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Dada
Dada
(/ˈdɑːdɑː/) or Dadaism was an art movement of the European avant-garde in the early 20th century, with early centers in Zürich, Switzerland at the Cabaret Voltaire (circa 1916); New York Dada
New York Dada
began circa 1915,[2] and after 1920 Dada
Dada
flourished in Paris. Developed in reaction to World War I, the Dada
Dada
movement consisted of artists who rejected the logic, reason, and aestheticism of modern capitalist society, instead expressing nonsense, irrationality, and anti-bourgeois protest in their works.[3][4][5] The art of the movement spanned visual, literary, and sound media, including collage, sound poetry, cut-up writing, and sculpture. Dadaist artists expressed their discontent with violence, war, and nationalism, and maintained political affinities with the radical left.[6]

Cover of the first edition of the publication Dada
Dada
by Tristan Tzara; Zürich, 1917

There is no consensus on the origin of the movement's name; a common story is that the Austrian artist Richard Huelsenbeck plunged a knife at random into a dictionary, where it landed on "dada", a colloquial French term for a hobby horse. Others note that it suggests the first words of a child, evoking a childishness and absurdity that appealed to the group. Still others speculate that the word might have been chosen to evoke a similar meaning (or no meaning at all) in any language, reflecting the movement's internationalism.[7] The roots of Dada
Dada
lie in pre-war avant-garde. The term anti-art, a precursor to Dada, was coined by Marcel Duchamp
Marcel Duchamp
around 1913 to characterize works which challenge accepted definitions of art.[8] Cubism
Cubism
and the development of collage and abstract art would inform the movement's detachment from the constraints of reality and convention. The work of French poets, Italian Futurists and the German Expressionists would influence Dada's rejection of the tight correlation between words and meaning.[9] Works such as Ubu Roi
Ubu Roi
(1896) by Alfred Jarry, and the ballet Parade (1916–17) by Erik Satie
Erik Satie
would also be characterized as proto-Dadaist works.[10] The Dada
Dada
movement's principles were first collected in Hugo Ball's Dada
Dada
Manifesto in 1916. The Dadaist movement included public gatherings, demonstrations, and publication of art/literary journals; passionate coverage of art, politics, and culture were topics often discussed in a variety of media. Key figures in the movement included Hugo Ball, Marcel Duchamp, Emmy Hennings, Hans Arp, Raoul Hausmann, Hannah Höch, Johannes Baader, Tristan Tzara, Francis Picabia, Huelsenbeck, George Grosz, John Heartfield, Man Ray, Beatrice Wood, Kurt Schwitters, Hans Richter, Max Ernst, and Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven
Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven
among others. The movement influenced later styles like the avant-garde and downtown music movements, and groups including Surrealism, nouveau réalisme, pop art and Fluxus.

Contents

1 Overview 2 History

2.1 Zürich 2.2 Berlin 2.3 Cologne 2.4 New York 2.5 Paris 2.6 Netherlands 2.7 Georgia 2.8 Yugoslavia 2.9 Italy 2.10 Japan 2.11 Russia

3 Poetry, music and sound 4 Legacy 5 Art
Art
techniques developed

5.1 Collage 5.2 Cut-up technique 5.3 Photomontage 5.4 Assemblage 5.5 Readymades

6 Artists 7 See also 8 References 9 Bibliography 10 External links

Overview[edit]

Francis Picabia, (left) Le saint des saints c'est de moi qu'il s'agit dans ce portrait, 1 July 1915; (center) Portrait d'une jeune fille americaine dans l'état de nudité, 5 July 1915: (right) J'ai vu et c'est de toi qu'il s'agit, De Zayas! De Zayas! Je suis venu sur les rivages du Pont-Euxin, New York, 1915

Dada
Dada
was an informal international movement, with participants in Europe and North America. The beginnings of Dada
Dada
correspond to the outbreak of World War I. For many participants, the movement was a protest against the bourgeois nationalist and colonialist interests, which many Dadaists believed were the root cause of the war, and against the cultural and intellectual conformity—in art and more broadly in society—that corresponded to the war.[11] Avant-garde
Avant-garde
circles outside France knew of pre-war Parisian developments. They had seen (or participated in) Cubist exhibitions held at Galeries Dalmau, Barcelona (1912), Galerie Der Sturm
Der Sturm
in Berlin (1912), the Armory Show
Armory Show
in New York (1913), SVU Mánes in Prague (1914), several Jack of Diamonds exhibitions in Moscow and at De Moderne Kunstkring, Amsterdam (between 1911 and 1915). Futurism developed in response to the work of various artists. Dada subsequently combined these approaches.[9][12] Many Dadaists believed that the 'reason' and 'logic' of bourgeois capitalist society had led people into war. They expressed their rejection of that ideology in artistic expression that appeared to reject logic and embrace chaos and irrationality.[4][5] For example, George Grosz
George Grosz
later recalled that his Dadaist art was intended as a protest "against this world of mutual destruction."[4] According to Hans Richter Dada
Dada
was not art: it was "anti-art."[11] Dada
Dada
represented the opposite of everything which art stood for. Where art was concerned with traditional aesthetics, Dada
Dada
ignored aesthetics. If art was to appeal to sensibilities, Dada
Dada
was intended to offend. As Hugo Ball
Hugo Ball
expressed it, "For us, art is not an end in itself ... but it is an opportunity for the true perception and criticism of the times we live in."[13] A reviewer from the American Art
Art
News stated at the time that "Dada philosophy is the sickest, most paralyzing and most destructive thing that has ever originated from the brain of man." Art
Art
historians have described Dada
Dada
as being, in large part, a "reaction to what many of these artists saw as nothing more than an insane spectacle of collective homicide."[14] Years later, Dada
Dada
artists described the movement as "a phenomenon bursting forth in the midst of the postwar economic and moral crisis, a savior, a monster, which would lay waste to everything in its path... [It was] a systematic work of destruction and demoralization... In the end it became nothing but an act of sacrilege."[14] To quote Dona Budd's The Language of Art
Art
Knowledge,

Dada
Dada
was born out of negative reaction to the horrors of the First World War. This international movement was begun by a group of artists and poets associated with the Cabaret Voltaire in Zürich. Dada rejected reason and logic, prizing nonsense, irrationality and intuition. The origin of the name Dada
Dada
is unclear; some believe that it is a nonsensical word. Others maintain that it originates from the Romanian artists Tristan Tzara's and Marcel Janco's frequent use of the words "da, da," meaning "yes, yes" in the Romanian language. Another theory says that the name "Dada" came during a meeting of the group when a paper knife stuck into a French–German dictionary happened to point to 'dada', a French word for 'hobbyhorse'.[5]

The movement primarily involved visual arts, literature, poetry, art manifestos, art theory, theatre, and graphic design, and concentrated its anti-war politics through a rejection of the prevailing standards in art through anti-art cultural works. History[edit] Zürich[edit]

Hannah Höch, Cut with the Dada
Dada
Kitchen Knife through the Last Weimar Beer-Belly Cultural Epoch in Germany, 1919, collage of pasted papers, 90×144 cm, Nationalgalerie, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin

In 1916, Hugo Ball, Emmy Hennings, Tristan Tzara, Jean Arp, Marcel Janco, Richard Huelsenbeck, Sophie Taeuber, and Hans Richter, along with others, discussed art and put on performances in the Cabaret Voltaire expressing their disgust with the war and the interests that inspired it. Some sources state that Dada
Dada
coalesced on October 6 at the Cabaret Voltaire. Other sources state that Dada
Dada
did not originate fully in a Zürich literary salon but grew out of an already vibrant artistic tradition in Eastern Europe, particularly Romania, that transposed to Switzerland when a group of Jewish modernist artists (Tzara, Janco, Arthur Segal, and others) settled in Zürich. In the years prior to the First World War similar art had already risen in Bucharest and other Eastern European cities; it is likely that Dada's catalyst was the arrival in Zürich of artists like Tzara and Janco.[15] Having left Germany and Romania during the Great War, the artists found themselves in Switzerland, a country recognized for its neutrality. Inside this space of political neutrality they decided to use abstraction to fight against the social, political, and cultural ideas of that time. The Dadaists believed those ideas to be a byproduct of bourgeois society, a society so apathetic it would rather fight a war against itself than challenge the status quo.[16] Janco recalled, "We had lost confidence in our culture. Everything had to be demolished. We would begin again after the tabula rasa. At the Cabaret Voltaire we began by shocking common sense, public opinion, education, institutions, museums, good taste, in short, the whole prevailing order." [17] The Cabaret closed its doors in early July and then at the first public soirée at Waag Hall[18] on July 14, 1916, Ball recited the first manifesto. In 1917, Tzara wrote a second Dada
Dada
manifesto considered one of the most important Dada
Dada
writings, which was published in 1918. Other manifestos followed. A single issue of the magazine Cabaret Voltaire was the first publication to come out of the movement. After the cabaret closed down, Dada
Dada
activities moved on to a new gallery, and Hugo Ball
Hugo Ball
left for Bern. Tzara began a relentless campaign to spread Dada
Dada
ideas. He bombarded French and Italian artists and writers with letters, and soon emerged as the Dada
Dada
leader and master strategist. The Cabaret Voltaire re-opened, and is still in the same place at the Spiegelgasse 1 in the Niederdorf. Zürich Dada, with Tzara at the helm, published the art and literature review Dada
Dada
beginning in July 1917, with five editions from Zürich and the final two from Paris. Other artists, such as André Breton
André Breton
and Philippe Soupault, created “literature groups to help extend the influence of Dada.”[19] After the fighting of the First World War had ended in the armistice of November 1918, most of the Zürich Dadaists returned to their home countries, and some began Dada
Dada
activities in other cities. Others, such as the Swiss native Sophie Taeuber, would remain in Zürich into the 1920s. Berlin[edit]

Cover of Anna Blume, Dichtungen, 1919

"Berlin was a city of tightened stomachers, of mounting, thundering hunger, where hidden rage was transformed into a boundless money lust, and men's minds were concentrating more and more on questions of naked existence... Fear was in everybody's bones "- Richard Hülsenbeck The groups in Germany were not as strongly anti-art as other groups. Their activity and art were more political and social, with corrosive manifestos and propaganda, satire, public demonstrations and overt political activities. The intensely political and war-torn environment of Berlin had a dramatic impact on the ideas of Berlin Dadaists. Conversely, New York's geographic distance from the war spawned its more theoretically-driven, less political nature.[20] In February 1918, while the Great War was approaching its climax, Huelsenbeck gave his first Dada
Dada
speech in Berlin, and he produced a Dada
Dada
manifesto later in the year. Following the October Revolution
October Revolution
in Russia, by then out of the war, Hannah Höch
Hannah Höch
and George Grosz
George Grosz
used Dada
Dada
to express communist sympathies. Grosz, together with John Heartfield, Höch and Hausmann developed the technique of photomontage during this period. After the war, the artists published a series of short-lived political magazines and held the First International Dada
Dada
Fair, 'the greatest project yet conceived by the Berlin Dadaists', in the summer of 1920.[21] As well as work by the main members of Berlin Dada
Dada
– Grosz, Raoul Hausmann, Hannah Höch, Johannes Baader, Huelsenbeck and Heartfield – the exhibition also included the work of Otto Dix, Francis Picabia, Jean Arp, Max Ernst, Rudolf Schlichter, Johannes Baargeld and others.[21] In all, over 200 works were exhibited, surrounded by incendiary slogans, some of which also ended up written on the walls of the Nazi's Entartete Kunst
Entartete Kunst
exhibition in 1937. Despite high ticket prices, the exhibition lost money, with only one recorded sale.[22] The Berlin group published periodicals such as Club Dada, Der Dada, Everyman His Own Football, and Dada
Dada
Almanach. Cologne[edit] In Cologne, Ernst, Baargeld, and Arp launched a controversial Dada exhibition in 1920 which focused on nonsense and anti-bourgeois sentiments. Cologne's Early Spring Exhibition was set up in a pub, and required that participants walk past urinals while being read lewd poetry by a woman in a communion dress. The police closed the exhibition on grounds of obscenity, but it was re-opened when the charges were dropped.[23]

Marcel Duchamp, Fountain, 1917; photograph by Alfred Stieglitz

New York[edit] Main article: New York Dada Like Zürich, New York City was a refuge for writers and artists from the First World War. Soon after arriving from France in 1915, Marcel Duchamp and Francis Picabia
Francis Picabia
met American artist Man Ray. By 1916 the three of them became the center of radical anti-art activities in the United States. American Beatrice Wood, who had been studying in France, soon joined them, along with Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven. Arthur Cravan, fleeing conscription in France, was also in New York for a time. Much of their activity centered in Alfred Stieglitz's gallery, 291, and the home of Walter and Louise Arensberg. The New Yorkers, though not particularly organized, called their activities Dada, but they did not issue manifestos. They issued challenges to art and culture through publications such as The Blind Man, Rongwrong, and New York Dada
New York Dada
in which they criticized the traditionalist basis for museum art. New York Dada
New York Dada
lacked the disillusionment of European Dada
Dada
and was instead driven by a sense of irony and humor. In his book Adventures in the arts: informal chapters on painters, vaudeville and poets Marsden Hartley
Marsden Hartley
included an essay on "The Importance of Being 'Dada'".

Rrose Sélavy, the alter ego of Dadaist Marcel Duchamp

During this time Duchamp began exhibiting "readymades" (everyday objects found or purchased and declared art) such as a bottle rack, and was active in the Society of Independent Artists. In 1917 he submitted the now famous Fountain, a urinal signed R. Mutt, to the Society of Independent Artists exhibition but they rejected the piece. First an object of scorn within the arts community, the Fountain has since become almost canonized[dubious – discuss] by some as one of the most recognizable modernist works of sculpture. Art world experts polled by the sponsors of the 2004 Turner Prize, Gordon's gin, voted it "the most influential work of modern art".[24][25] As recent scholarship documents, the work is likely more collaborative than it has been given credit for in twentieth-century art history. Duchamp indicates in a 1917 letter to his sister that a female friend was centrally involved in the conception of this work. As he writes: "One of my female friends who had adopted the pseudonym Richard Mutt sent me a porcelain urinal as a sculpture."[26] The piece is more in line with the scatological aesthetics of Duchamp's friend and neighbour, the Baroness Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven, than Duchamp's.[27] In an attempt to "pay homage to the spirit of Dada" a performance artist named Pierre Pinoncelli made a crack in a replica of The Fountain with a hammer in January 2006; he also urinated on it in 1993. Picabia's travels tied New York, Zürich and Paris groups together during the Dadaist period. For seven years he also published the Dada periodical 391 in Barcelona, New York City, Zürich, and Paris from 1917 through 1924. By 1921, most of the original players moved to Paris where Dada
Dada
had experienced its last major incarnation. Paris[edit]

Man Ray, c. 1921–22, Rencontre dans la porte tournante, published on the cover of Der Sturm, Volume 13, Number 3, 5 March 1922

Man Ray, c. 1921–22, Dessin (Drawing), published on page 43 of Der Sturm, Volume 13, Number 3, 5 March 1922

The French avant-garde kept abreast of Dada
Dada
activities in Zürich with regular communications from Tristan Tzara
Tristan Tzara
(whose pseudonym means "sad in country," a name chosen to protest the treatment of Jews in his native Romania), who exchanged letters, poems, and magazines with Guillaume Apollinaire, André Breton, Max Jacob, Clément Pansaers, and other French writers, critics and artists. Paris had arguably been the classical music capital of the world since the advent of musical Impressionism
Impressionism
in the late 19th century. One of its practitioners, Erik Satie, collaborated with Picasso and Cocteau in a mad, scandalous ballet called Parade. First performed by the Ballets Russes
Ballets Russes
in 1917, it succeeded in creating a scandal but in a different way than Stravinsky's Le Sacre du printemps
Le Sacre du printemps
had done almost five years earlier. This was a ballet that was clearly parodying itself, something traditional ballet patrons would obviously have serious issues with. Dada
Dada
in Paris surged in 1920 when many of the originators converged there. Inspired by Tzara, Paris Dada
Dada
soon issued manifestos, organized demonstrations, staged performances and produced a number of journals (the final two editions of Dada, Le Cannibale, and Littérature featured Dada
Dada
in several editions.)[28] The first introduction of Dada
Dada
artwork to the Parisian public was at the Salon des Indépendants
Salon des Indépendants
in 1921. Jean Crotti
Jean Crotti
exhibited works associated with Dada
Dada
including a work entitled, Explicatif bearing the word Tabu. In the same year Tzara staged his Dadaist play The Gas Heart to howls of derision from the audience. When it was re-staged in 1923 in a more professional production, the play provoked a theatre riot (initiated by André Breton) that heralded the split within the movement that was to produce Surrealism. Tzara's last attempt at a Dadaist drama was his "ironic tragedy" Handkerchief of Clouds in 1924. Netherlands[edit] In the Netherlands the Dada
Dada
movement centered mainly around Theo van Doesburg, best known for establishing the De Stijl
De Stijl
movement and magazine of the same name. Van Doesburg mainly focused on poetry, and included poems from many well-known Dada
Dada
writers in De Stijl
De Stijl
such as Hugo Ball, Hans Arp
Hans Arp
and Kurt Schwitters. Van Doesburg and Thijs Rinsema (nl) (a cordwainer and artist in Drachten) became friends of Schwitters, and together they organized the so-called Dutch Dada campaign in 1923, where van Doesburg promoted a leaflet about Dada (entitled What is Dada?), Schwitters read his poems, Vilmos Huszár demonstrated a mechanical dancing doll and Nelly van Doesburg (Theo's wife), played avant-garde compositions on piano.

A Bonset sound-poem, "Passing troop", 1916

Van Doesburg wrote Dada
Dada
poetry himself in De Stijl, although under a pseudonym, I.K. Bonset, which was only revealed after his death in 1931. 'Together' with I.K. Bonset, he also published a short-lived Dutch Dada
Dada
magazine called Mécano (1922–3). Another Dutchman identified by K. Schippers
K. Schippers
in his study of the movement in the Netherlands[29] was the Groningen
Groningen
typographer H. N. Werkman, who was in touch with van Doesburg and Schwitters while editing his own magazine, The Next Call (1923–6). Two more artists mentioned by Schippers were German-born and eventually settled in the Netherlands. These were Otto van Rees, who had taken part in the liminal exhibitions at the Café Voltaire in Zürich, and Paul Citroen. Georgia[edit] Although Dada
Dada
itself was unknown in Georgia until at least 1920, from 1917 until 1921 a group of poets called themselves "41st Degree" (referring both to the latitude of Tbilisi, Georgia and to the temperature of a high fever) organized along Dadaist lines. The most important figure in this group was Iliazd, whose radical typographical designs visually echo the publications of the Dadaists. After his flight to Paris in 1921, he collaborated with Dadaists on publications and events. Yugoslavia[edit] In Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
there was significant Dada
Dada
activity between 1920 and 1922, run mainly by Dragan Aleksić
Dragan Aleksić
and including work by Mihailo S. Petrov, Zenitism's two brothers Ljubomir Micić and Branko Ve Poljanski.[30] Aleksić used the term "Yougo-Dada" and is known to have been in contact with Raoul Hausmann, Kurt Schwitters, and Tristan Tzara.[31] Italy[edit] The Dada
Dada
movement in Italy, based in Mantua, was met with distaste and failed to make a significant impact in the world of art. It published a magazine for a short time and held an exhibition in Rome, featuring paintings, quotations from Tristan Tzara, and original epigrams such as "True Dada
Dada
is against Dada". The most notable member of this group was Julius Evola, who went on to become an eminent scholar of occultism, as well as a right-wing philosopher and an assistant to Benito Mussolini.[32] Japan[edit]

Dada, an iconic character from the Ultra Series. His design draws inspiration from the art movement.

A prominent Dada
Dada
group in Japan was MAVO (ja), founded in July 1923 by Tomoyoshi Murayama and Yanase Masamu (de; ja). Other prominent artists were Jun Tsuji, Eisuke Yoshiyuki, Shinkichi Takahashi and Katsue Kitasono. In the Tsuburaya Productions's Ultra Series, an alien named Dada
Dada
was designed after the Dadaism movement, with said character first appearing in episode 28 of the 1966 tokusatsu series, Ultraman, and was designed by character artist Toru Narita. Dada's design is primarily monochromatic, and features numerous sharp lines and alternating black and white stripes, as a reference to the movement. On May 19, 2016, in celebration to the 100 year anniversary of Dadaism in Tokyo, the Ultra Monster was invited to meet the Swiss Ambassador Urs Bucher.[33][34] Russia[edit]

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Dada
Dada
in itself was relatively unknown in Russia, however, avant-garde art was widespread due to the Bolshevik's revolutionary agenda. The Nichevoki (ru), a literary group sharing Dadaist ideals achieved infamy after one of its members suggested that Vladimir Mayakovsky should go to the "Pampushka" (Pameatnik Pushkina – Pushkin monument) on the "Tverbul" (Tverskoy Boulevard) to clean the shoes of anyone who desired it, after Mayakovsky declared that he was going to cleanse Russian literature. Poetry, music and sound[edit] Dada
Dada
was not confined to the visual and literary arts; its influence reached into sound and music. Kurt Schwitters
Kurt Schwitters
developed what he called sound poems, while Francis Picabia
Francis Picabia
and Georges Ribemont-Dessaignes composed Dada
Dada
music performed at the Festival Dada
Dada
in Paris on 26 May 1920. Other composers such as Erwin Schulhoff, Hans Heusser and Alberto Savinio all wrote Dada
Dada
music, while members of Les Six collaborated with members of the Dada
Dada
movement and had their works performed at Dada
Dada
gatherings. Erik Satie
Erik Satie
also dabbled with Dadaist ideas during his career, although he is primarily associated with musical Impressionism. In the very first Dada
Dada
publication, Hugo Ball
Hugo Ball
describes a "balalaika orchestra playing delightful folk-songs." African music
African music
and jazz were common at Dada
Dada
gatherings.[citation needed] Marc Lowenthal, in I Am a Beautiful Monster: Poetry, Prose, and Provocation, writes:

Dada
Dada
is the groundwork to abstract art and sound poetry, a starting point for performance art, a prelude to postmodernism, an influence on pop art, a celebration of antiart to be later embraced for anarcho-political uses in the 1960s and the movement that laid the foundation for Surrealism.[35]

Musician Frank Zappa
Frank Zappa
was a self-proclaimed Dadaist after learning of the movement:

In the early days, I didn't even know what to call the stuff my life was made of. You can imagine my delight when I discovered that someone in a distant land had the same idea—AND a nice, short name for it.[36]

Legacy[edit]

The Janco Dada
Dada
Museum, named after Marcel Janco, in Ein Hod, Israel

While broadly based, the movement was unstable. By 1924 in Paris, Dada was melding into Surrealism, and artists had gone on to other ideas and movements, including Surrealism, social realism and other forms of modernism. Some theorists argue that Dada
Dada
was actually the beginning of postmodern art.[37] By the dawn of the Second World War, many of the European Dadaists had emigrated to the United States. Some (Otto Freundlich, Walter Serner) died in death camps under Adolf Hitler, who actively persecuted the kind of "degenerate art" that he considered Dada
Dada
to represent. The movement became less active as post-war optimism led to the development of new movements in art and literature. Dada
Dada
is a named influence and reference of various anti-art and political and cultural movements, including the Situationist International and culture jamming groups like the Cacophony Society. Upon breaking up in July 2012, anarchist pop band Chumbawamba
Chumbawamba
issued a statement which compared their own legacy with that of the Dada
Dada
art movement.[38] At the same time that the Zürich Dadaists were making noise and spectacle at the Cabaret Voltaire, Lenin was planning his revolutionary plans for Russia in a nearby apartment. Tom Stoppard used this coincidence as a premise for his play Travesties
Travesties
(1974), which includes Tzara, Lenin, and James Joyce
James Joyce
as characters. French writer Dominique Noguez imagined Lenin as a member of the Dada
Dada
group in his tongue-in-cheek Lénine Dada
Dada
(1989). The former building of the Cabaret Voltaire fell into disrepair until it was occupied from January to March 2002, by a group proclaiming themselves Neo-Dadaists, led by Mark Divo.[39] The group included Jan Thieler, Ingo Giezendanner, Aiana Calugar, Lennie Lee, and Dan Jones. After their eviction, the space was turned into a museum dedicated to the history of Dada. The work of Lee and Jones remained on the walls of the new museum. Several notable retrospectives have examined the influence of Dada upon art and society. In 1967, a large Dada
Dada
retrospective was held in Paris. In 2006, the Museum of Modern Art
Art
in New York City mounted a Dada
Dada
exhibition in partnership with the National Gallery of Art
Art
in Washington D.C. and the Centre Pompidou
Centre Pompidou
in Paris. The LTM label has released a large number of Dada-related sound recordings, including interviews with artists such as Tzara, Picabia, Schwitters, Arp, and Huelsenbeck, and musical repertoire including Satie, Ribemont-Dessaignes, Picabia, and Nelly van Doesburg.[40] Art
Art
techniques developed[edit] Collage[edit] The Dadaists imitated the techniques developed during the cubist movement through the pasting of cut pieces of paper items, but extended their art to encompass items such as transportation tickets, maps, plastic wrappers, etc. to portray aspects of life, rather than representing objects viewed as still life. Cut-up technique[edit] Cut-up technique is an extension of collage to words themselves, Tristan Tzara
Tristan Tzara
describes this in the Dada
Dada
Manifesto:[41]

TO MAKE A DADAIST POEM Take a newspaper. Take some scissors. Choose from this paper an article of the length you want to make your poem. Cut out the article. Next carefully cut out each of the words that makes up this article and put them all in a bag. Shake gently. Next take out each cutting one after the other. Copy conscientiously in the order in which they left the bag. The poem will resemble you. And there you are – an infinitely original author of charming sensibility, even though unappreciated by the vulgar herd.

Photomontage[edit] The Dadaists – the "monteurs" (mechanics) – used scissors and glue rather than paintbrushes and paints to express their views of modern life through images presented by the media. A variation on the collage technique, photomontage utilized actual or reproductions of real photographs printed in the press. In Cologne, Max Ernst
Max Ernst
used images from the First World War to illustrate messages of the destruction of war.[42]

Raoul Hausmann, Mechanischer Kopf (Der Geist unserer Zeit) (Mechanical Head [The Spirit of Our Age]), c. 1920

Raoul Hausmann, ABCD (self-portrait), a photomontage from 1923–24

Assemblage[edit] The assemblages were three-dimensional variations of the collage – the assembly of everyday objects to produce meaningful or meaningless (relative to the war) pieces of work including war objects and trash. Objects were nailed, screwed or fastened together in different fashions. Assemblages could be seen in the round or could be hung on a wall.[43] Readymades[edit] Marcel Duchamp
Marcel Duchamp
began to view the manufactured objects of his collection as objects of art, which he called "readymades". He would add signatures and titles to some, converting them into artwork that he called "readymade aided" or "rectified readymades". Duchamp wrote: "One important characteristic was the short sentence which I occasionally inscribed on the 'readymade.' That sentence, instead of describing the object like a title, was meant to carry the mind of the spectator towards other regions more verbal. Sometimes I would add a graphic detail of presentation which in order to satisfy my craving for alliterations, would be called 'readymade aided.'"[44] One such example of Duchamp's readymade works is the urinal that was turned onto its back, signed "R. Mutt", titled Fountain, and submitted to the Society of Independent Artists exhibition that year, though it was not displayed. Artists[edit]

Dragan Aleksić
Dragan Aleksić
(1901–1958), Yugoslavia Louis Aragon
Louis Aragon
(1897–1982), France Jean Arp
Jean Arp
(1886–1966), Germany, France Hugo Ball
Hugo Ball
(1886–1927), Germany, Switzerland André Breton
André Breton
(1896–1966), France Otto Dix
Otto Dix
(1891–1969), Germany Theo van Doesburg
Theo van Doesburg
(1883–1931) Netherlands Marcel Duchamp
Marcel Duchamp
(1887–1968), France Paul Éluard
Paul Éluard
(1895–1952), France Max Ernst
Max Ernst
(1891–1976), Germany, USA Julius Evola (1898–1974), Italy George Grosz
George Grosz
(1893–1959), Germany, France, USA Raoul Hausmann
Raoul Hausmann
(1886–1971), Germany John Heartfield
John Heartfield
(1891–1968), Germany, USSR, Czechoslovakia, Great Britain Hannah Höch
Hannah Höch
(1889–1978), Germany Richard Huelsenbeck (1892–1974), Germany Marcel Janco
Marcel Janco
(1895–1984), Romania, Israel Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven
Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven
(1874–1927), Germany, USA Clément Pansaers
Clément Pansaers
(1885–1922), Belgium Francis Picabia
Francis Picabia
(1879–1953), France Man Ray
Man Ray
(1890–1976), France, USA Georges Ribemont-Dessaignes
Georges Ribemont-Dessaignes
(1884–1974), France Kurt Schwitters
Kurt Schwitters
(1887–1948), Germany Walter Serner
Walter Serner
(1889–1942), Austria Philippe Soupault
Philippe Soupault
(1897–1990), France Sophie Taeuber-Arp
Sophie Taeuber-Arp
(1889–1943), Switzerland, France Tristan Tzara
Tristan Tzara
(1896–1963), Romania, France Beatrice Wood
Beatrice Wood
(1893–1998), USA

See also[edit]

Art
Art
intervention The Central Council of Dada
Dada
for the World Revolution Dadaglobe Épater la bourgeoisie Happening Incoherents Shock art Transgressive art

References[edit]

^ World War I
World War I
and Dada, Museum of Modern Art
Art
(MoMA) ^ Mario de Micheli (2006). Las vanguardias artísticas del siglo XX. Alianza Forma. p.135-137 ^ Trachtman, Paul. "A Brief History of Dada". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 14 January 2017.  ^ a b c Schneede, Uwe M. (1979), George Grosz, His life and work, New York: Universe Books  ^ a b c Budd, Dona, The Language of Art
Art
Knowledge, Pomegranate Communications, Inc. ^ Dada, Tate ^ Dada
Dada
at thearthistory.org, retrieved March 13, 2017. ^ Anti-art, Art
Art
that challenges the existing accepted definitions of art, Tate ^ a b "Dada", by Dawn Adès and Matthew Gale, Grove Art
Art
Online, Oxford University Press, 2009 (subscription required) ^ Roselee Goldberg, Thomas & Hudson, L'univers de l'art, Chapter 4, Le surréalisme, Les représentations pré- Dada
Dada
à Paris, ISBN 978-2-87811-380-8 ^ a b Richter, Hans (1965), Dada: Art
Art
and Anti-art, New York and Toronto: Oxford University Press  ^ Joan M. Marter, The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art, Volume 1, Oxford University Press, 2011, p. 6, ISBN 0195335791 ^ DADA: Cities, National Gallery of Art, retrieved 2008-10-19  ^ a b Fred S. Kleiner (2006), Gardner's Art
Art
Through the Ages (12th ed.), Wadsworth Publishing, p. 754  ^ Tom Sandqvist, DADA EAST: The Romanians of Cabaret Voltaire, London MIT Press, 2006. ^ "Introduction: "Everybody can Dada"". National Gallery of Art. Retrieved 10 May 2012.  ^ Marcel Janco, " Dada
Dada
at Two Speeds," trans. in Lucy R. Lippard, Dadas on Art
Art
(Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1971), p. 36. ^ "Cabaret Voltaire". DADA Companion. Retrieved 2011-06-11.  ^ Europe of Cultures. " Tristan Tzara
Tristan Tzara
speaks of the Dada
Dada
Movement.", September 6, 1963. Retrieved on July 2, 2015. ^ Naumann, Francis M. (1994). New York Dada. New York: Abrams. ISBN 0810936763.  ^ a b Dada, Dickermann, National Gallery of Art, Washington, 2006 p443 ^ Dada, Dickermann, National Gallery of Art, Washington, 2006 p99 ^ Schaefer, Robert A. (September 7, 2006), "Das Ist Dada–An Exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art
Art
in NYC", Double Exposure  ^ Fountain' most influential piece of modern art, Independent, December 2, 2004 ^ "Duchamp's urinal tops art survey", BBC News
BBC News
December 1, 2004. ^ Duchamp, Marcel trans. and qtd. in Gammel, Irene. Baroness Elsa: Gender, Dada
Dada
and Everyday Modernity. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2002, 224. ^ Gammel, Baroness Elsa, 224–225. ^ Marc Dachy, Dada, la révolte de l'art, Paris, Gallimard / Centre Pompidou, "Découvertes Gallimard" n° 476, 2005. ^ Holland Dada, Amsterdam, 1974 ^ Zenit: International Review of Arts and Culture ^ Dubravka Djurić, Miško Šuvaković. Impossible Histories: Historical Avant-gardes, Neo-avant-gardes, and Post-avant-gardes in Yugoslavia, 1918–1991, p. 132, MIT Press, 2003. ISBN 9780262042161; Jovanov Jasna, Kujundžić Dragan, "Yougo-Dada". "Crisis and the Arts: The History of Dada", Vol. IV, The Eastern Orbit: Russia, Georgia, Ukraine, Central Europe and Japan, General Editor Stephen C. Foster, G.K. Hall & Comp. Publishers, New York 1998, 41–62; Jasna Jovanov, Demistifikacija apokrifa: dadaizam na jugoslovenskim prostorima 1920–1922, Novi Sad: Apokrif, 1999. ^ Julius Evola – International Dada
Dada
Archive ^ "「三面怪人 ダダ」が「ダダイズム100周年」を祝福!スイス大使館で開催された記者発表会に登場!" (in Japanese). m-78.jp. 2016-05-19. Retrieved 2016-06-08.  ^ " Dada
Dada
Celebrates Dadaism's 100th Anniversary". tokusatsunetwork.com. 2016-05-19. Retrieved 2016-06-08.  ^ Marc Lowenthal, translator's introduction to Francis Picabia's I Am a Beautiful Monster: Poetry, Prose, and Provocation ^ Frank Zappa, The Real Frank Zappa
Frank Zappa
Book, p. 162 ^ Locher, David (1999), "Unacknowledged Roots and Blatant Imitation: Postmodernism
Postmodernism
and the Dada
Dada
Movement", Electronic Journal of Sociology, 4 (1), retrieved 2007-04-25  ^ "Chumbawamba". Retrieved 10 July 2012.  ^ 2002 occupation by neo-Dadaists Prague Post ^ LTM Recordings ^ "manifestos: dada manifesto on feeble love and bitter love by tristan tzara, 12th december 1920". 391. 1920-12-12. Retrieved 2011-06-27.  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. ^ "DADA – Techniques – photomontage". Nga.gov. Retrieved 2011-06-11.  ^ "DADA – Techniques – assemblage". Nga.gov. Retrieved 2011-06-11.  ^ "The Writings of Marcel Duchamp" ISBN 0-306-80341-0

Bibliography[edit]

The Dada
Dada
Almanac, ed Richard Huelsenbeck [1920], re-edited and translated by Malcolm Green et al., Atlas Press, with texts by Hans Arp, Johannes Baader, Hugo Ball, Paul Citröen, Paul Dermée, Daimonides, Max Goth, John Heartfield, Raoul Hausmann, Richard Huelsenbeck, Vincente Huidobro, Mario D'Arezzo, Adon Lacroix, Walter Mehring, Francis Picabia, Georges Ribemont-Dessaignes, Alexander Sesqui, Philippe Soupault, Tristan Tzara. ISBN 0-947757-62-7 Blago Bung, Blago Bung, Hugo Ball's Tenderenda, Richard Huelsenbeck's Fantastic Prayers, & Walter Serner's Last Loosening – three key texts of Zurich ur-Dada. Translated and introduced by Malcolm Green. Atlas Press, ISBN 0-947757-86-4 Ball, Hugo. Flight Out Of Time (University of California Press: Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1996) Jones, Dafydd W. Dada
Dada
1916 In Theory: Practices of Critical Resistance (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2014). ISBN 978-1-781-380-208 Biro, M. The Dada
Dada
Cyborg: Visions of the New Human in Weimar Berlin. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2009. ISBN 0-8166-3620-6 Dachy, Marc. Journal du mouvement Dada
Dada
1915–1923, Genève, Albert Skira, 1989 (Grand Prix du Livre d'Art, 1990) Dada
Dada
& les dadaïsmes, Paris, Gallimard, Folio Essais, n° 257, 1994. Jovanov, Jasna. Demistifikacija apokrifa: Dadaizam na jugoslovenskim prostorima, Novi Sad/Apostrof 1999. Dada, la révolte de l'art, Paris, Gallimard / Centre Pompidou, Découvertes n° 476, 2005. Archives Dada
Dada
/ Chronique, Paris, Hazan, 2005. Dada, catalogue d'exposition, Centre Pompidou, 2005. Durozoi, Gérard. Dada
Dada
et les arts rebelles, Paris, Hazan, Guide des Arts, 2005 Gammel, Irene. Baroness Elsa: Gender, Dada
Dada
and Everyday Modernity. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2002. Hoffman, Irene. Documents of Dada
Dada
and Surrealism: Dada
Dada
and Surrealist Journals in the Mary Reynolds Collection, Ryerson and Burnham Libraries, The Art
Art
Institute of Chicago. Huelsenbeck, Richard. Memoirs of a Dada
Dada
Drummer, (University of California Press: Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1991) Jones, Dafydd. Dada
Dada
Culture (New York and Amsterdam: Rodopi Verlag, 2006) Lavin, Maud. Cut With the Kitchen Knife: The Weimar Photomontages of Hannah Höch. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993. Lemoine, Serge. Dada, Paris, Hazan, coll. L'Essentiel. Lista, Giovanni. Dada
Dada
libertin & libertaire, Paris, L'insolite, 2005. Melzer, Annabelle. 1976. Dada
Dada
and Surrealist Performance. PAJ Books ser. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins UP, 1994. ISBN 0-8018-4845-8. Novero, Cecilia. "Antidiets of the Avant-Garde: From Futurist Cooking to Eat Art." (University of Minnesota Press, 2010) Richter, Hans. Dada: Art
Art
and Anti- Art
Art
(London: Thames and Hudson, 1965) Sanouillet, Michel. Dada
Dada
à Paris, Paris, Jean-Jacques Pauvert, 1965, Flammarion, 1993, CNRS, 2005 Sanouillet, Michel. Dada
Dada
in Paris, Cambridge, Massachusetts, The MIT Press, 2009 Schippers, K. Holland Dada, Amsterdam, Em. Querido, 1974 Schneede, Uwe M. George Grosz, His life and work (New York: Universe Books, 1979) Verdier, Aurélie. L'ABCdaire de Dada, Paris, Flammarion, 2005.

External links[edit]

Library resources about Dada

Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Dada

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dada.

Dada
Dada
Companion, bibliographies, chronology, artists' profiles, places, techniques, reception Dada
Dada
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Dada, Encyclopædia Britannica Dada
Dada
art The International Dada
Dada
Archive, University of Iowa, early Dada periodicals, online scans of publications Dadart, history, bibliography, documents, and news "Dadaism – Art
Art
and Anti Art", artyfactory.com From Dada
Dada
to Surrealism, review from The Guardian Dada
Dada
audio recordings at LTM New York dada (magazine), Marcel Duchamp
Marcel Duchamp
and Man Ray, April, 1921, Bibliothèque Kandinsky, Centre Pompidou
Centre Pompidou
(access online)

Manifestos

Text of Hugo Ball's 1916 Dada
Dada
Manifesto Text of Tristan Tzara's 1918 Dada
Dada
Manifesto Excerpts of Tristan Tzara's Dada
Dada
Manifesto (1918) and Lecture on Dada (1922)

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