a communion dress. The police closed the
exhibition on grounds of obscenity, but it was re-opened when the
charges were dropped.
Marcel Duchamp, Fountain, 1917; photograph by Alfred Stieglitz
Main article: New York Dada
Like Zürich, New York City was a refuge for writers and artists from
the First World War. Soon after arriving from France in 1915, Marcel
Francis Picabia met American artist Man Ray. By 1916 the
three of them became the center of radical anti-art activities in the
United States. American Beatrice Wood, who had been studying in
France, soon joined them, along with Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven.
Arthur Cravan, fleeing conscription in France, was also in New York
for a time. Much of their activity centered in Alfred Stieglitz's
gallery, 291, and the home of Walter and Louise Arensberg.
The New Yorkers, though not particularly organized, called their
activities Dada, but they did not issue manifestos. They issued
challenges to art and culture through publications such as The Blind
Man, Rongwrong, and
New York Dada
New York Dada in which they criticized the
traditionalist basis for museum art.
New York Dada
New York Dada lacked the
disillusionment of European
Dada and was instead driven by a sense of
irony and humor. In his book Adventures in the arts: informal chapters
on painters, vaudeville and poets
Marsden Hartley included an essay on
"The Importance of Being 'Dada'".
Rrose Sélavy, the alter ego of Dadaist Marcel Duchamp
During this time Duchamp began exhibiting "readymades" (everyday
objects found or purchased and declared art) such as a bottle rack,
and was active in the Society of Independent Artists. In 1917 he
submitted the now famous Fountain, a urinal signed R. Mutt, to
Society of Independent Artists exhibition but they rejected the
piece. First an object of scorn within the arts community, the
Fountain has since become almost canonized[dubious – discuss] by
some as one of the most recognizable modernist works of sculpture. Art
world experts polled by the sponsors of the 2004 Turner Prize,
Gordon's gin, voted it "the most influential work of modern
art". As recent scholarship documents, the work is likely more
collaborative than it has been given credit for in twentieth-century
art history. Duchamp indicates in a 1917 letter to his sister that a
female friend was centrally involved in the conception of this work.
As he writes: "One of my female friends who had adopted the pseudonym
Richard Mutt sent me a porcelain urinal as a sculpture." The piece
is more in line with the scatological aesthetics of Duchamp's friend
and neighbour, the Baroness Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven, than
Duchamp's. In an attempt to "pay homage to the spirit of Dada" a
performance artist named
Pierre Pinoncelli made a crack in a replica
of The Fountain with a hammer in January 2006; he also urinated on it
Picabia's travels tied New York, Zürich and Paris groups together
during the Dadaist period. For seven years he also published the Dada
periodical 391 in Barcelona, New York City, Zürich, and Paris from
1917 through 1924.
By 1921, most of the original players moved to Paris where
experienced its last major incarnation.
Man Ray, c. 1921–22, Rencontre dans la porte tournante, published on
the cover of Der Sturm, Volume 13, Number 3, 5 March 1922
Man Ray, c. 1921–22, Dessin (Drawing), published on page 43 of Der
Sturm, Volume 13, Number 3, 5 March 1922
The French avant-garde kept abreast of
Dada activities in Zürich with
regular communications from
Tristan Tzara (whose pseudonym means "sad
in country," a name chosen to protest the treatment of Jews in his
native Romania), who exchanged letters, poems, and magazines with
Guillaume Apollinaire, André Breton, Max Jacob, Clément Pansaers,
and other French writers, critics and artists.
Paris had arguably been the classical music capital of the world since
the advent of musical
Impressionism in the late 19th century. One of
its practitioners, Erik Satie, collaborated with Picasso and Cocteau
in a mad, scandalous ballet called Parade. First performed by the
Ballets Russes in 1917, it succeeded in creating a scandal but in a
different way than Stravinsky's
Le Sacre du printemps
Le Sacre du printemps had done almost
five years earlier. This was a ballet that was clearly parodying
itself, something traditional ballet patrons would obviously have
serious issues with.
Dada in Paris surged in 1920 when many of the originators converged
there. Inspired by Tzara, Paris
Dada soon issued manifestos, organized
demonstrations, staged performances and produced a number of journals
(the final two editions of Dada, Le Cannibale, and Littérature
Dada in several editions.)
The first introduction of
Dada artwork to the Parisian public was at
Salon des Indépendants
Salon des Indépendants in 1921.
Jean Crotti exhibited works
Dada including a work entitled, Explicatif bearing the
word Tabu. In the same year Tzara staged his Dadaist play The Gas
Heart to howls of derision from the audience. When it was re-staged in
1923 in a more professional production, the play provoked a theatre
riot (initiated by André Breton) that heralded the split within the
movement that was to produce Surrealism. Tzara's last attempt at a
Dadaist drama was his "ironic tragedy"
Handkerchief of Clouds in 1924.
In the Netherlands the
Dada movement centered mainly around Theo van
Doesburg, best known for establishing the
De Stijl movement and
magazine of the same name. Van Doesburg mainly focused on poetry, and
included poems from many well-known
Dada writers in
De Stijl such as
Hans Arp and Kurt Schwitters. Van Doesburg and Thijs
Rinsema (nl) (a cordwainer and artist in Drachten) became friends
of Schwitters, and together they organized the so-called Dutch Dada
campaign in 1923, where van Doesburg promoted a leaflet about Dada
(entitled What is Dada?), Schwitters read his poems, Vilmos Huszár
demonstrated a mechanical dancing doll and Nelly van Doesburg (Theo's
wife), played avant-garde compositions on piano.
A Bonset sound-poem, "Passing troop", 1916
Van Doesburg wrote
Dada poetry himself in De Stijl, although under a
pseudonym, I.K. Bonset, which was only revealed after his death
in 1931. 'Together' with I.K. Bonset, he also published a
Dada magazine called Mécano (1922–3). Another
Dutchman identified by
K. Schippers in his study of the movement in
the Netherlands was the
Groningen typographer H. N. Werkman, who
was in touch with van Doesburg and Schwitters while editing his own
magazine, The Next Call (1923–6). Two more artists mentioned by
Schippers were German-born and eventually settled in the Netherlands.
These were Otto van Rees, who had taken part in the liminal
exhibitions at the Café Voltaire in Zürich, and Paul Citroen.
Dada itself was unknown in Georgia until at least 1920, from
1917 until 1921 a group of poets called themselves "41st Degree"
(referring both to the latitude of Tbilisi, Georgia and to the
temperature of a high fever) organized along Dadaist lines. The most
important figure in this group was Iliazd, whose radical typographical
designs visually echo the publications of the Dadaists. After his
flight to Paris in 1921, he collaborated with Dadaists on publications
Yugoslavia there was significant
Dada activity between 1920 and
1922, run mainly by
Dragan Aleksić and including work by Mihailo
S. Petrov, Zenitism's two brothers Ljubomir Micić and Branko Ve
Poljanski. Aleksić used the term "Yougo-Dada" and is known to
have been in contact with Raoul Hausmann, Kurt Schwitters, and Tristan
Dada movement in Italy, based in Mantua, was met with distaste and
failed to make a significant impact in the world of art. It published
a magazine for a short time and held an exhibition in Rome, featuring
paintings, quotations from Tristan Tzara, and original epigrams such
Dada is against Dada". The most notable member of this group
was Julius Evola, who went on to become an eminent scholar of
occultism, as well as a right-wing philosopher and an assistant to
Dada, an iconic character from the Ultra Series. His design draws
inspiration from the art movement.
Dada group in Japan was MAVO (ja), founded in July
Tomoyoshi Murayama and Yanase Masamu (de; ja). Other
prominent artists were Jun Tsuji, Eisuke Yoshiyuki, Shinkichi
Takahashi and Katsue Kitasono.
In the Tsuburaya Productions's Ultra Series, an alien named
designed after the Dadaism movement, with said character first
appearing in episode 28 of the 1966 tokusatsu series, Ultraman, and
was designed by character artist Toru Narita. Dada's design is
primarily monochromatic, and features numerous sharp lines and
alternating black and white stripes, as a reference to the movement.
On May 19, 2016, in celebration to the 100 year anniversary of Dadaism
in Tokyo, the Ultra Monster was invited to meet the Swiss Ambassador
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Dada in itself was relatively unknown in Russia, however, avant-garde
art was widespread due to the Bolshevik's revolutionary agenda. The
Nichevoki (ru), a literary group sharing Dadaist ideals achieved
infamy after one of its members suggested that Vladimir Mayakovsky
should go to the "Pampushka" (Pameatnik Pushkina – Pushkin monument)
on the "Tverbul" (Tverskoy Boulevard) to clean the shoes of anyone who
desired it, after Mayakovsky declared that he was going to cleanse
Poetry, music and sound
Dada was not confined to the visual and literary arts; its influence
reached into sound and music.
Kurt Schwitters developed what he called
sound poems, while
Francis Picabia and Georges Ribemont-Dessaignes
Dada music performed at the Festival
Dada in Paris on 26 May
1920. Other composers such as Erwin Schulhoff, Hans Heusser and
Alberto Savinio all wrote
Dada music, while members of Les Six
collaborated with members of the
Dada movement and had their works
Erik Satie also dabbled with Dadaist
ideas during his career, although he is primarily associated with
In the very first
Hugo Ball describes a "balalaika
orchestra playing delightful folk-songs."
African music and jazz were
Dada gatherings.
Marc Lowenthal, in I Am a Beautiful Monster: Poetry, Prose, and
Dada is the groundwork to abstract art and sound poetry, a starting
point for performance art, a prelude to postmodernism, an influence on
pop art, a celebration of antiart to be later embraced for
anarcho-political uses in the 1960s and the movement that laid the
foundation for Surrealism.
Frank Zappa was a self-proclaimed Dadaist after learning of
In the early days, I didn't even know what to call the stuff my life
was made of. You can imagine my delight when I discovered that someone
in a distant land had the same idea—AND a nice, short name for
Dada Museum, named after Marcel Janco, in Ein Hod, Israel
While broadly based, the movement was unstable. By 1924 in Paris, Dada
was melding into Surrealism, and artists had gone on to other ideas
and movements, including Surrealism, social realism and other forms of
modernism. Some theorists argue that
Dada was actually the beginning
of postmodern art.
By the dawn of the Second World War, many of the European Dadaists had
emigrated to the United States. Some (Otto Freundlich, Walter Serner)
died in death camps under Adolf Hitler, who actively persecuted the
kind of "degenerate art" that he considered
Dada to represent. The
movement became less active as post-war optimism led to the
development of new movements in art and literature.
Dada is a named influence and reference of various anti-art and
political and cultural movements, including the Situationist
International and culture jamming groups like the Cacophony Society.
Upon breaking up in July 2012, anarchist pop band
Chumbawamba issued a
statement which compared their own legacy with that of the
At the same time that the Zürich Dadaists were making noise and
spectacle at the Cabaret Voltaire, Lenin was planning his
revolutionary plans for Russia in a nearby apartment. Tom Stoppard
used this coincidence as a premise for his play
which includes Tzara, Lenin, and
James Joyce as characters. French
writer Dominique Noguez imagined Lenin as a member of the
in his tongue-in-cheek Lénine
The former building of the Cabaret Voltaire fell into disrepair until
it was occupied from January to March 2002, by a group proclaiming
themselves Neo-Dadaists, led by Mark Divo. The group included Jan
Thieler, Ingo Giezendanner, Aiana Calugar, Lennie Lee, and Dan Jones.
After their eviction, the space was turned into a museum dedicated to
the history of Dada. The work of Lee and Jones remained on the walls
of the new museum.
Several notable retrospectives have examined the influence of Dada
upon art and society. In 1967, a large
Dada retrospective was held in
Paris. In 2006, the Museum of Modern
Art in New York City mounted a
Dada exhibition in partnership with the National Gallery of
Washington D.C. and the
Centre Pompidou in Paris. The LTM label has
released a large number of Dada-related sound recordings, including
interviews with artists such as Tzara, Picabia, Schwitters, Arp, and
Huelsenbeck, and musical repertoire including Satie,
Ribemont-Dessaignes, Picabia, and Nelly van Doesburg.
Art techniques developed
The Dadaists imitated the techniques developed during the cubist
movement through the pasting of cut pieces of paper items, but
extended their art to encompass items such as transportation tickets,
maps, plastic wrappers, etc. to portray aspects of life, rather than
representing objects viewed as still life.
Cut-up technique is an extension of collage to words themselves,
Tristan Tzara describes this in the
TO MAKE A DADAIST POEM
Take a newspaper.
Take some scissors.
Choose from this paper an article of the length you want to make your
Cut out the article.
Next carefully cut out each of the words that makes up this article
and put them all in a bag.
Next take out each cutting one after the other.
Copy conscientiously in the order in which they left the bag.
The poem will resemble you.
And there you are – an infinitely original author of charming
sensibility, even though unappreciated by the vulgar herd.
The Dadaists – the "monteurs" (mechanics) – used scissors and glue
rather than paintbrushes and paints to express their views of modern
life through images presented by the media. A variation on the collage
technique, photomontage utilized actual or reproductions of real
photographs printed in the press. In Cologne,
Max Ernst used images
from the First World War to illustrate messages of the destruction of
Raoul Hausmann, Mechanischer Kopf (Der Geist unserer Zeit) (Mechanical
Head [The Spirit of Our Age]), c. 1920
Raoul Hausmann, ABCD (self-portrait), a photomontage from 1923–24
The assemblages were three-dimensional variations of the collage –
the assembly of everyday objects to produce meaningful or meaningless
(relative to the war) pieces of work including war objects and trash.
Objects were nailed, screwed or fastened together in different
fashions. Assemblages could be seen in the round or could be hung on a
Marcel Duchamp began to view the manufactured objects of his
collection as objects of art, which he called "readymades". He would
add signatures and titles to some, converting them into artwork that
he called "readymade aided" or "rectified readymades". Duchamp wrote:
"One important characteristic was the short sentence which I
occasionally inscribed on the 'readymade.' That sentence, instead of
describing the object like a title, was meant to carry the mind of the
spectator towards other regions more verbal. Sometimes I would add a
graphic detail of presentation which in order to satisfy my craving
for alliterations, would be called 'readymade aided.'" One such
example of Duchamp's readymade works is the urinal that was turned
onto its back, signed "R. Mutt", titled Fountain, and submitted to the
Society of Independent Artists exhibition that year, though it was not
Dragan Aleksić (1901–1958), Yugoslavia
Louis Aragon (1897–1982), France
Jean Arp (1886–1966), Germany, France
Hugo Ball (1886–1927), Germany, Switzerland
André Breton (1896–1966), France
Otto Dix (1891–1969), Germany
Theo van Doesburg
Theo van Doesburg (1883–1931) Netherlands
Marcel Duchamp (1887–1968), France
Paul Éluard (1895–1952), France
Max Ernst (1891–1976), Germany, USA
Julius Evola (1898–1974), Italy
George Grosz (1893–1959), Germany, France, USA
Raoul Hausmann (1886–1971), Germany
John Heartfield (1891–1968), Germany, USSR, Czechoslovakia, Great
Hannah Höch (1889–1978), Germany
Richard Huelsenbeck (1892–1974), Germany
Marcel Janco (1895–1984), Romania, Israel
Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven
Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven (1874–1927), Germany, USA
Clément Pansaers (1885–1922), Belgium
Francis Picabia (1879–1953), France
Man Ray (1890–1976), France, USA
Georges Ribemont-Dessaignes (1884–1974), France
Kurt Schwitters (1887–1948), Germany
Walter Serner (1889–1942), Austria
Philippe Soupault (1897–1990), France
Sophie Taeuber-Arp (1889–1943), Switzerland, France
Tristan Tzara (1896–1963), Romania, France
Beatrice Wood (1893–1998), USA
The Central Council of
Dada for the World Revolution
Épater la bourgeoisie
World War I
World War I and Dada, Museum of Modern
^ Mario de Micheli (2006). Las vanguardias artísticas del siglo XX.
Alianza Forma. p.135-137
^ Trachtman, Paul. "A Brief History of Dada". Smithsonian Magazine.
Retrieved 14 January 2017.
^ a b c Schneede, Uwe M. (1979), George Grosz, His life and work, New
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Daimonides, Max Goth, John Heartfield, Raoul Hausmann, Richard
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Atlas Press, ISBN 0-947757-86-4
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Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1996)
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